Oranga Tamariki Act 1989
Children’s and Young People’s Well-being Act 1989

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2 Interpretation

(1)

In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,—

care and protection co-ordinator means a care and protection co-ordinator appointed by the chief executive pursuant to section 423

care and protection resource panel means a care and protection resource panel established pursuant to section 428

care or protection order means 1 or more of the following:

(a)

an interim custody order described in section 78(1) or (1A):

(b)

an order described in section 83(1)(a):

(c)

an order described in section 83(1)(b):

(d)

an order described in section 83(1)(c):

(e)

a services order under section 86:

(f)

an interim services order under section 86A:

(g)

a restraining order under section 87:

(h)

an interim restraining order under section 88:

(i)

a support order under section 91:

(j)

an interim support order under section 92:

(k)

a custody order under section 101:

(l)

an order under section 110 appointing a guardian of a child or young person:

(m)

an interim guardianship order under section 110AA

chief executive means, subject to any enactment, the person holding office as the chief executive of the department

child means a person under the age of 14 years

child abuse means the harming (whether physically, emotionally, or sexually), ill-treatment, abuse, neglect, or deprivation of any child or young person

child and family support service means any organisation or body approved by the chief executive as a child and family support service pursuant to section 396(3)

child welfare and protection agency means—

(a)

the department:

(b)

the Department of Corrections:

(c)

the Ministry of Health:

(d)

the Ministry of Social Development:

(e)

the Ministry of Education:

(f)

the Ministry of Justice:

(g)

the New Zealand Police:

(h)

Housing New Zealand Corporation:

(i)

every registered community housing provider (as defined in section 2(1) of the Housing Restructuring and Tenancy Matters Act 1992):

(j)

every DHB:

(k)

every school board (as defined in section 15(1) of the Children’s Act 2014):

(l)

every early childhood service (as defined in section 309 of the Education Act 1989):

(m)

any person, body, or organisation that provides regulated services (as specified in Schedule 1 of the Children’s Act 2014):

(n)

any organisation or class of organisation designated as a child welfare and protection agency by regulations made under section 447(1)(ga)(i)

Commissioner means the Children’s Commissioner continued under section 6 of the Children’s Commissioner Act 2003

community service means any service approved by the chief executive as a community service pursuant to section 403

convene, in relation to a family group conference, means to take the appropriate steps under sections 20 and 25 (in the case of a family group conference authorised or required under Part 2) or under sections 247 and 253 (in the case of a conference authorised or required under Part 4) in order to cause the conference to meet; and reconvene has a corresponding meaning

court, in relation to Parts 2, 3, and 3A, means the Family Court, and in relation to Parts 4 and 5, means the Youth Court

cultural social service means any incorporated body approved by the chief executive as a cultural social service pursuant to section 396(2)

custody means the right to possession and care of a child or young person

delegate includes a subdelegate

department means the department that is, with the authority of the Prime Minister, for the time being responsible for the administration of this Act

DHB means an organisation established as a DHB (that is to say, as a district health board) by or under section 19 of the New Zealand Public Health and Disability Act 2000

document means a document in any form; and includes—

(a)

any writing on any material:

(b)

any information recorded or stored by means of any tape-recorder, computer, or other device; and any material subsequently derived from information so recorded or stored:

(c)

any label, marking, or other writing that identifies or describes any thing of which it forms part, or to which it is attached by any means:

(d)

any book, map, plan, graph, or drawing:

(e)

any photograph, film, negative, tape, or other device in which 1 or more visual images are embodied so as to be capable (with or without the aid of some other equipment) of being reproduced

enforcement agency means—

(a)

the New Zealand Police:

(b)

any department (as defined in section 2(1) of the State Sector Act 1988):

(c)

a local authority

enforcement agency office means—

(a)

a Police station:

(b)

any premises occupied by—

(i)

any department (as defined in section 2(1) of the State Sector Act 1988):

(ii)

any local authority

enforcement officer means—

(a)

any constable:

(b)

an enforcement officer (as defined in section 2(1) of the Land Transport Act 1998):

(c)

any person acting in the course of their official duties (being duties that consist of or include the detection, investigation, or prosecution of offences) as an officer or employee of—

(i)

the Public Service (as defined in section 2(1) of the State Sector Act 1988); or

(ii)

a local authority

ex parte application means an application made without notice to the respondent to the application

family group, in relation to a child or young person, means a family group, including an extended family,—

(a)

in which there is at least 1 adult member—

(i)

with whom the child or young person has a biological or legal relationship; or

(ii)

to whom the child or young person has a significant psychological attachment; or

(b)

that is the child’s or young person’s whanau or other culturally recognised family group

family group conference,—

(a)

in relation to Part 2, means a meeting convened or reconvened by a care and protection co-ordinator in accordance with section 20:

(b)

in relation to Part 4, means a meeting convened or reconvened by a youth justice co-ordinator in accordance with section 247 or section 270 or section 281 or section 281B

family resource centre means any premises that provide temporary accommodation for a child or young person and any person who has the care of that child or young person, where that accommodation is provided as part of a programme designed to provide assistance to that person

guardianship has the meaning given to it by section 15 of the Care of Children Act 2004; and guardian has a corresponding meaning, and includes, without limitation, a person who is a guardian by virtue of this Act

health practitioner has the same meaning as in section 5 of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003

held, in relation to information, includes—

(a)

deemed, for the purposes of the Official Information Act 1982, to be held (see section 2(4) and (5) of that Act):

(b)

held by officers or employees or members of organisations or entities that are not subject to the Official Information Act 1982

hospital has the same meaning as in section 2(1) of the Mental Health (Compulsory Assessment and Treatment) Act 1992

independent person means—

(a)

a practitioner registered under the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 who provides health or disability support services:

(b)

a children’s worker (as defined in section 23(1) of the Children’s Act 2014):

(c)

a person or class of persons designated as an independent person by regulations made under section 447(1)(ga)(ii)

iwi authority means the authority that represents an iwi and that is recognised by the iwi as having authority to do so

iwi social service means any incorporated body approved by the chief executive as an iwi social service pursuant to section 396(1)

lay advocate does not include any person who is a barrister or solicitor

mana tamaiti (tamariki) means the intrinsic value and inherent dignity derived from a child’s or young person’s whakapapa (genealogy) and their belonging to a whānau, hapū, iwi, or family group, in accordance with tikanga Māori or its equivalent in the culture of the child or young person

medical practitioner means a health practitioner who is, or is deemed to be, registered with the Medical Council of New Zealand continued by section 114(1)(a) of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 as a practitioner of the profession of medicine

Minister means, subject to any enactment, the Minister who is, with the authority of the Prime Minister, for the time being responsible for the administration of this Act

near relative means a grandparent, aunt, uncle, brother, or sister; and includes a brother or sister of the half-blood as well as of the full-blood

non-Schedule 1A offence means an offence that is not specified in Schedule 1A and that is within the jurisdiction of the Youth Court

parent, in relation to a child, includes a step-parent of the child, but only if the step-parent shares responsibility for the day-to-day care of the child with a parent of the child

permanent caregiver, in relation to a child or young person, means—

(a)

a special guardian; or

(b)

a person—

(i)

appointed as a guardian of the child or young person under section 27 of the Care of Children Act 2004, where that appointment was made in substitution for an order under section 78, 101, or 110 of this Act, or for an agreement under section 140 of this Act; and

(ii)

who has the day-to-day care of the child or young person pursuant to a parenting order made under section 48 of the Care of Children Act 2004 or because there is no other guardian who has the day-to-day care of the child or young person

psychologist means a health practitioner who is, or is deemed to be, registered with the Psychologists Board continued by section 114(1)(a) of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 as a practitioner of the profession of psychology

related charge means a charge for a non-Schedule 1A offence that the Youth Court has determined under section 276AA(4) to be related to a charge for a Schedule 1A offence

residence

(a)

means any residential centre, family home, group home, foster home, family resource centre, or other premises or place, approved or recognised for the time being by the chief executive as a place of care or treatment for the purposes of this Act; and

(b)

includes any place of care or treatment, so approved, whether administered by the Crown or not; but

(c)

does not include—

(i)

a prison; or

(ii)

a hospital or a facility within the meaning of the Intellectual Disability (Compulsory Care and Rehabilitation) Act 2003; or

(iii)
[Repealed]

(iv)

a children’s health camp operated by Children’s Health Camps—The New Zealand Foundation for Child and Family Health and Development

Schedule 1A offence means an offence specified in Schedule 1A

secure care, in relation to a child or young person in a residence established under section 364, means containment in that residence within a locked room or enclosure with visible physical barriers

social worker means a person employed under Part 5 of the State Sector Act 1988 in the department as a social worker

special guardian means a guardian of a child or young person appointed under section 110 who is appointed as a special guardian under section 113A

subsequent child means a child, born or unborn, who has a parent who is a person described in section 18B

tikanga Māori means Māori customary law and practices

traffic offence means—

(a)

any offence against the Road User Charges Act 2012, the Land Transport Act 1998, or the Land Transport Management Act 2003 or against any regulation, rule, or bylaw made under any of those Acts:

(b)

any offence against any regulation, rule, or bylaw made under any other Act if the offence relates to the use of motor vehicles or parking places or transport stations

UNCROC means the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

victim has the meaning given in section 2B

well-being, in relation to a child or young person, includes the welfare of that person

whakapapa, in relation to a person, means the multi-generational kinship relationships that help to describe who the person is in terms of their mātua (parents), and tūpuna (ancestors), from whom they descend

whanaungatanga, in relation to a person, means—

(a)

the purposeful carrying out of responsibilities based on obligations to whakapapa:

(b)

the kinship that provides the foundations for reciprocal obligations and responsibilities to be met:

(c)

the wider kinship ties that need to be protected and maintained to ensure the maintenance and protection of their sense of belonging, identity, and connection

working day means a day of the week other than—

(a)

Saturday, Sunday, Good Friday, Easter Monday, Anzac Day, Labour Day, the Sovereign’s birthday, and Waitangi Day; and

(ab)

if Waitangi Day or Anzac Day falls on a Saturday or a Sunday, the following Monday; and

(b)

a day in the period commencing with 25 December in a year and ending with 15 January in the following year; and

(c)

in relation to a requirement to file a document with any court or to supply a document before a sitting of any court,—

(i)

the day observed as the anniversary of the province in which the court is situated; and

(ii)

any other day that is observed by the court as a court holiday

young person means a person of or over the age of 14 years but under 18 years and also has an extended meaning that includes some young adults for certain purposes under section 386AAA

youth advocate means a barrister or solicitor appointed under section 248A or 323 to represent a child or young person

youth justice co-ordinator means a youth justice co-ordinator appointed by the chief executive pursuant to section 425

youth justice residence has the same meaning as in section 365(4).

(1A)

In this Act, any reference to the chief executive includes a person who is a delegate of the chief executive or a subdelegate of that delegate irrespective of whether the provision in which the chief executive is referred to contains a reference to a delegate of the chief executive.

(2)

Where any proceedings are being considered or have been taken in respect of any offence allegedly committed by a person when that person was a child or young person, the age of that person at the date of the alleged offence shall be that person’s age for the purpose of—

(a)

whether there is jurisdiction to take any proceedings in respect of that alleged offence, and, subject to paragraph (d), which court has jurisdiction in respect of proceedings that may be taken; and

(b)

the proceedings taken,—

but nothing in this subsection shall—

(c)

require or authorise any family group conference in respect of the alleged offence before or at any stage of the proceedings if, at the time the conference would otherwise be required, that person has attained the age of 19 years; or

(d)

require any proceedings to be taken in the Youth Court if, at the time the charging document is filed, that person has attained the age of 19 years; or

(e)

derogate from the provisions of section 6 of the Sentencing Act 2002 (which shall apply in respect of proceedings under Part 4 as if the proving of a charge was a conviction).

(3)

Where any charging document is filed in the District Court pursuant to subsection (2)(d), section 322 shall apply, with all necessary modifications, to the proceedings.

(4)

Where any proceedings have been taken under Part 2 in respect of any alleged incident, the age of any child or young person at the date of the alleged incident shall be that person’s age for the purpose of the proceedings.

Compare: 1974 No 72 s 2; 1981 No 113 s 50(4); 1982 No 135 s 2; 1983 No 129 s 2

Section 2(1) care and protection co-ordinator: amended, on 1 October 1999, by section 13 of the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services Act 1999 (1999 No 82).

Section 2(1) care or protection order: inserted, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1) chief executive: inserted, on 1 October 1999, by section 13 of the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services Act 1999 (1999 No 82).

Section 2(1) child: replaced, on 14 July 2017, by section 7(2) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1) child abuse: inserted, on 8 January 1995, by section 2(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act 1994 (1994 No 121).

Section 2(1) child and family support service: amended, on 1 October 1999, by section 13 of the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services Act 1999 (1999 No 82).

Section 2(1) child welfare and protection agency: inserted, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1) Commissioner: replaced, on 25 January 2005, by section 200 of the Crown Entities Act 2004 (2004 No 115).

Section 2(1) community service: amended, on 1 October 1999, by section 13 of the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services Act 1999 (1999 No 82).

Section 2(1) convene: inserted, on 8 January 1995, by section 2(2) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act 1994 (1994 No 121).

Section 2(1) court: amended, on 1 March 2017, by section 261 of the District Court Act 2016 (2016 No 49).

Section 2(1) court: amended, on 1 November 1999, by section 6 of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Trans-Tasman Transfer of Protection Orders and Proceedings) Amendment Act 1999 (1999 No 116).

Section 2(1) Cultural Authority: repealed, on 8 January 1995, by section 2(3) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act 1994 (1994 No 121).

Section 2(1) cultural social service: inserted, on 8 January 1995, by section 2(3) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act 1994 (1994 No 121).

Section 2(1) cultural social service: amended, on 1 October 1999, by section 13 of the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services Act 1999 (1999 No 82).

Section 2(1) delegate: inserted, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1) department: replaced, on 1 October 1999, by section 13 of the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services Act 1999 (1999 No 82).

Section 2(1) DHB: inserted, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1) Director-General: repealed, on 1 October 1999, by section 13 of the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services Act 1999 (1999 No 82).

Section 2(1) enforcement officer paragraph (a): amended, on 1 October 2008, pursuant to section 116(a)(ii) of the Policing Act 2008 (2008 No 72).

Section 2(1) enforcement officer paragraph (b): replaced, on 1 March 1999, by section 215(1) of the Land Transport Act 1998 (1998 No 110).

Section 2(1) enforcement officer paragraph (c): amended, on 14 July 2017, by section 137 of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1) family group conference paragraph (b): amended, on 8 January 1995, by section 2(4) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act 1994 (1994 No 121).

Section 2(1) guardianship: amended, on 1 July 2014, by section 6(2) of the KiwiSaver (Vulnerable Children) Amendment Act 2014 (2014 No 42).

Section 2(1) guardianship: amended, on 1 July 2005, by section 151 of the Care of Children Act 2004 (2004 No 90).

Section 2(1) health practitioner: inserted, on 31 January 2018, by section 4(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act (No 2) 2016 (2016 No 75).

Section 2(1) held: inserted, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1) hospital: inserted, on 31 January 2018, by section 4(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act (No 2) 2016 (2016 No 75).

Section 2(1) independent person: inserted, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1) indictable offence: repealed, on 1 July 2013, by section 4 of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act (No 2) 2011 (2011 No 83).

Section 2(1) iwi authority: inserted, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1) iwi social service: inserted, on 8 January 1995, by section 2(5) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act 1994 (1994 No 121).

Section 2(1) iwi social service: amended, on 1 October 1999, by section 13 of the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services Act 1999 (1999 No 82).

Section 2(1) mana tamaiti (tamariki): inserted, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1) medical practitioner: inserted, on 18 September 2004, by section 175(1) of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 (2003 No 48).

Section 2(1) Minister: replaced, on 1 October 1999, by section 13 of the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services Act 1999 (1999 No 82).

Section 2(1) near relative: amended, on 26 April 2005, by section 7 of the Relationships (Statutory References) Act 2005 (2005 No 3).

Section 2(1) non-Schedule 1A offence: inserted, on 1 July 2019, by section 4 of the Oranga Tamariki Legislation Act 2019 (2019 No 30).

Section 2(1) parent: replaced, on 26 April 2005, by section 7 of the Relationships (Statutory References) Act 2005 (2005 No 3).

Section 2(1) permanent caregiver: inserted, on 30 June 2016, by section 4 of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Vulnerable Children) Amendment Act 2014 (2014 No 41).

Section 2(1) psychiatric hospital: repealed, on 31 January 2018, by section 4(2) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act (No 2) 2016 (2016 No 75).

Section 2(1) psychologist: inserted, on 18 September 2004, by section 175(1) of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 (2003 No 48).

Section 2(1) purely indictable offence: repealed, on 1 July 2013, by section 4 of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act (No 2) 2011 (2011 No 83).

Section 2(1) related charge: inserted, on 1 July 2019, by section 4 of the Oranga Tamariki Legislation Act 2019 (2019 No 30).

Section 2(1) residence paragraph (a): amended, on 1 October 2010, by section 5 of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Youth Courts Jurisdiction and Orders) Amendment Act 2010 (2010 No 2).

Section 2(1) residence paragraph (a): amended, on 1 October 1999, by section 13 of the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services Act 1999 (1999 No 82).

Section 2(1) residence paragraph (c)(i): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

Section 2(1) residence paragraph (c)(ii): replaced, on 1 September 2004, by section 51 of the Criminal Procedure (Mentally Impaired Persons) Act 2003 (2003 No 115).

Section 2(1) residence paragraph (c)(ii): amended, on 31 January 2018, by section 4(3) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act (No 2) 2016 (2016 No 75).

Section 2(1) residence paragraph (c)(iii): repealed, on 1 October 1999, by section 13 of the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services Act 1999 (1999 No 82).

Section 2(1) residence paragraph (c)(iv): amended, on 1 April 2000, by section 8 of the Children’s Health Camps Board Dissolution Act 1999 (1999 No 141).

Section 2(1) Schedule 1A offence: inserted, on 1 July 2019, by section 4 of the Oranga Tamariki Legislation Act 2019 (2019 No 30).

Section 2(1) Social Welfare District or District: repealed, on 1 October 1999, by section 13 of the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services Act 1999 (1999 No 82).

Section 2(1) social worker: replaced, on 1 April 1990, by section 35(1)(d) of the Social Welfare (Transitional Provisions) Act 1990 (1990 No 26).

Section 2(1) social worker: amended, on 1 October 1999, by section 13 of the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services Act 1999 (1999 No 82).

Section 2(1) special guardian: inserted, on 30 June 2016, by section 4 of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Vulnerable Children) Amendment Act 2014 (2014 No 41).

Section 2(1) subsequent child: inserted, on 30 June 2016, by section 4 of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Vulnerable Children) Amendment Act 2014 (2014 No 41).

Section 2(1) summary offence: repealed, on 1 July 2013, by section 4 of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act (No 2) 2011 (2011 No 83).

Section 2(1) tikanga Māori: inserted, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1) traffic offence: replaced, on 23 July 2011, by section 4 of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act 2011 (2011 No 33).

Section 2(1) traffic offence paragraph (a): amended, on 1 August 2012, by section 94 of the Road User Charges Act 2012 (2012 No 1).

Section 2(1) UNCROC: inserted, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1) victim: replaced, on 6 December 2014, by section 4 of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act 2014 (2014 No 36).

Section 2(1) well-being: inserted, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1) whakapapa: inserted, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1) whanaungatanga: inserted, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1) working day: replaced, on 1 November 1999, by section 6 of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Trans-Tasman Transfer of Protection Orders and Proceedings) Amendment Act 1999 (1999 No 116).

Section 2(1) working day paragraph (ab): inserted, on 1 January 2014, by section 8 of the Holidays (Full Recognition of Waitangi Day and ANZAC Day) Amendment Act 2013 (2013 No 19).

Section 2(1) young person: replaced, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(4) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1) youth advocate: replaced, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(5) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1) youth justice co-ordinator: amended, on 1 October 1999, by section 13 of the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services Act 1999 (1999 No 82).

Section 2(1) youth justice residence: inserted, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(1A): inserted, on 1 April 2017, by section 4(2) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Advocacy, Workforce, and Age Settings) Amendment Act 2016 (2016 No 98).

Section 2(2): replaced, on 8 January 1995, by section 2(6) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act 1994 (1994 No 121).

Section 2(2)(c): amended, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(6) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(2)(d): amended, on 1 July 2019, by section 7(6) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families (Oranga Tamariki) Legislation Act 2017 (2017 No 31).

Section 2(2)(d): amended, on 1 March 2017, by section 261 of the District Court Act 2016 (2016 No 49).

Section 2(2)(d): amended, on 1 July 2013, by section 4 of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act (No 2) 2011 (2011 No 83).

Section 2(2)(e): amended, on 30 June 2002, by section 186 of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

Section 2(3): inserted, on 8 January 1995, by section 2(6) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act 1994 (1994 No 121).

Section 2(3): amended, on 1 March 2017, by section 261 of the District Court Act 2016 (2016 No 49).

Section 2(3): amended, on 1 July 2013, by section 4 of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act (No 2) 2011 (2011 No 83).

Section 2(4): inserted, on 8 January 1995, by section 2(6) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Amendment Act 1994 (1994 No 121).