Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) Claims Settlement Act 2005

Reprint as at 20 May 2014

Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) Claims Settlement Act 2005

Public Act2005 No 72
Date of assent23 May 2005
Commencementsee section 2

Note

Changes authorised by subpart 2 of Part 2 of the Legislation Act 2012 have been made in this official reprint.

Note 4 at the end of this reprint provides a list of the amendments incorporated.

This Act is administered by the Ministry of Justice.


Contents

1 Title

2 Commencement

Part 1
Acknowledgements and apology by the Crown to Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty), and preliminary provisions

3 Purpose

4 Act binds the Crown

5 Outline

6 Acknowledgements and apology

7 Text of acknowledgements in Māori—Ngā Whakaaetanga na te Karauna

8 Text of acknowledgements in English

9 Text of apology in Māori—Te Whakapaha na te Karauna

10 Text of apology in English

Part 2
Interpretation

11 Interpretation of Act generally

12 Interpretation

13 Meaning of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty)

14 Meaning of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) historical claims

Part 3
Settlement of historical claims and miscellaneous matters

Subpart 1Settlement of historical claims

Jurisdiction of courts, etc, removed

15 Settlement of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) historical claims final

Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 amended

[Repealed]

16 Jurisdiction of Tribunal to consider claims [Repealed]

Protections no longer apply

17 Certain enactments do not apply

18 Removal of resumptive memorials

Subpart 2Miscellaneous matters

Perpetuities

19 Rule against perpetuities does not apply

Date when actions or matters must occur

20 Timing of actions or matters

Part 4
Cultural redress

Subpart 1Protocols

General provisions

21 Authority to issue, amend, or cancel protocols

22 Protocols subject to the Crown’s obligations

23 Enforceability of protocols

24 Limitation of rights

Noting of certain protocols

25 Noting of DOC protocol

26 Noting of fisheries protocol

Subpart 2Cultural redress properties

Vesting of cultural redress properties

27 Interpretation

28 Te Wahieroa

29 Te Atua Reretahi

30 Te Kaukahiwi o Tirotirowhetu

31 Otitapu Lookout

32 Whakapaukorero

Provisions relating to vesting of cultural redress properties

33 Vesting subject to encumbrances

34 Intermediate vesting of certain land in the Crown

35 Registration of ownership

36 Application of other enactments

Subpart 3Statutory acknowledgements and deeds of recognition

Statutory acknowledgements

37 Statutory acknowledgements by the Crown

38 Purposes of statutory acknowledgements

39 Relevant consent authorities to have regard to statutory acknowledgements

40 Environment Court to have regard to statutory acknowledgements

41 Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga and Environment Court to have regard to statutory acknowledgements

42 Recording statutory acknowledgements on statutory plans

43 Distribution of resource consent applications to governance entity

44 Use of statutory acknowledgement

Geothermal statutory acknowledgement

45 Interpretation

46 Geothermal statutory acknowledgement by the Crown

47 Purposes of geothermal statutory acknowledgement

48 Relevant consent authorities to have regard to geothermal statutory acknowledgement

49 Environment Court to have regard to geothermal statutory acknowledgement

50 Recording geothermal statutory acknowledgement on statutory plans

51 Distribution of resource consent applications to governance entity

52 Use of geothermal statutory acknowledgement

Deeds of recognition

53 Authorisation to enter into and amend deeds of recognition

54 Purpose of deed of recognition

55 Termination of deed of recognition

56 Crown management

Application of statutory acknowledgements and deeds of recognition in relation to rivers

57 Statutory acknowledgements in relation to rivers

58 Deed of recognition for rivers

General provisions

59 Crown not precluded from granting other statutory acknowledgements, geothermal statutory acknowledgement, or deeds of recognition

60 Exercise of powers, duties, and functions not affected

61 Rights not affected

62 Limitation of rights

Amendment to Resource Management Act 1991

63 Amendment to Resource Management Act 1991

Subpart 4Joint advisory committee for Matata Scenic Reserve, Whakapaukorero, and Te Awa a Te Atua

64 Interpretation

65 Appointment of members to joint advisory committee

66 Constitution of joint advisory committee

67 Functions of joint advisory committee

68 Advice on Whakapaukorero

69 Vacancy in membership of committee

70 Costs and expenses of committee

Subpart 5Nohoanga entitlements

71 Interpretation

72 Grant and renewal of Nohoanga entitlements

73 Notification of Nohoanga entitlement

74 Form of Nohoanga entitlement may be varied

75 Purpose of Nohoanga entitlements

76 Occupation of entitlement land by members of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty)

77 Period of occupation of entitlement land

78 Right to erect temporary dwellings

79 Condition of land when occupation ceases

80 Activities on entitlement land

Obligations relating to Nohoanga entitlements

81 Nohoanga entitlements must not impede public access

82 Crown functions to continue

83 Nohoanga entitlement does not restrict the Crown’s right to alienate land

84 Governance entity may enforce rights against other persons

85 Crown’s obligation to provide lawful access

86 Compliance with laws, bylaws, and land and water management practices

87 Rights of governance entity under Nohoanga entitlement not assignable

Suspension and termination of Nohoanga entitlement

88 Suspension of Nohoanga entitlement

89 Termination of Nohoanga entitlement

90 Termination of Nohoanga entitlement for breach of obligations

91 Notification of termination of Nohoanga entitlement

Rights not affected or created

92 Rights of other parties not affected

93 No creation of rights in entitlement land

Application of other enactments

94 Part 3B of Conservation Act 1987 not to apply

95 Local Government (Rating) Act 2002

96 Section 44 of Reserves Act 1977 not to apply

97 Section 11 and Part 10 of Resource Management Act 1991 not to apply

Subpart 6Owhakatihi

98 Meaning of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) values

99 Declaration of Owhakatihi

100 Crown’s acknowledgement of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) values

101 Purposes of Owhakatihi

102 Agreement on protection principles

103 New Zealand Conservation Authority and Conservation Boards to have particular regard to Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) values

104 New Zealand Conservation Authority and relevant Conservation Boards to consult with governance entity

105 Notification of Owhakatihi

106 Actions by Director-General

107 Amendment to conservation documents

108 Regulations

109 Bylaws

110 Notification of actions in Gazette

111 Existing classification of Owhakatihi

112 Termination of status

113 Exercise of powers, duties, and functions

114 Rights not affected

115 Limitation of rights

Part 5
Commercial redress

Transfer of commercial redress properties

116 Transfer of commercial redress properties

117 Minister of Conservation may grant easements

118 Creation of computer register

119 Application of other enactments

120 Roadways and rights of way

Redress licensed land

121 Meaning of redress licensed land

122 Redress licensed land ceases to be Crown forest land

123 Governance entity confirmed beneficiary in respect of redress licensed land

124 Effect of Crown forestry licences on redress licensed land

Rights of access over redress licensed land

125 Access to protected sites over redress licensed land

126 Right of access subject to Crown forestry licence

127 Right of access must be noted on title

Schedule 1
Cultural redress properties

Schedule 2
Nohoanga site

Schedule 3
Statutory acknowledgements and deeds of recognition

Schedule 4
Statutory acknowledgement for Rotoma Forest Conservation Area

Schedule 5
Statutory acknowledgement for Lake Tamurenui Wildlife Management Reserve

Schedule 6
Statutory acknowledgement for Lake Rotoma Scenic Reserve

Schedule 7
Statutory acknowledgement for Rangitaiki River

Schedule 8
Statutory acknowledgement for Tarawera River

Schedule 9
Owhakatihi

Reprint notes


  • Preamble

    Kupu Whakataki

    (1) Kua whakatakotoria te Tiriti o Waitangi, tauira reo Māori, tauira reo Pākehā hoki, i roto i te Wāhanga Tuatahi o te Ture Tiriti o Waitangi 1975. I hainatia te Tiriti nei i te tau 1840:

    (2) Mā ngā whiti (3) ki (44) o tēnei Kupu Whakataki ka kitea he whakarāpopototanga o ngā kōrero o muri i te kerēme o neherā o Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) kua whakatakotoria ki roto i te whakaaetanga whakataunga i whakamanahia i waenga i a Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) rāua ko te Karauna:

    Tāhuhu kōrero

    (3) Ko tā tēnei wāhanga, he whakatakoto i te tāhū kōrero e whakakaupapa mai ana i ngā manakohanga me te whakapāha a te Karauna:

    Te rohe o Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty)

    Ko Pūtauaki te Maunga, Ko Te Takanga i ō Apa te Awa, Ko Te Aotahi te Tangata, Ko Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) te Iwi:

    (4) E kī ana a Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty), ko tōna rohe mai Ōtamarākau ka whai i te awa o Waitahanui ki Ōtari ki Motuotara ki Maungawhakamana ki Ngārararua takiwā ki Haehaenga ki Kākahuoteritenga ki Waikareao ki Maraetahia ki Monehu ki Ōkorotere ki Panepane ki Pūtauaki ki Tāhuna ki Rākeihopukia ki Wahieroa ki Rurima ki Ōtamarākau. Ko te rohe o Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) kua huaina i runga ake nei, kei kō atu o te rārangi raupatu. Ko te Rangitaiki rāua ko Tarawera ngā awa nui o roto i te rohe. Tāpae atu ki ngā tohu whenua nei, ko ngā pūkorero nui a te iwi:

    (5) I runga i tōna tūranga hei tangata whenua o te rohe nei, ko ētahi o ngā wāhi nui kei roto i ngā kōrero a te iwi o Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty), ko Ōtamarākau, ko Ōtari, ko Motuotara, ko Maungawhakamana, ko Ngārararua, ko Haehaenga, ko Kākahuoteritenga, ko Waikareao, ko Maraetahia, ko Te Monehu, ko Ōkorotere, ko Panepane, ko Pūtauaki, ko Tāhuna, ko Rākeihopukia, ko Wahieroa, ko Ngā Moutere o Rurima, ko Ōtaramuturangi, ko Pāniwhaniwha (Ngāpariwhakairo), ko Mangāti, ko Tūwatawata, ko Te Waikoukou, ko Moturoa, Puketapu, ko Ōtukoiro, ko Te Kiore Pohoroa, ko Korotiwha, ko Otitapu, ko Paokoroiti, ko Te Pātaua, ko Te Pakipaki, ko Tainapekapeka, ko Taumanawa, ko Tūmanuka, ko Peketā, ko Te Waha-o-te-Parata, ko Ōpeke, ko Tāhunaroa, ko Tahutu, ko Whakarewa, ko Ōniao, ko Umuhika, ko Hāhūru, ko Ōkōtuku, ko Ōwhirirangi, ko Whātangi, ko Koroaha, ko Tutarautawhai, ko Parangaehe, ko Mangapehi, ko Ōterangikahamai, ko Poutakamoko, ko Pukehīnau, ko Pokanui, ko Ōteao, ko Te Ahi-inanga, ko Te Atua Reretahi, ko Te Kopua, ko Huratoki, ko Te Haehaenga, ko Ōtangihia, ko Pōkohu, ko Ōtangiwaka, ko Taranaki, ko Mātirawhāiti, ko Whakapaukōrero, ko Whakapaukarakia, ko Mōkaingārara, ko Ōhinetewai, ko Tūhaepō, ko Te Kōhika, ko Te Ahikōkōwai, ko Kākaramea, ko Whakahoro, ko Mangawhio, ko Ruataniwha. Ko ētahi o ngā awaawa ko: Waitahanui, ko Hauone, ko Herepuru, ko Pikowai, ko Mimiha/Whakarewa, ko Ōhinekoao, ko Waihoko, ko Kohi-o-Awa, ko Wai-te-Ariki, ko Wai-te-puru, ko Awakaponga, ko Whāriki-te-toki, ko Waikamihi, ko Wairere-a-tu (te ingoa mohiotia ai e Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) a Braemar Springs), ko Pōkerekere, ko Te Kaokaoroa:

    (6) I kī a Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) i mua o te tau 1866 ko ā ratou mahi i aua wā ko te whakatipu māra kūmara, rīwai, wīti, harakeke hoki hei hoko ki ngā kaihokohoko Pākehā, ko te hari hoki i aua taonga ki ngā mākete. Ko Ōkākāru (wāhi ngāwhā) i te takiwā o Kawerau tētahi wāhi motuhake mō te whakaora me te whakamāui, me te whakatō moata o ngā tipu pēnei i te kūmara. I rongonui te wāhi nei mō te mahi a te tuna, a te ika, hei wāhi hoki mō te whāngai tuna, me kī, i ngā wāhi e mahana ana i te waiariki. Ko te haere mā runga waka ka mutu, nui ana te kai i ngā repo:

    Ngā whakamārama mō te Raupatu—Te Riri i te Waiariki ki te Rāwhiti

    (7) Nō te marama o Hūrae o te tau 1863 pakaru mai ai te riri ki waenganui i te Karauna me ngā Māori i Waikato; hei wāhanga o te riri nei, i pakaru ētahi whawhai ki te Waiariki i te haurua tōmua o te tau 1864:

    (8) Nō te marama o Hūrae o te tau 1865, whai muri o tētahi wā whakariuka, ka patua a James Fulloon, tētahi āpiha nā te Karauna, me ētahi heremana tokotoru o runga i te kaipuke Kate, e ētahi Māori i Whakatāne. Nā T H Smith, te Komihana Karauna i Maketū te whakamana kia hopukina te hunga i whai wāhi ki ngā mahi kōhuru i te hunga i runga i te kaipuke Kate:

    (9) Nō te marama o Ākuhata o te tau 1865 takatū ai tētahi ope taua a te Karauna e 500 ngā hōia, tae noa ki ētahi Māori mai i ngā hapū me ngā iwi e noho tata ana, kei raro i ngā whakahau a Meiha William Mair, Kaiwhakawā ā-Rohe, ki te mauhere i ērā i ingoatia i te whakamana. Ka whāia ērā i ingoatia i te whakamana, ka awhitia ētahi pā i te Waiariki ki te rāwhiti. Ko ētahi o Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) e noho ana ki aua pā:

    (10) Nō te hipanga o te ope taua i te pā o Pārawai ka pakaru mai te whawhai. Ka murua e ngā hōia o te Karauna ngā kararehe me ngā pātaka kai engari kore rawa te pā i horo. Kātahi ka neke ngā hōia ki Te Umuhika, i reira tū ano te puehu i waenganui i ngā hōia me ētahi tāngata mai i te pā o Pārawai. I te pakanga nei, ka mate a Hoete o te hapū o Te Tāwera, i a ia e aukati ana i ngā hōia e whakaeke ana i te pā. E toru tāima a ia e pūhia ana. Ko te whakapae i whiua ki runga i atahi o Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty), nā rātou ētahi o ngā tāngata hara i atawhai. Ka whakamatea ēnei e te ope taua a te Karauna, kātahi ia ka neke ki Te Kupenga. E ai ki a Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) ko ētahi o ngā tāngata i whakamatea, kāore i te paku aha, i te manaaki noa iho i ērā i te whāia e te Karauna:

    (11) Nō te 2 o Hepetema o te tau 1865 whakaputaina ai e te Karauna tētahi Pānui Rongomau e kī ana kua mutu te pakanga. I kī te Pānui, kāore e hāmenetia ērā i tū mārō ki te Karauna mai i te tau 1863, mō ā rātou hara o mua. Kāore i whakaurua ki te Pānui Rongomau te hunga nā rātou a Fulloon me ētahi atu i kōhuru. I kī anō te Pānui, ki te kore e hoatuna ki te Karauna te hunga nā rātou a Fulloon mā i kōhuru, ka raupatutia e te Karauna tētahi wāhanga o ngā whenua o ngā iwi kei te huna i ngā kaikohuru nei:

    (12) Nō te 4 o te marama o Hepetema o te tau 1865 whakaputaina ai e te Kawana tētahi Pānui Ture Taua ki ngā rohe o Whakatāne me Ōpotiki, e tareka ai te hopu i te hunga nā rātou a Fulloon mā i kōhuru. Noho ai ngā hōia a te Karauna ki waho o ētahi pā, ki te whai i te hunga tērā i roto rātou i ngā mahi kōhuru:

    (13) I te marama o Oketopa o te tau 1865, ka mahue te pā o Pārawai e ngā tāngata i roto, ka haere ki te pā o Te Kupenga, ki reira hono atu ai ki ētahi atu o ngā iwi o te Waiariki, tae rawa ki ētahi o te hunga i ingoatia he tangata hara. Ka whakaekea a Te Kupenga e te Karauna. Nō te 20 o Oketopa o te tau 1865 taka ai te toenga o ngā tāngata i te pā o Te Kupenga ki raro i te mana o te Karauna:

    Te Raupatu i raro i Te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tireni 1863

    (14) Nō te 17 o Hānuere o te tau 1866, nā tētahi Whakahau Kaunihera, i raupatutia e te Karauna ētahi 448 000 eka i te Waiariki ki te rāwhiti, i raro i Te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tireni 1863. I whakahouhia te raina raupatu i raro i tētahi pānui Karauna i te 1 o Hepetema o te tau 1866. I uru atu ki ngā whenua raupatu nei ko te 87 000 eka o Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty):

    (15) E ai ki ngā korero a te ture, ko ētahi take i whakaturia ai Te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tireni 1863, ko te whakaū i te rongomau me te maru, me te whakatu me te pupuri i te mana o te Kuini. E ai ki tā te Ture nei, ko te whakakuhu mai i ētahi tāngata whai te huarahi pai, tōtika rawa e tūtuki ai aua kaupapa:

    (16) Kāore te Ture i kōrero mō te whakawhiu, engari koia tērā tōna whāinga. I whakamahia te Ture ki te raupatu i ngā whenua Māori inā tau ana te Kāwana kei te hara tētahi iwi, tētahi wāhanga rānei o tētahi iwi, ētahi tāngata tokomaha rēnei mai i tētahi iwi ki te mana o te Kuini mai i te 1 o te marama o Hanuere o te tau 1863. Ka āhei te Kāwana ki te whakatau i tētahi Rohe i raro i te Ture, i runga i te mea he whenua kei taua rohe nō ētahi tāngata e kīia nei he tangata hara rātou:

    (17) I whakatau te Karauna, he iwi hara ngā iwi o te Waiariki i te mea i ātete rātou ki ngā hōia i haere ki te rohe ki te mauhere i te hunga nā rātou a Fulloon mā i kōhuru:

    Te Tikanga Pāremata

    (18) I whakatūria Te Kōti Pāremata i raro i ngā tikanga o Te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tireni 1863, ki te whakarongo ki ngā kerēme mō te whakahoki i ngā whenua raupatu. I mua o te wā noho o te Kōti Pāremata, i te marama o Pepuere o te tau 1866, tohungia ai ko Āpiha Karauna John A Wilson hei komihana motuhake, ki te whakarongo ki ngā wāwāhitanga o ngā whenua raupatu i Te Waiariki:

    (19) I whakaritea e Wilson kia wehea ki ētahi poraka ngā whenua e 87 000 eka i raupatutia, mai i te raina raupatu ki te uru, ahu atu ki te awa o Tarawera. He rahi tonu te wāhanga o te whenua nei, e kerēmehia ana e Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) me ētahi atu iwi, i tukuna kē ki ētahi iwi mai i Te Arawa me ētahi atu hei utu mō ngā mahi hōia. I riro atu anō ngā whenua, he pānga nō Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) i te taha rāwhiti o te awa o Tarawera:

    (20) I rongo Te Kōti Pāremata i ētahi korero mai i ētahi tāngata o Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) e pā ana ki ngā whenua kei roto i te raupatu, kei te taha hauāuru o te awa o Tarawera. Ko ētahi o ngā kerēme a Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) e whakaaehia ana e te Koti, mō ngā poraka whenua o Tawhitinui (e 6 320 eka) rāua ko Rotoitipaku (e 13 675 eka):

    (21) Nō te marama o Tīhema o te tau 1867 whakawhiwhia ai e Te Kōti Pāremata te poraka o Rotoitipaku ki ētahi tāngata tekau ā, ko te poraka o Tawhitinui i whakawhiwhia ki ētahi tāngata tekau mā tōru. I whakawhiwhia ēnei tāngata i te mea ko rātou te hunga whai pānga ki aua whenua ā, kāore rātou i kuhu ki ngā mahi hara:

    (22) Ko te titiro a Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) ki ēnei whakawhiwhinga, mō te iwi kē ā, ko ngā tāngata i tohungia, i te tū kē hei kaitiaki mō te hapū. Hāunga, nō te pānuitanga o ngā whakawhiwhinga a Te Kōti Pāremata i roto i Te Kāhiti o Niu Tireni i te tau 1874, kāore he kōrero mō te kaitiaki, engari he kōrero kē mō te whakawhiwhi noa ki te hunga nei:

    (23) I whakawhiwhia ētahi o ngā tāngata o te hapū o Te Tāwera ki ētahi whenua i te takiwā o Umuhika, i runga tonu i ngā whakaritenga a Wilson; hei tāna, he rahi tonu ngā whenua o Te Tāwera i taua takiwā i mua o te pakaru mai o te riri:

    (24) Nō te marama o Tīhema o te tau 1867, whakawhiwhia ai e Te Kōti Pāremata ētahi pito whenua e 50 eka te rahi mai i ngā poraka whenua o Rotoitipaku me Tawhitinui ki ētahi tāngata tekau. Katoa ēnei whakawhiwhinga i raro i ngā tekiona 4 me te 6 o Te Ture Whenua Raupatu 1867, e āhei ana te Karauna ki te whakahoki whenua ki ētahi tāngata e whakaaro ana te Karauna kua tāngata hara kua tūohu ki te Karauna:

    (25) I mahia e Wilson āna mahi i raro i ngā tekiona o Te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tireni 1863, me āna whakarereketanga. Nō muri kē ka whakatakoto ture hōu te Karauna, pēnei i Te Ture Whenua Raupatu 1867 e aha ai, e mana ā-ture ai ngā whakaritenga a Wilson:

    (26) Ahakoa te mea i whakawhiwhia a Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) ki ētahi whenua mā te huarahi o te tikanga pāremata, i ngaro ā rātou tika ki te kuhu ki ērā o ō rātou whenua me ā ratou rawa:

    (27) Ko ngā whenua i hoki mai mā te tikanga pāremata, i hoki mai ke ki ngā tangata takitahi, āpā te hapū, te iwi rānei. Kāore i hāngai ngā momo whakawhiwhinga nei ki ngā tikanga tiaki whenua o mua, nā reira i mōrearea te noho o aua whenua kei wehea:

    Ngā Hoko a te Karauna

    (28) Nō te tau 1873, tīmata ai ngā āpiha hoko whenua a te Karauna ki te whakarite mō te rīhi i ngā poraka whenua o Rotoitipaku me Tawhitinui. Tokowaru ngā tāngata o Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) i haina i tētahi whakaaetanga rīhi mō ngā poraka. Ko ētahi o ngā tāngata nei i ingoatia hei kaitiaki mō ngā poraka e rua i roto i ngā whakamārama a Wilson i te wā o ngā whiwhi pāremata:

    (29) Nō te tau 1874, whai muri i te pānuitanga o ngā whakawhiwhinga mō ngā poraka o Rotoitipaku me Tawhitinui i roto i Te Kāhiti o Niu Tireni, i mārama te kitea atu, i te hē kē ngā ingoa i runga i ngā whakaaetanga rīhi. I ngana ngā āpiha hoko whenua a te Karauna ki te tutuki i te whakaaetanga rīhi mā te tiki i ngā hainatanga mai i te hunga katoa i roto i te rārangi i te pānui kāhiti. Uaua te mahi nei, i te taha whakahaere me te mea i te ngaro ētahi o te hunga i rārangitia i te kāhiti. Nō muri ka whakatau te Karauna kia hokona kē aua poraka:

    (30) Nō te tau 1878 āta wehea ai ētahi wāhi i roto i ngā poraka whenua o Rotoitipaku me Tawhitinui ā, i te nuinga o te wā, i ruritia ēnei whenua hei whenua rāhui, i raro tonu i ngā whakahau a ngā āpiha a te Karauna. I te tau o muri mai, i te wā o ngā whakaritenga me ētahi o te hunga i te rārangi kāhiti, i whakaae ngā āpiha hoko whenua a te Karauna kia kaua e uru aua whenua i rāhuitia ki ngā hokohoko:

    (31) I roto i ngā tau ka whai, ka whakarite te Karauna me ētahi o te hunga nō rātou ngā whenua kia hokona te katoa o te poraka o Tawhitinui; nō te tau 1883 i tutuki tērā. I wehea mai tētahi whenua rāhui e 88 eka te korahi i ngā mahi hokohoko:

    (32) I whakarite anō ngā āpiha a te Karauna kia hokona ngā pānga o ētahi tokorima o te hunga i whakawhiwhia ki te poraka o Rotoitipaku. I tuhi reta ki te Minita mō ngā Take Māori ētahi atu o te hunga i whakawhiwhia, i runga i tā rātou whakahē ki te hoko o te whenua. Ka tono te Karauna ki Te Kōti Whenua Māori kia pānuitia ōna pānga i roto i te poraka. I te wā e noho ana Te Kōti Whenua Māori, ka whakahē ētahi o te hunga kāore i hiahia ki te hoko i te whenua, kia whakaae rā anō ngā tāngata tekau katoa i whakawhiwhia ki te poraka, tae rawa ki ō rātou hapū. Ahakoa ō rātou whakahē, nō te 25 o Hūne o te tau 1883 whakawhiwhia ai e te Kōti ki te Karauna te hāwhe whaka-te-tonga o te poraka whenua o Rotoitipaku. Nō te 25 o Hūne o te tau 1883 tuhi atu ai ētahi o Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) ki te Minita mō ngā Take Māori, e whakamārama ana i ngā whakahē o ētahi o Ngāti Tuwharetoa ki Kawerau me Ngāti Umutahi ki te hoko, me te pātai mēnā e pai ana kia whakahokia ngā moni he mea homai e te Karauna mō ngā whenua:

    (33) Nō te rironga atu o ō rātou whenua mā te raupatu, mā ngā māhi hoko a te Karauna me ētahi atu tikanga wehe i te tāngata mai i ōna whenua, he mea uaua i nāianei mō Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) ki te whātoro ki ana rawa pēnei i te takutai me ngā repo, me kī, ngā kaiwhakarato kai, rongoā, haumaru hoki. Ka ngaro hoki tō rātou mana ki runga i ētahi o ō rātou urupā me ō rātou wāhi nui. Hei tā Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) he pēhi kino tēnei i runga i tō rātou hononga ā-wairua, ā-kikokiko me te whenua:

    Ngā Nekeneke o te Rau Tau 20

    (34) Mai i te timatanga o te tekau tau 1890 i ngana ngā tāngata whai kia whakatahea ngā wai o te repo o Rangitaiki, e noho ātaahua ake ai te whenua mō ngā mahi ahuwhenua. I whakaae te Karauna ki tēnei mahi. Nō te tau 1910 ka riro mā te Karauna e whakahaere ngā mahi whakatahe wai ā, nō te tau 1914 oti ai te keria o tētahi maero e puta tika ai te awa o Rangitaiki ki te moana. Rerekē katoa te āhua o ngā repo i ngā mahi kerikeri me te aha, ka raru ngā wāhi tapu me ngā wāhi kohi kai, aha noa atu:

    (35) Nō te tekau tau 1950 whakaturia ai te tāone me te mīra pepa o Kawerau, i runga paku noa ake o te kāinga o Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty). Ko te otinga, ko te whakaparuparu me te whakaparahako i te awa o Tarawera (he wāhi nui mō te mahi kai, rawa hoki) me te takiwā o Ōkākāru (e ai ki a Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty), he wāhi tenei mō te whakaora me te whakangā) i ngā paru mai i ngā kāinga, ahumahi hoki. Nā te Tasman Pulp and Paper Company Enabling Act 1954 i mana ai te tuku para mai i te mīra ki te awa o Tarawera, i raro i ngā aratohu a te Pollution Advisory Council:

    (36) Nā te whakamanatanga o te Geothermal Energy Act 1953, ka riro ki te Karauna anake ngā tika mō ngā rawa ngāwhā. Kāore te Karauna i kōrero ki a Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) i mua o tana haere i tēnei huarahi. Nā runga i tēnei mahi, kua kore te mana me te āheinga o Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) ki ngā rawa ngāwhā kei te takiwā o Kawerau:

    Ngā Kerēme o Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) me ngā Whakaritenga mō te Whakataunga

    (37) Ki tā Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty), i takahia e te Karauna te Tiriti o Waitangi, me te aha, kua pā mai ngā whakawhiunga ki te iwi. Mai anō i te wā o te raupatu, kua rapu a Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) i te tika mō ēnei takahitanga o te Tiriti kei te whakapaetia. Puta noa i ngā rau tau 19 me te 20, kua pīkauria e Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) tana whakamau ki te Karauna, mā ngā petihana me ngā hui me ngā āpiha a te Karauna i Kawerau, i Matatā, me Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Kāore tonu i aro mai te Karauna ki ēnei tono; kua noho tēnei hei whakamau nui mā Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty):

    (38) Nō te tau 1988 rehitatia ai e Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) tana kerēme raupatu (Wai 62), whai muri o tētahi whakahōunga o Te Ture mō Te Tiriti o Waitangi e aha ai, e tareka ai te tirohia o ngā kerēme hoki rā anō ki te tau 1840. I te tau 1994 me te tau 1995 i rongohia e Te Rōpu Whakamana i te Tiriti te kerēme a Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) i te marae i Hāhuru me ētahi atu wāhi; hei wāhanga noa ēnei noho o ngā noho a Te Rōpu Whakamana i te Tiriti i te rohe o Te Waiariki ki te rāwhiti. I taua wā i aro nui Te Rōpu Whakamana i te Tiriti ki te tūranga o Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) hei rōpu motuhake me ana kerēme nui, whai kiko hoki i te rohe o Te Waiariki ki te rāwhiti. Nō te marama o Oketopa o te tau 1999 whākina ai ngā putanga a Te Rōpu Whakamana i te Tiriti e pā ana ki ana noho i Te Waiariki ki te rāwhiti:

    (39) Nō te marama o Hānuere o te tau 1998 tukuna ai e Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) tētahi Whakaaetanga Mana Kōkiri ki te Karauna ā, nō te marama o Maehe o te tau 1998 mana ai te mana kōkiri, ki ta te Karauna titiro. Ka whakamanatia e ngā kaiwhakarite i tētahi hui-a-iwi i tū ki te marae o Ngāti Umutahi, ā, tīmata ana ngā whakarite me te Karauna:

    (40) Nō te marama o Ākuhata o te tau 1998 whakatakotoria ai e Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) ki mua i te aroaro o te Karauna te whakamārama mō ngā whakamau i te iwi i roto i ngā tau i mua o te tau 1992, kia tāpaea ki te taha o te kerēme Wai 62. I roto i ngā whakamau i tāpaea e Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) ko ngā rongotanga i ngā mamae o te raupatu i runga i a Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) e rongohia tonu i tēnei wā tonu, te tauwehe o ngā whenua i hē te raupatu, te korenga ake o te whakamahi, whakahaere me te whai hua mai i ēnei whenua me ngā rawa pēnei i ngā awaawa. I uru atu ki ēnei whakapā kino, ko te keria o te repo o Rangitaiki, te rironga atu o ngā rawa ngāwhā (he taonga nui rawa atu tēnei nā Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty)) me ngā putanga o te whakatū o te tāone o Kawerau me te ahumahi pepa:

    (41) Nō te 8 o te marama o Hepetema 1998 hainahia ai e Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) me te Karauna Ngā Tikanga Whakarite ā, ko tāna, he whakamārama i te hōkai, ngā whāinga me ngā tikanga whakahaere i ngā whakaritenga:

    (42) I raro i Ngā Tikanga Whakarite, i whakaū ngā kaiwhakarite whaimana ki te Karauna, he mana kōkiri tā rātou ki te tū hei māngai mō Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) i roto i ngā whakaritenga me te Karauna mō te whakatau o ngā kerēme katoa:

    (43) Tīmata ai ngā whakaritenga whai kiko i waenganui i te Karauna me Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) i te marama o Oketopa o te tau 1998. I titiro ēnei whakaritenga ki ngā whakamau i roto i ngā tau i whakaarahia ake e Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) pēnei i ngā ture whenua Māori, te whakatakitahi i ngā taitara whenua me ngā ture mahi tumatanui. Nō te marama o Tīhema o te 2000 whakaae tahi ai a Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) me te Karauna mō te whānui o te whakatika hapa ā, nō te marama o Hānuere o te tau 2001 whakatakotoria ai e te Karauna tana tāpaetanga:

    (44) I te 22 o Oketopa 2002 ka whakaretangia e te Karauna me Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) he whakaaetanga o ngā whakataunga. Ka tatū i te Karauna me Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) taua whakaaetanga o ngā whakataunga i te 6 o Hune 2003, e whakatatū ana i ngā take katoa e tika ana kia whakatauria tuturutia te katoa o ngā kerēme o neherā o te iwi o Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty).

    Background

    (1) The Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi), as set out in English and in Māori in Schedule 1 of the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975, was signed in 1840:

    (2) Recitals (3) to (44) of this Preamble present, in summary form, the background to the Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) historical claims that is set out in the deed of settlement entered into by Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) and the Crown:

    Historical account

    (3) The acknowledgements and the apology from the Crown to Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) are based on the following historical account:

    Rohe of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty)

    Ko Pūtauaki te Maunga, Ko Te Takanga i ō Apa te Awa, Ko Te Aotahi te Tangata, Ko Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) te Iwi:

    (4) Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) describe their rohe as running from Ōtamarākau following the Waitahanui Stream to Ōtari to Motuotara to Maungawhakamana to Ngārararua in Haehaenga territory to Kākahuoteritenga to Waikareao to Maraetahia to Monehu to Ōkorotere to Panepane to Pūtauaki to Tāhuna to Rākeihopukia to Wahieroa to Rurima to Ōtamarākau. The rohe of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) as described extends beyond the confiscation lines. The Rangitaiki and Tarawera rivers are the major rivers within the rohe. Significant tribal pūkorero are connected to these tribal landmarks:

    (5) As tangata whenua of the described rohe, places of historical and cultural significance to Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) include Ōtamarākau, Ōtari, Motuotara, Maungawhakamana, Ngārararua, Haehaenga, Kākahuoteritenga, Waikareao, Maraetahia, Te Monehu, Ōkorotere, Panepane, Pūtauaki, Tāhuna, Rākeihopukia, Wahieroa, Rurima Islands, Ōtaramuturangi, Pāniwhaniwha (Ngāpariwhakairo), Mangāti, Tūwatawata, Te Waikoukou, Moturoa, Puketapu, Ōtukoiro, Te Kiore Pohoroa, Korotiwha, Otitapu, Paokoroiti, Te Pātaua, Te Pakipaki, Tainapekapeka, Taumanawa, Tūmanuka, Peketā, Te Waha o te Parata, Ōpeke, Tāhunaroa, Tahutu, Whakarewa, Ōniao, Umuhika, Hāhūru, Ōkōtuku, Ōwhirirangi, Whātangi, Koroaha, Tutarautawhai, Parangaehe, Mangapehi, Ōterangikahamai, Poutakamoko, Pukehīnau, Pokanui, Ōteao, Te Ahi-inanga, Te Atua Reretahi, Te Kopua, Huratoki, Te Haehaenga, Ōtangihia, Pōkohu, Ōtangiwaka, Taranaki, Mātirawhāiti, Whakapaukōrero, Whakapaukarakia, Mōkaingārara, Ōhinetewai, Tūhaepō, Te Kōhika, Te Ahikōkōwai, Kākaramea, Whakahoro, Mangawhio, and Ruataniwha. Waterways include: Waitahanui, Hauone, Herepuru, Pikowai, Mimiha/Whakarewa, Ōhinekoao, Waihoko, Kohi-o-Awa, Wai-te-Ariki, Wai-te-puru, Awakaponga, Whāriki-te-toki, Waikamihi, Wairere-a-tu (the name by which Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) know the Braemar Springs), Pōkerekere, and Te Kaokaoroa:

    (6) Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) state that prior to 1866 they were actively engaged in the cultivation of large kumara gardens, potatoes, wheat, and flax for sale to and barter with local European traders, and the transport of goods to markets. They were also involved in customary trade with other iwi. The area at Ōkākāru (geothermal region) in the Kawerau area was used as a special place of healing and recuperation and for early cultivation of plants, in particular kumara. The area was also famous for the plentiful supply of eels and fish and the breeding of eels, especially in the warmest thermal waters. Transport was by waka and the surrounding wetlands were plentiful in kai:

    Background to Raupatu—Conflict in Eastern Bay of Plenty

    (7) In July 1863, war broke out between the Crown and Māori in the Waikato; as part of this conflict hostilities occurred in the Bay of Plenty during the first half of 1864:

    (8) Following a period of unrest, a Crown official, James Fulloon, and 3 crew members of the vessel Kate were killed by some local Māori at Whakatāne in July 1865. T H Smith, the Civil Commissioner at Maketū, issued a warrant for the arrests of those alleged to have taken part in the murders on board the Kate:

    (9) In August 1865, a Crown expedition of some 500 men, including Māori from neighbouring iwi and hapū, was mounted under Major William Mair, Resident Magistrate, to apprehend those named in the warrant. They pursued those named in the warrant, laying siege to a number of pā in the eastern Bay of Plenty. Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) hapū resided at some of these pā:

    (10) Fighting broke out as the Crown expedition passed Pārawai Pā. Crown troops raided livestock and pillaged crops and food supplies but failed to take the pā. The troops moved onto Te Umuhika where they became involved in a skirmish with some people from Pārawai Pā. In the ensuing conflict Hoete, of Te Tāwera hapū, was shot 3 times and died, defending the pā and his kin from the troops. Others of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) who were accused of harbouring tangata hara were killed as the Crown expedition moved towards Te Kupenga. According to Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty), a number of those killed were providing customary hospitality to those being pursued by the Crown:

    (11) On 2 September 1865, the Crown issued a proclamation of peace, declaring the war at an end. The proclamation stated that those who had taken up arms against the Crown since 1863 would not be prosecuted for past offences. Those responsible for the killings of Fulloon and others were among those excluded from this amnesty. The proclamation also stated that if those responsible for the killing of Fulloon were not given up then the Governor will seize a part of the lands of the Tribes who conceal these murderers:

    (12) On 4 September 1865, the Governor issued a proclamation of martial law in the Whakatāne and Ōpotiki areas to enable the capture of those accused of the murder of Fulloon and others. Crown troops remained stationed outside some pā, for the purpose of pursuing those thought to be involved in the murders:

    (13) Around October 1865, the occupants of Pārawai Pā evacuated and went to Te Kupenga Pā, joining other Bay of Plenty iwi, including some of the individuals listed in the arrest warrant. Crown troops attacked Te Kupenga. On 20 October 1865 all those remaining at Te Kupenga surrendered to the Crown force:

    Confiscation under New Zealand Settlements Act 1863

    (14) By an Order in Council on 17 January 1866, the Crown confiscated approximately 448 000 acres of land in the eastern Bay of Plenty under the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863. The description of the confiscation boundary was amended by a subsequent Crown proclamation of 1 September 1866. The confiscated area included approximately 87 000 acres of the traditional lands of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty):

    (15) According to the legislation, 2 of the purposes of the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863 were to provide permanent peace and security, and establish and maintain the Queen’s authority. The Act described the introduction of a sufficient number of settlers as the best and most effectual means of achieving those purposes:

    (16) The Act did not mention punishment, but was punitive in nature. It was used to effect the confiscation of Māori land whenever the Governor in Council was satisfied that any Native Tribe or Section of a Tribe or any considerable number thereof had been engaged in rebellion against the authority of the Queen since 1 January 1863. The Governor could proclaim a district, for the purposes of the Act, where there was any land owned in that district by those deemed to have been in rebellion:

    (17) The Crown considered the Bay of Plenty tribes to have been in rebellion because of the resistance to the forces sent into the area to arrest those responsible for the deaths of Fulloon and others:

    The compensation process

    (18) The Compensation Court was established under the provisions of the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863 to hear claims for the return of confiscated land. Prior to the sitting of the Compensation Court, Crown Agent John A Wilson was appointed as a special commissioner in February 1866 to deal with the allocation of confiscated land in the Bay of Plenty:

    (19) Wilson arranged for approximately 87 000 acres of confiscated land between the western confiscation boundary and the Tarawera River to be divided into blocks. Much of this area, which Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) and other iwi also claim, went to certain Te Arawa iwi and others as military awards. Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) also lost lands, which they traditionally held interests in on the eastern side of the Tarawera River:

    (20) The Compensation Court heard evidence from members of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) in relation to land within the confiscation boundary on the west side of the Tarawera River. The Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) claims recognised by the court included those for the Tawhitinui block (6 320 acres) and the Rotoitipaku block (13 675 acres):

    (21) In December 1867, the Compensation Court awarded the Rotoitipaku block to 10 people and the Tawhitinui block to 13 people. These awards were made on the basis that they were the rightful owners and not implicated in the rebellion:

    (22) Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) viewed the awards of these blocks as a tribal endowment with the named individuals acting as kaitiaki or trustees for the hapū. However, when the Compensation Court awards were officially notified in the Gazette 7 years later, in 1874, there was no mention of trustees. Rather the blocks were officially awarded to the listed individuals as grantees:

    (23) Members of Te Tāwera hapū were granted land in the Umuhika area, in accordance with an arrangement made by Wilson, who noted that Te Tāwera had been major landholders in the area prior to the war:

    (24) In December 1867, the Compensation Court also awarded 10 individuals 50 acre blocks within the Rotoitipaku and Tawhitinui blocks. All of these awards were made under sections 4 and 6 of the Confiscated Land Act 1867, which allowed the return of land to those considered by the Crown to be surrendered rebels:

    (25) Wilson carried out his activities under the provisions of the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863 and its amendments. The Crown then enacted further legislation, including the Confiscated Lands Act 1867, in order to validate Wilson’s arrangements:

    (26) While Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) were granted some land through the compensation process, they lost their customary rights of access to other traditional lands and resources:

    (27) Land restored through the compensation process was returned to individuals rather than to the hapū or iwi. The awards did not reflect the customary forms of tenure and land became more susceptible to partition and alienation:

    Crown purchases

    (28) In 1873, Crown land purchase agents began negotiating to lease the Rotoitipaku and Tawhitinui blocks. Eight Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) men signed a deed of lease for the blocks. Some of these men were listed as trustees for the 2 blocks in the schedules Wilson prepared of the compensation awards:

    (29) In 1874, after publication of the awards for the Rotoitipaku and Tawhitinui blocks in the Gazette, it became clear that the existing deed of lease did not have the appropriate signatories. Crown land purchase agents attempted to complete the lease deeds by obtaining the signatures for all the grantees listed in the Gazette notice. This proved difficult for a number of reasons, including administrative difficulties and the absence of some grantees from the area. The Crown subsequently decided to attempt to purchase the blocks instead:

    (30) In 1878, a number of areas within the Rotoitipaku and Tawhitinui blocks were set aside and, in many cases, surveyed as reserves under instruction from Crown officials. During negotiations with some of the grantees the following year, the Crown land purchase agent agreed that these reserves would be excluded from purchase:

    (31) Over the next few years, the Crown negotiated with some of the owners, purchasing all of the Tawhitinui block in 1883. An 88 acre reserve was excluded from the sale:

    (32) Crown agents also negotiated the purchase of the interests of 5 of the grantees of the Rotoitipaku block. Some of the other grantees wrote to the Minister of Native Affairs in December 1882 objecting to the sale. The Crown applied to the Native Land Court to have its interest in the block declared. During the Native Land Court hearing some non-selling grantees opposed the land being sold without the consent of all 10 of the grantees and the backing of their hapū. Despite their objections, the court awarded the southern half of Rotoitipaku to the Crown on 25 June 1883. There was no provision for reserves within the section of Rotoitipaku awarded to the Crown. Members of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) wrote to the Minister of Native Affairs on 25 June 1883, outlining the objections of some Ngāti Tuwharetoa around the Kawerau area and Ngāti Umutahi to the sale and asking to be allowed to return the money advanced by the Government:

    (33) The loss of their traditional lands through confiscation, Crown purchases and other alienations under the native land laws has impacted on the access of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) to resources such as the coast and the swamp that traditionally provided food, medicine, and shelter. They also lost control over some of their urupā and significant sites. Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) state that this has had an ongoing impact on the spiritual and physical relationship of the iwi with the land:

    20th century developments

    (34) From the early 1890s onwards, attempts were made by settlers, with the sanction of the Government, to drain the Rangitaiki swamp area to make it more suitable for farming. The Government took over the local land drainage scheme in 1910 and in 1914 a channel was cut to provide the Rangitaiki River with a direct route to the sea. The physical characteristics of these wetlands were significantly altered by the drainage and river diversion scheme, and this affected Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) wāhi tapu and traditional gathering areas for food and other resources:

    (35) In the 1950s, the Kawerau township and pulp and paper mill were established above the settlement of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty). These developments resulted in the pollution and degradation of the Tarawera River (which was a valuable food and water resource for Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty)) and the Ōkākāru area (which Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) hold to be a historically significant area for healing and recuperation), by urban and industrial waste. The Tasman Pulp and Paper Company Enabling Act 1954 authorised the discharge of waste from the mill into the Tarawera River in accordance with Pollution Advisory Council guidelines:

    (36) With the passing of the Geothermal Energy Act 1953, the Crown established for itself, without the consent of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty), the sole right to the geothermal energy resource. In relation to the Kawerau geothermal field, this has resulted in Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) losing control of and access to geothermal resources in the area:

    The claims of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) and settlement negotiations

    (37) Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) considers that the Crown has breached the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) and caused significant prejudice to the iwi. Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) have sought justice for these alleged Treaty breaches since the raupatu. Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries a number of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) tangata have carried their grievance to the Crown through petitions and in meetings with Crown officials in Kawerau, Matatā, and in Wellington. The failure of the Crown to redress these wrongs has also become a significant grievance for Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty):

    (38) Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) registered their raupatu claim (Wai 62) in 1988, following a 1985 amendment to the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 to allow the hearing of claims back to 1840. The Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) claim was heard by the Waitangi Tribunal at Hāhuru marae and at other venues as part of the Eastern Bay of Plenty hearings during the course of 1994 and 1995. At that time the Waitangi Tribunal recognised the status of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) as an independent group with significant and compelling claims in the eastern Bay of Plenty area. The findings of the Waitangi Tribunal in relation to the Eastern Bay of Plenty hearings were released in October 1999:

    (39) Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) submitted a deed of mandate to the Crown in January 1998 and the Crown recognised the mandate in March 1998. Negotiators were mandated at a hui-a-iwi at Ngāti Umutahi marae, Matatā, and negotiations with the Crown commenced:

    (40) In August 1998, Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) presented the Crown with a detailed statement of all the historical grievances of the iwi prior to 1992 to be addressed alongside the Wai 62 claim. The grievances that Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) presented included the ongoing impact of the raupatu on Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty), subsequent alienation of wrongly confiscated lands, the loss of use, control, and benefits of these lands and resources including waterways. The drainage of the Rangitaiki wetlands, loss of geothermal resource (a key taonga of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty)), and the impact on Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) of the development of the Kawerau township and the pulp and paper industry were also stated to be grievances of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty):

    (41) Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) and the Crown signed terms of negotiation on 8 September 1998 which specified the scope, objectives, and general procedures for negotiations:

    (42) Under the terms of negotiation, the mandated negotiators confirmed to the Crown that they had a mandate to represent Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) in negotiations with the Crown for settlement of all the historical claims:

    (43) Substantive negotiations between the Crown and Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) began in October 1998. These negotiations addressed all the historical grievances raised by Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) including the native land laws, individualisation of title, and public works legislation. The Crown and Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) agreed on the scope of the total redress package in December 2000, and the Crown made a settlement offer in January 2001:

    (44) The Crown and Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) initialled a deed of settlement on 22 October 2002. Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) ratified the Crown’s settlement offer and entered into a deed of settlement on 6 June 2003 recording matters to give effect to a full and final settlement of all the historical claims of Ngāti Tuwharetoa (Bay of Plenty).