Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998

  • This version was replaced on 3 May 2017 to make corrections to sections 357(1), 396(5), and 436(1), and Schedules 7, 36, 58, 69, 100, 101, 102, 103, and 104 under section 25(1)(e) and (j)(ii) and (iii) of the Legislation Act 2012, and then to make a correction to section 144 under section 25(1)(j)(ii) of the Legislation act 2012.

Preamble

He kōrero tāhuhu
He kōrero tāhuhu

A

E mau ake nei te Rārangi Tāpiri Tuatahi mō tēnei ture, e whakaupoko ana i roto i te reo Māori me te reo Pākehā i ngā tikanga o Te Tiriti o Waitangi:

Ngā tātai
Te Whakawhitinga o ngā whenua o Ngāi Tahu

B

Ka hainatia Te Tiriti o Waitangi e Ngāi Tahu i te tau 1840 ki Akaroa (30 o ngā rā o Matahi), ki te motu o Ruapuke (9, 10 o ngā rā o Maruaroa), me Ōtākou hoki (13 o ngā rā o Maruaroa). Ko Ngāi Tahu te tāngata whenua o te rohe i whakapuakitia anotia e Te Ture o Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu 1996 i taua wā, ā, tae noa ki tēnei wā. I roto i ngā tau o muri mai o te hainatanga o Te Tiriti o Waitangi ka whai ngā mōkai a te Karauna kia whakawhitia atu e Ngāi Tahu ō rātou whenua ki te Karauna. Nā ngā hoko nunui tekau katoa aua hoko—i oti atu ai ngā whenua o Ngāi Tahu ki te Karauna, arā: Ōtākou 1844, Canterbury (tā Kemp) 1848, Port Cooper 1849, Port Levy 1849, Murihiku 1853, Akaroa 1856, North Canterbury 1857, Kaikōura 1859, Arahura 1860, me Rakiura 1864. Ngā ingoa o ngā kaihaina o Ngāi Tahu i ngā pukapuka ā-herenga kei roto i te Rārangi Tāpiri Tuarua, arā he mea tuhi ki roto i te Tāpiri Tuarua o te rīpoata a Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti mō Ngāi Tahu i te tau 1991:

Te Roanga o te tatari a Ngāi Tahu kia arotia mai ā rātou whakamau

C

Mai rā anō a Ngāi Tahu e rangahau ana i te “Kerēme” mō te huhunu o ngā mahi a te Karauna arā, mō te kore a te Karauna e whai whakaaro ki ngā tohutohu o roto i ngā pukapuka ā-herenga i roto i ā rātou hokonga mai i ngā whenua o Ngāi Tahu. Ko ngā tāngata rongonui nā rātou i kawe te “Kerēme” mai rā anō ko Matiaha Tiramōrehu, Hori Kerei Taiaroa, Tiemi Hipi, Tipene O’Regan, Henare Rakiihia Tau, me ā rātou whānau:

D

Nā te tukunga iho o ngā mahi tautohe me ngā tono a Ngāi Tahu (ko ētahi o aua tono i tīmatatia mai i roto i ngā tau 1840), kātahi ka tirotirohia e ngā kaiwhakahaere a te Karauna. Ko ētahi o aua kaiwhakahaere i whakahāwea noa iho ki ngā take i tirohia e rātou, ēngari ko ētahi i āta wherawhera i ngā take ka kitea e rātou te tika o ngā whakamau a Ngāi Tahu. E whakaae ana te Karauna tērā, kāore ia i aro atu ki aua whakamau, otirā, kāore ia i whakatau i te “Kerēme” o Ngāi Tahu. Ko te ture i whakaritea i te tau 1944 ko te Ngāitahu Claim Settlement Act kāore rawa i kōrerotia i waenganui i ngā iwi i mua o te whakaturenga, ēngari kāore i purua ngā tono a te iwi ki te Karauna:

Tono i raro i te Ture o Te Tiriti o Waitangi 1975

E

I roto i ngā whakaturenga o te ture āpiti 1985 o Te Tiriti o Waitangi, ka whakawāteatia mai e te Karauna he huanui e āhei ai te Māori ki te mau atu i ā rātou take uaua ko mua i Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti mō ngā whakamau puri mahara i pūtake mai i te rā o te hainatanga o Te Tiriti o Waitangi, 1840:

F

I te 26 o ngā rā o Whā, 1986 ka whakatakototia e Henare Rakiihia Tau rāua ko Te Poari Māori o Ngāi Tahu—te reo o te iwi o Ngāi Tahu—tā rātou take ki mua i Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti. Ko Tipene O’Regan te tumuaki o te Poari. Nō muri iho ka āta whakamāramatia ngā āhuatanga o taua take ki roto i ngā āpiti:

G

Ko te take o Ngāi Tahu—Wai 27—i rēhitatia ki Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti, i āta tirotirohia i te wā o te whakawātanga ki mua i Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti i roto i ngā tau mai i 1987 ki 1989:

H

I te tuatahi o ngā rā o Kahuru 1991, ka puta te rīpoata a Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti e whakaatu ana i ngā tino kaupapa o te take o Ngāi Tahu i āta mōhiotia nei ko ngā “Rākau Teitei e Iwa” o ngā whakamau a Ngāi Tahu, nā, i te 6 o ngā rā o Rima 1991, ka puta anō he rīpoata e tūtohu ana tērā me hanga he ture kia taea ai e Ngāi Tahu te whakarite i tētahi rūnanganui-ā-iwi hei kanohi mō rātou, arā, mō Ngāi Tahu Whānui:

I

I te 6 o ngā rā o Whā 1992, ka puta te rīpoata ā Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti mō te take o Te Hī-Ika o Ngāi Tahu, ā, ka kitea “Neke atu ki tētahi rau tau, i whakararurarutia a Ngāi Tahu e te roa o te kore whai tohutohu i roto i Te Tiriti o Waitangi tae mai ki te wā o te whakaturetanga me te whakakaupapatanga o te Quota Management System”. Nō muri iho i whakatauria aua take ki ngā whakataunga i roto i te Māori Fisheries Act 1989, te whakaaetanga ā-pukapuka i waenganui i a te iwi Māori me te Karauna i te 23 o ngā rā o te Rima 1992, me te Treaty of Waitangi (Fisheries Claims) Settlement Act 1992:

J

Ko te 27 o ngā rā o Kahuru-kai-paeka 1995, ka puta te roanga atu o te rīpoata a Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti mō te taha ki ngā take tāpiri a Ngāi Tahu:

Ko ngā whiriwhiringa a Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti: Ngā Rākau Teitei e Iwa

K

I roto i ngā whiriwhiringa a Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti i ngā take o Ngāi Tahu ka kitea te tika o te nuinga o aua take, otirā, ngā take i pā atu ki ngā “Rākau Teitei e Iwa” me ngā wāhanga tāpiringa. Ka mahara Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti tērā, mai rā anō kāore rawa i a te Karauna i ngākau pono ki ōna whakaaetanga, i roto i Te Tiriti, i a Ngāi Tahu. Ka mahara hoki Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti tērā, i te aponga a te Karauna i ngā whenua o Ngāi Tahu—34.5 miriona eka mō te iti noa iho o te utu, £14,750—i takakino tāruaruatia e ia te kaupapa ōritenga o Te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ka whakataua e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti tērā, nā aua takakino a te Karauna i pōharatia ai a Ngāi Tahu i ō rātou whenua, i kore ai rātou i whai oranga rite atu ki ngā āhuatanga i mua i te aponga a te Karauna i ō rātou whenua:

L

Ka tohua e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti i roto i ā rātou whiriwhiringa, te āhua me nui o te utu a te Karauna mō āna haranga ki a Ngāi Tahu. Ka whakaarotia e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti me whakahoki atu e te Karauna kia rawaka he whenua mō Ngāi Tahu kia whai oranga ai rātou i ngā hua whenua me tēnei whakatupuranga atu ki ngā uri kei te heke iho:

M

Ōtākou

Ka kitea e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti tērā, i raro i ngā āhuatanga i whakaaetia i te wā o te hokonga a te Karauna i Ōtākou kāore ia te Karauna, i ngākau pono ki aua āhuatanga, tērā, kāore i tāpiritia atu e ia he whenua hei hui atu ki tērā i rāhuitia mō Ngāi Tahu. Ka whakaarotia e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti mehemea pea i hanga he ture e te Karauna e taea ai e ia te tākoha whenua “te kau o rau” ki a Ngāi Tahu, ka ea pea tētahi wāhanga o ōna hara:

Ngā Pākihi Whakatekateka o Waitaha

I kitea e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi, tērā te Karauna i tāna hokonga i ngā whenua o Ngāi Tahu, arā, i Ngā Pākihi Whakatekateka o Waitaha, kāore i ōrite ngā whiriwhiringa kāore i tutuki ngā hinonga mō te rāhui kia rāwaka he wāhi mahinga kai mā Ngāi Tahu mō nāianei, ā, mō ngā rā hoki kei te heke iho. Kāore i wehea ake e te Karauna ngā whenua, i tonoa e Ngāi Tahu i te takiwā mai i te awa o Waimakariri atu ki te awa o Kāwari. I kitea e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi tērā, i runga i ēnei takakino, i tino hē te Karauna ki mua i a Ngāi Tahu:

Horomaka

I kitea e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti tērā, i tukua e te Karauna 30,000 eka ki te Nanto-Bordelaise Company i Horomaka tērā, kāore a Ngāi Tahu i whakaae ki te tuku i te katoa o aua whenua. I roto i ngā tikanga kūare a te Karauna kāore a Ngāi Tahu i utua mō aua whenua, kāore hoki i tika ngā whakarite mō ngā whenua i Whakaraupō me Koukourarata. Tēnā atu anō ētahi o ngā hē o te Karauna i kitea e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti, arā, ko te kore o te Karauna i whakaae ki te rāhui i ētahi whenua i tonoa e Ngāi Tahu i Ōkeina me Whakaroi. I kitea e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti tērā, kua hokona kētia ngā whenua i Horomaka e te Karauna i mua o te hokonga mai o aua whenua i a Ngāi Tahu, kore rawa i whakaaro ake i mahara rānei ki te wehe ake i ētahi whenua mō ngā uri whakatupu o Ngāi Tahu:

Murihiku

I kitea e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi tērā, i te hokonga mai a te Karauna i Murihiku kāore i wehea ake ngā whenua i tonoa e Ngāi Tahu kia rāhuitia, kāore i tohua he aronga atu ki ngā wāhi mahinga kai, kāore i wehea kia rāwaka he whenua hei whai oranga mō Ngāi Tahu mō nāianei, ā, atu hoki mō ngā uri whakatupu. I kitea anō e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi tērā, i roto i aua mahi hē, i roto hoki i ngā hēanga o muri mai, arā, i te korenga o ngā ture Middle Island Half-Caste Crown Grants Act 1877 me South Island Landless Natives Act 1906 i whakaarahia hei whakatika i aua hē, i tino hara te Karauna ki a Ngāi Tahu:

North Canterbury me Kaikōura

I kitea e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi tērā, i tino whakararurarutia e te Karauna ngā pānga me te rangatiratanga o Ngāi Tahu ki ōna whenua i North Canterbury me Kaikōura i te hē o ngā mahi hoko whenua mai a te Karauna pērā i te hokonga mai o ngā whenua o Wairau 1847, ā, i te hokonga atu hoki o ngā whenua o Ngāi Tahu kāore rā anō kia whakaaetia kia hokona. I kitea e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi tērā, kāore i ōrite ngā mahi a te Karauna i te wā o te whakaritenga o ngā hoko o ngā whenua o Ngāi Tahu o muri mai, kāore i rāwaka ngā whenua i rāhuitia i North Canterbury me Kaikōura hei whai oranga mō Ngāi Tahu mō nāianei, ā, atu hoki mō ngā uri whakatupu:

Arahura

I kitea e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi tērā, kāore i ōrite ngā whakaritenga mō ngā whenua i Arahura, kāore i wehea ake ngā whenua i taunahatia e Ngāi Tahu mō rātou, kāore i wehea ake he ara hei huarahi atu ki ā rātou wāhi mahinga kai. I kitea tērā kāore i whakamarumarutia e te Karauna te tika o Ngāi Tahu ki te pupuri motuhake i tōna mana ki te katoa o ā rātou papa pounamu. I kitea e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi te huakore o ngā mahi a te Karauna tērā kāore i aro ake ki ngā hiahia o Ngāi Tahu i te wā o te whakatakotoranga o ngā tikanga mō ngā rīhi mutunga-kore ki runga i ngā whenua rāhui o Ngāi Tahu:

Rakiura

I kitea e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi tērā, i whakawhitiria a Ngāi Tahu i te takaroa o te Karauna ki te whakatakoto i ngā āhuatanga mō te hoko o Rakiura, ka huakore noa o āna mahi kāore i āta pono te tiaki i ngā pānga o ngā Māori:

Mahinga kai

I kitea e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi tērā, i te hokonga mai a te Karauna i ngā whenua o Ngāi Tahu kāore i hua he āhuatanga e whai huarahi atu ai te iwi ki ā rātou māra kai me ngā moana mahinga tuna arā, a Te Waihora me Wairewa:

Ngā kura me ngā hōhipera

I kitea e Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi tērā he tinihanga noa iho ngā kī taurangi a te Karauna i mea ai ia ka whakaratoa e ia ngā tūmanako a Ngāi Tahu, arā, ka mahia e te Karauna he kura, he hōhipera mā Ngāi Tahu, ka kitea tērā, he poapoa kē nā te Karauna kia hokona atu ai e Ngāi Tahu te Kemp Block me Murihiku, tērā, nā te pūturituri o te Karauna ki te whakarato i aua painga i whakawhitiria a Ngāi Tahu:

Ngā Whakaritenga i waenga i a Ngāi Tahu rāua ko te Karauna

N

I te tau 1990 ka whakaritea e te Karauna rāua ko Ngāi Tahu he whakaaetanga mō te wā o āianei he maru mō ngā whenua tūwhene a te Karauna mō ngā whakataunga o ngā kerēme ā muri i a Ngāi Tahu:

O

E whakaae ana te Karauna ki te wero a Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi i puta i roto i tā rātou rīpoata, nā, te tukunga iho o taua whakaaetanga, Rima 1991, ka whāia e rāua ko Ngāi Tahu he āhuatanga e taea ai te whakatau i ngā amuamu a Ngāi Tahu:

P

I te wā mai i 1991 atu ki 1994, ka whāia e te Karauna rāua ko Ngāi Tahu tētahi huarahi e taea ai te whakarite i ngā whakataunga:

Q

I muri mai o te whakaturenga o Te Ture o Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu 1996, ka whakaaetia i roto i taua ture tērā, ko Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu te kaiwhakahaere o ngā take katoa e pā ana ki a Ngāi Tahu Whānui i raro i te wāhanga 15 o taua ture:

R

I te tau 1996, ka whakaritea e te Karauna rāua ko Ngāi Tahu i roto i te ngākau pono, he āhuatanga e taea ai te whakatau, ā mutu atu, ngā kerēme a Ngāi Tahu mai rā anō, kia mutu ai ngā hīkanga a Ngāi Tahu:

S

I te 14 o ngā rā o Maruaroa 1996, ka whakaritea e te Karauna rāua ko Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu he whakaaetanga ā-pukapuka “mō ngā nama”, e ai ka whakaae te Karauna ki te whakarato i ētahi puretumu ki Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu i runga i te kaupapa “mō ngā nama” hei tohu i te ngākau pono o te Karauna:

T

I te 5 o ngā rā o Ono 1996, ka whakaritea e te Karauna rāua ko Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu he Upoko Whakaaetanga ā-pukapuka, kia whakatakototia ngā kaupapa i whakaaetia e rāua tahi, he pai ki whakaruru atu ai ki roto i tētahi whakaaetanga ā-pukapuka kia taea ai te whakataunga o ngā take o Ngāi Tahu, ā, i roto i te ngākau pono kia whakarite ai i te Whakaaetanga ā-pukapuka. Kāore he mea kei roto i taua Upoko Whakaaetanga ā-pukapuka ki a herea a Ngāi Tahu, te Karauna rānei:

Whakamutunga o ngā Kerēme

U

I te 21 o ngā rā o Whitu 1997, ka whakaritea e te Karauna rāua ko Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu te Whakaaetanga-ā-pukapuka mō Ngāi Tahu. Kei roto i taua pukapuka i whāki ai te Karauna mō āna tukino i waimaero ai a Ngāi Tahu ki te whai oranga tinana, oranga wairua, ā, i whakaatu hoki i ngā take e taea ai te whakamana te whakataunga o te katoa o ngā kerēme o Ngāi Tahu mai rā āno.

Background in English

A

The Treaty of Waitangi is set out, in Māori and English, in Schedule 1:

The threads of time
Transfer of Ngāi Tahu lands

B

The Treaty of Waitangi was signed by Ngāi Tahu in 1840 at Akaroa (May 30), Ruapuke Island (June 9, 10), and Ōtākou (June 13). Ngāi Tahu is today, and was at the time of the signing of the Treaty, the tāngata whenua within the boundaries already confirmed in Te Runanga o Ngai Tahu Act 1996. In the years following the signing of the Treaty, the Crown, through its representatives and agents, sought the transfer of land from the Ngāi Tahu people to the Crown. This was achieved through 10 major purchases: Ōtākou 1844, Canterbury (Kemp’s) 1848, Port Cooper 1849, Port Levy 1849, Murihiku 1853, Akaroa 1856, North Canterbury 1857, Kaikōura 1859, Arahura 1860, and Rakiura 1864. The Ngāi Tahu signatories to these deeds, as recorded in Appendix 2 of the Waitangi Tribunal’s Ngai Tahu Report 1991, are listed in Schedule 2:

Ngāi Tahu have long sought to have their grievances redressed

C

From an early date, Ngāi Tahu has pursued claims against the Crown of unfair purchase practices and of breaches of the deeds of purchase. Matiaha Tiramōrehu, Hori Kerei Taiaroa, Tiemi Hipi, Tipene O’Regan, and Henare Rakiihia Tau and their wives and families were most prominent in these claims:

D

As a result of Ngāi Tahu petitions and protests, some dating back to the 1840s, Ngāi Tahu’s grievances have been considered by a number of inquiries. Some dismissed them after cursory investigation, but those which investigated in detail generally found validity in Ngāi Tahu’s complaints. However, the Crown accepts that Ngāi Tahu’s grievances were not remedied. In particular, the Ngaitahu Claim Settlement Act 1944 was enacted without prior consultation with the tribe and did not debar the tribe from further pursuing its claim:

Claim under the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975

E

Through enactment of the Treaty of Waitangi Amendment Act 1985, the Crown made it possible for Māori to bring claims before the Waitangi Tribunal in respect of historic grievances arising after 6 February 1840:

F

On 26 August 1986, a claim was submitted to the Waitangi Tribunal by Henare Rakiihia Tau and the Ngāi Tahu Māori Trust Board, which represented the Ngāi Tahu iwi and was chaired by Tipene O’Regan. That claim was subsequently elaborated upon by way of several amendments:

G

The Ngāi Tahu claim, registered with the Waitangi Tribunal as Wai 27, was investigated in hearings before the Tribunal over the years 1987 to 1989:

H

On 1 February 1991, the Waitangi Tribunal reported on the main elements of the Ngāi Tahu claim, described collectively as the “Nine Tall Trees” of Ngāi Tahu’s grievances, and on 6 September 1991 issued a supplementary report recommending the creation by statute of a representative tribal body for Ngāi Tahu:

I

On 6 August 1992, the Waitangi Tribunal reported on the Ngāi Tahu Sea Fisheries claim, finding that “Ngai Tahu has for more than a century been seriously prejudiced by long-standing breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi culminating in the enactment and implementation of the Quota Management System”. Those claims were subsequently settled through the settlement embodied in the Maori Fisheries Act 1989, the Deed of Settlement dated 23 September 1992 between the Crown and Māori and the Treaty of Waitangi (Fisheries Claims) Settlement Act 1992:

J

The Waitangi Tribunal made a further report on 27 April 1995 in respect of Ngāi Tahu’s Ancillary Claims:

Findings of the Tribunal: The “Nine Tall Trees”

K

After considering the elements of the Ngāi Tahu claim, the Waitangi Tribunal found substantially in Ngāi Tahu’s favour, both in relation to the elements referred to as the “Nine Tall Trees”, and to the Ancillary Claims. In particular, the Tribunal could not reconcile the Crown’s enduring failure to meet its obligations to Ngāi Tahu with its duty to act towards its Treaty partner reasonably and with the utmost good faith. The Tribunal also emphasised that, in acquiring some 34.5 million acres of land from Ngāi Tahu for £14,750, the Crown acted unconscionably and in repeated breach of the Treaty of Waitangi. The Tribunal considered that the Crown’s actions left Ngāi Tahu with insufficient land to maintain its way of life, and to enable the tribe’s full participation in subsequent economic development:

L

The Tribunal indicated in general terms the nature and scope of the redress which Ngāi Tahu ought properly to receive. The Tribunal considered that the Crown ought to have restored to Ngāi Tahu sufficient land to provide for the future economic, social, and cultural development of the tribe:

M

Ōtākou

The Tribunal found that the Crown was under a residual obligation to make further provision for Ngāi Tahu, in addition to the reserves agreed upon during the purchase of the Ōtākou Block, and that the Crown failed to satisfy this obligation. The Tribunal considered that the Crown’s obligation might have been satisfied by the creation of “Tenths”, or by other adequate provision:

Canterbury

The Tribunal found that the Crown, in acquiring the Canterbury Block, failed to negotiate fairly, failed to meet its undertaking to reserve sufficient food resources for Ngāi Tahu, and failed to meet its obligation to provide ample reserves for the existing and future needs of Ngāi Tahu. The Crown did not set aside the area defined by the Waimakariri and Kāwari Rivers, as requested by Ngāi Tahu. The Tribunal found that, in so acting, and in its subsequent failure to remedy these faults, the Crown breached its duty to act with the utmost good faith towards Ngāi Tahu:

Banks Peninsula

The Tribunal found that the Crown granted the Nanto-Bordelaise Company an interest in 30,000 acres of land on Banks Peninsula, that Ngāi Tahu had not agreed to relinquish most of this land and was not compensated for its loss, and that the Crown used high-handed and unfair methods in its dealings with Ngāi Tahu over the Port Cooper and Port Levy Blocks. Significant to the Tribunal’s findings on the Port Levy Purchase was the Crown’s refusal to make reserves, as requested by Ngāi Tahu, at Okains Bay, Kaituna Valley and Pigeon Bay. The Tribunal further found that the Crown had dealt with land on Banks Peninsula before it had been lawfully acquired from Ngāi Tahu and that the Crown failed to meet its obligation to provide ample reserves for the existing and future needs of Ngāi Tahu:

Murihiku

The Tribunal found that the Crown, in purchasing the Murihiku Block, failed to set aside reserves that were requested by Ngāi Tahu, failed to preserve for Ngāi Tahu reasonable access to food resources, and failed to ensure that Ngāi Tahu retained sufficient land for its existing and future needs. The Tribunal found that, in so acting, and in its subsequent failure to remedy these faults through the Middle Island Half-Caste Crown Grants Act 1877 and South Island Landless Natives Act 1906, the Crown breached its duty to act with the utmost good faith towards Ngāi Tahu:

North Canterbury and Kaikōura

The Tribunal found that Ngāi Tahu’s interests and rangatiratanga in the North Canterbury and Kaikōura Blocks were gravely prejudiced by the Crown’s transactions with other tribes, particularly in the Wairau Purchase of 1847, and by the Crown’s disposal of land without Ngāi Tahu’s consent. It found that the Crown failed both to act fairly and honourably in negotiating for the subsequent purchase of Ngāi Tahu’s interests, and to provide sufficient reserves in the North Canterbury and Kaikōura Blocks for the existing and future needs of Ngāi Tahu:

Arahura

The Tribunal found that the Crown did not act fairly in its negotiations for the Arahura Block, and that the Crown failed both to set aside certain areas that Ngāi Tahu wished to retain, and to preserve for Ngāi Tahu reasonable access to food resources. It found that the Crown failed to protect the right of Ngāi Tahu to retain possession and control of all pounamu. The Tribunal also found that the Crown failed to respect Ngāi Tahu’s interests and wishes when enacting a system of perpetual leases over Ngāi Tahu reserves:

Rakiura

The Tribunal found that Ngāi Tahu was disadvantaged by the delay in implementing the terms of the Rakiura purchase, the Crown having failed in its duty actively to protect Māori interests:

Mahinga kai

The Tribunal found that, when purchasing Ngāi Tahu lands, the Crown failed to ensure that Ngāi Tahu retained reasonable access to places where the tribe produced or procured food, and especially unimpeded access to Lakes Waihora and Wairewa:

Schools and hospitals

The Tribunal found that the expectation of being provided with schools and hospitals was an inducement to Ngāi Tahu in selling the Kemp and Murihiku Blocks, that the Crown failed to act promptly to provide these benefits, and that Ngāi Tahu was disadvantaged by the delay in meeting its expectations:

Negotiations between Ngāi Tahu and the Crown

N

In 1990, the Crown entered into an interim agreement with Ngāi Tahu to safeguard surplus Crown lands for the future settlement of Ngāi Tahu’s claims:

O

The Crown accepted the thrust of the 1991 Waitangi Tribunal report, and, in consequence of that acceptance, in September 1991 the Crown and Ngāi Tahu entered into negotiations to seek resolution of the Ngāi Tahu grievances:

P

During the period 1991 to 1994, the Crown and Ngāi Tahu endeavoured to negotiate a settlement:

Q

Following the passing of the Te Runanga o Ngai Tahu Act 1996, Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu, as defined in that Act, is recognised for all purposes as the representative of Ngāi Tahu Whānui pursuant to section 15 of that Act:

R

In 1996, the Crown and Ngāi Tahu negotiated in good faith in a further attempt to achieve a full and final settlement of Ngāi Tahu’s historic Treaty claims and to remove the continuing sense of grievance felt by Ngāi Tahu:

S

On 14 June 1996, the Crown and Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu entered into a Deed of “On Account” Settlement, pursuant to which the Crown agreed to provide certain redress to Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu on an “on account” basis as a sign of good faith and a demonstration of the Crown’s goodwill:

T

On 5 October 1996, the Crown and Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu entered into a heads of agreement to record on a without prejudice basis the matters which they had agreed in principle should be contained in a deed of settlement to effect a settlement of Ngāi Tahu’s claims and their agreement to negotiate in good faith to settle the terms of the deed of settlement:

Settlement of claim

U

On 21 November 1997, the Crown and Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu entered into the deed of settlement in which the Crown acknowledged that Ngāi Tahu suffered grave injustices which significantly impaired Ngāi Tahu’s economic, social and cultural development and which recorded the matters required to give effect to a settlement of all of Ngāi Tahu’s historical claims.