Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998

  • Warning: Some amendments have not yet been incorporated
  • This version was replaced on 3 May 2017 to make corrections to sections 357(1), 396(5), and 436(1), and Schedules 7, 36, 58, 69, 100, 101, 102, 103, and 104 under section 25(1)(e) and (j)(ii) and (iii) of the Legislation Act 2012, and then to make a correction to section 144 under section 25(1)(j)(ii) of the Legislation act 2012.

Schedule 38 Statutory acknowledgement for Makaawhio (Jacobs River)

ss 205, 206

Statutory area

The statutory area to which this statutory acknowledgement applies is the river known as Makaawhio (Jacobs River), the location of which is shown on Allocation Plan MD 111 (SO 12514).


Under section 206, the Crown acknowledges Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu’s statement of Ngāi Tahu’s cultural, spiritual, historic, and traditional association to the Makaawhio, as set out below.

Ngāi Tahu association with the Makaawhio

According to legend, the Makaawhio River is associated with the Patupaiarehe (flute playing fairies) and Maeroero (ogres of the forest). It is said that Tikitiki o Rehua was slain in the Makaawhio River by the Maeroero. The name “Tikitiki o Rehua” is now attached to the ridge of hills (sometimes called Jacobs Ridge) on the north bank of the Makaawhio River.

For Ngāi Tahu, traditions such as this represent the links between the cosmological world of the gods and present generations, these histories reinforce tribal identity and solidarity, and continuity between generations, and document the events which shaped the environment of Te Wai Pounamu and Ngāi Tahu as an iwi.

Manawhenua (tribal authority over the area) was gained through Ngāi Tahu’s defeat of Ngāti Wairaki and Tūmatakokiri. That manawhenua was cemented by the establishment of kāinga nohoanga (permanent settlements) at the mouth and on both banks of the river because of the plentiful supply of mahinga kai from the river and its estuary and surrounds. A northern settlement strategically sited on Tahekeakai (Jacobs Bluff) acted as a sentry lookout that warned of approaching visitors.

As a result of this pattern of occupation, there are a number of urupā and wāhi tapu along the river. Urupā are the resting places of Ngāi Tahu tūpuna and, as such, are the focus for whānau traditions. Urupā and wāhi tapu are places holding the memories, traditions, victories and defeats of Ngāi Tahu tūpuna, and are frequently protected by secret locations.

The Makaawhio was and still is the source of a range of mahinga kai. Rocks at the mouth of the river still provide an abundance of kaimoana (seafood). The estuary of the river itself still provides an abundance of kaiawa (freshwater fisheries), including tuna (eels), pātiki (flounders) and inaka (whitebait) and remains a significant kōhanga (nursery) for a variety of fish species.

The area is still a significant manu (bird) breeding area, once yielding a rich harvest. The flora of the area provided not only food, but also the raw materials for rāranga (weaving), rongoa (medicines) and the building of waka (canoes) and whare (houses).

In addition to its bounty of mahinga kai resources, the Makaawhio is a source of the mineral kyanite (Aotea).

The tūpuna had considerable knowledge of whakapapa, traditional trails and tauranga waka, places for gathering kai and other taonga, ways in which to use the resources of the river, the relationship of people with the river and their dependence on it, and tikanga for the proper and sustainable utilisation of resources. All of these values remain important to Ngāi Tahu today.

Because of the kāinga nohoanga, reserves were set aside on the river for Ngāi Tahu at the time of the 1860 Arahura Deed of Sale. One of these was an urupā, where notable Ngāi Tahu tūpuna Te Koeti Turanga and Wi Katau Te Naihi are buried, among others.

The mauri of the Makaawhio represents the essence that binds the physical and spiritual elements of all things together, generating and upholding all life. All elements of the natural environment possess a life force, and all forms of life are related. Mauri is a critical element of the spiritual relationship of Ngāi Tahu Whānui with the river.

Purposes of statutory acknowledgement

Pursuant to section 215, and without limiting the rest of this schedule, the only purposes of this statutory acknowledgement are—


to require that consent authorities forward summaries of resource consent applications to Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu as required by regulations made pursuant to section 207 (clause 12.2.3 of the deed of settlement); and


to require that consent authorities, Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga, or the Environment Court, as the case may be, have regard to this statutory acknowledgement in relation to the Makaawhio, as provided in sections 208 to 210 (clause 12.2.4 of the deed of settlement); and


to empower the Minister responsible for management of the Makaawhio or the Commissioner of Crown Lands, as the case may be, to enter into a Deed of Recognition as provided in section 212 (clause 12.2.6 of the deed of settlement); and


to enable Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu and any member of Ngāi Tahu Whānui to cite this statutory acknowledgement as evidence of the association of Ngāi Tahu to the Makaawhio as provided in section 211 (clause 12.2.5 of the deed of settlement).

Limitations on effect of statutory acknowledgement

Except as expressly provided in sections 208 to 211, 213, and 215,—


this statutory acknowledgement does not affect, and is not to be taken into account in, the exercise of any power, duty, or function by any person or entity under any statute, regulation, or bylaw; and


without limiting paragraph (a), no person or entity, in considering any matter or making any decision or recommendation under any statute, regulation, or bylaw, may give any greater or lesser weight to Ngāi Tahu’s association to the Makaawhio (as described in this statutory acknowledgement) than that person or entity would give under the relevant statute, regulation, or bylaw, if this statutory acknowledgement did not exist in respect of the Makaawhio.

Except as expressly provided in this Act, this statutory acknowledgement does not affect the lawful rights or interests of any person who is not a party to the deed of settlement.

Except as expressly provided in this Act, this statutory acknowledgement does not, of itself, have the effect of granting, creating, or providing evidence of any estate or interest in, or any rights of any kind whatsoever relating to, the Makaawhio.

Schedule 38: amended, on 20 May 2014, by section 107 of the Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga Act 2014 (2014 No 26).