Ngāti Apa (North Island) Claims Settlement Act 2010

Reprint as at 20 May 2014

Ngāti Apa (North Island) Claims Settlement Act 2010

Public Act2010 No 129
Date of assent15 December 2010
Commencementsee section 2

Note

Changes authorised by subpart 2 of Part 2 of the Legislation Act 2012 have been made in this official reprint.

Note 4 at the end of this reprint provides a list of the amendments incorporated.

This Act is administered by the Ministry of Justice.


Contents

1 Title

2 Commencement

Part 1
Preliminary matters

Subpart 1Preliminary provisions and acknowledgement and apology

3 Purpose

4 Act binds the Crown

5 Outline

Acknowledgements and apology

6 Acknowledgements and apology

7 Text of acknowledgements

8 Text of apology

Subpart 2Interpretation

9 Interpretation of Act generally

10 Interpretation

11 Meaning of Ngāti Apa (North Island)

12 Meaning of historical claims

Subpart 3Settlement of historical claims

Historical claims settled and jurisdiction of courts, etc, removed

13 Settlement of historical claims final

Amendment to Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975

14 Amendment to Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975

Protections no longer apply

15 Certain enactments do not apply

16 Removal of memorials

Subpart 4Miscellaneous matters

Perpetuities

17 Rule against perpetuities does not apply

Timing of actions or matters

18 Timing of actions or matters

Access to deed of settlement

19 Access to deed of settlement

Part 2
Cultural redress

Subpart 1Protocols

General provisions

20 Authority to issue, amend, or cancel protocols

21 Protocols subject to rights, functions, and obligations

22 Enforceability of protocols

23 Limitation of rights

DOC protocol

24 Noting and effect of DOC protocol

Fisheries protocol

25 Noting and effect of fisheries protocol

Taonga tūturu protocol

26 Effect of taonga tūturu protocol

Subpart 2Statutory acknowledgement and deeds of recognition

Statutory acknowledgement

27 Statutory acknowledgement by the Crown

28 Purposes of statutory acknowledgement

29 Relevant consent authorities to have regard to statutory acknowledgement

30 Environment Court to have regard to statutory acknowledgement

31 Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga and Environment Court to have regard to statutory acknowledgement

32 Recording statutory acknowledgement on statutory plans

33 Resource consent applications must be provided to trustees

34 Use of statutory acknowledgement

35 Trustees may waive rights

36 Application of statutory acknowledgement to river or stream

Deeds of recognition

37 Authorisation to enter into and amend deeds of recognition

General provisions

38 Exercise of powers and performance of duties and functions

39 Rights not affected

40 Limitation of rights

Amendment to Resource Management Act 1991

41 Amendment to Resource Management Act 1991

Subpart 3The Crown not prevented from providing other similar redress

42 The Crown not prevented from providing other similar redress

Subpart 4Cultural redress properties

43 Interpretation

Sites vesting in fee simple

44 Papakainga properties vest in fee simple

45 Pukepuke Lagoon House site

46 Waimahora Stream site

47 Lake Hickson site

48 Lake William site

49 Ruatangata site

50 Lake Ngaruru site

Sites vesting in fee simple to be administered as scenic reserve

51 Lake Koitiata site

52 Mōtū Karaka

53 Pākiki

Site vesting in fee simple to be administered as recreation reserve

54 Marton Golf Course

Sites vesting in fee simple to be controlled and managed by local authority

55 Pakapakatea

56 Waitapu

Subpart 5General provisions relating to vesting of cultural redress properties

57 Properties vest subject to, or together with, encumbrances

58 Registration of ownership

59 Application of Part 4A of Conservation Act 1987

60 Recording application of Part 4A of Conservation Act 1987 and sections of this Act

61 Application of Reserves Act 1977 to reserve sites

62 Subsequent transfer of reserve land

63 Application of other enactments

64 Application of certain payments

Subpart 6Place names

65 Interpretation

66 New official geographic name

67 Publication of new official geographic name

68 Alteration of new official geographic name

69 When new official geographic name takes effect

70 New reserve name

Part 3
Commercial redress

Subpart 1Transfer of commercial redress properties

71 Transfer of commercial redress properties

72 Registrar-General to create computer freehold register for deferred selection property

73 Registrar-General to create computer freehold registers for Whanganui (Kaitoke) Prison

74 Registrar-General to create computer freehold register for land subject to single Crown forestry licence

75 Authorised person may grant covenant for later creation of computer freehold register

76 Application of other enactments

Subpart 2Settlement licensed land

77 Settlement licensed land ceases to be Crown forest land

78 Trustees confirmed beneficiaries and licensors in relation to settlement licensed land

79 Effect of transfer of settlement licensed land

80 Public access to settlement licensed land

81 Public right of way easement may be granted

Subpart 3Unlicensed Crown forest land

82 Unlicensed Crown forest land

Subpart 4Access to protected sites

83 Meaning of protected site

84 Right of access to protected site

85 Right of access subject to Crown forestry licence

86 Registrar-General must note right of access

87 Limitations on application of subpart

Schedule 1
Statutory areas

Schedule 2
Cultural redress properties

Reprint notes


  • Preamble

    Background

    (1) The Treaty of Waitangi was signed in 1840. The terms of the Treaty of Waitangi in English and Māori are set out in Schedule 1 of the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975:

    (2) Recitals (3) to (40) of this Preamble present, in summary form, the background to the Ngāti Apa (North Island) historical claims and the historical account that are set out in the Deed of Settlement entered into by Ngāti Apa (North Island) and the Crown:

    Early engagement, 1840–1848

    (3) At 1840, Ngāti Apa (North Island) in the Rangitikei–Manawatū area had land interests stretching from Mōtū Karaka (about midway between the Whanganui and Whangaehu Rivers) south to Omarupapako (just north of the Manawatū River) and inland to the upper Rangitikei area. A number of neighbouring iwi also had interests in parts of this area. In the 1820s and 1830s, Ngāti Apa (North Island) and neighbouring iwi had experienced disruption as a result of movement by other tribes into and through their area during the musket wars. During the 1840s, Ngāti Apa (North Island) sought to obtain the material benefits that European settlement could bring by entering into land transactions and establishing a close relationship with the Crown:

    (4) The first major engagement between Ngāti Apa (North Island) and the Crown took place on 21 May 1840, when 3 members of Ngāti Apa (North Island) signed the Treaty of Waitangi at Tawhirihoe pā, a Ngāti Apa kainga near the mouth of the Rangitikei River:

    (5) Governor Hobson had promised, both when he arrived in New Zealand and during the Treaty debates, that the Crown would inquire into all existing land transactions between Māori and Pākeha settlers, and that any lands unjustly held would be returned to Māori. In 1839–1840, the New Zealand Company, which was formed to bring settlers to New Zealand, entered into a transaction to acquire a large area of land in the Whanganui region from local Māori. This purported purchase covered part of Ngāti Apa (North Island)'s tribal area, but they were not involved in the transaction:

    (6) In 1842, the New Zealand Company registered with the Government a claim for a smaller area, including part of Ngāti Apa (North Island)'s tribal area. The Crown appointed Land Claims Commissioner William Spain to begin investigating the Company’s Whanganui claim and make recommendations. Spain concluded in 1844 that a partial purchase had been made, and recommended that the Company be awarded a block of 40 000-acres, which included some of Ngāti Apa (North Island)'s land interests. He recommended that Māori be paid £1,000 to complete the transaction. Spain was aware that Ngāti Apa (North Island) potentially had interests in the Whanganui block, but there is no record of how he considered their interests, and he did not recognise these in his final report:

    (7) In 1846, the Crown attempted to complete the purchase of the Whanganui block in order to secure land for European settlement. Police Inspector Donald McLean, who was appointed to assist with the Whanganui negotiations, noted that it was most astonishing that William Spain and his staff had not reported that Ngāti Apa (North Island) had considerable interests in this block, and thought Ngāti Apa (North Island) would require a large payment for their interests. After meeting with Ngāti Apa (North Island) at Whangaehu, McLean noted that the rangatira Aperahama Tipae was most indignant at not having been consulted during previous attempts to purchase the land. Nevertheless, he negotiated hard with Ngāti Apa (North Island) to secure their consent to the Whanganui purchase in return for a small share of the payment Spain had recommended be made to Māori for their land. McLean described the land in which Ngāti Apa (North Island) had interests as containing the finest land in the whole district. He wrote in his diary that he was unusually independent with Ngāti Apa (North Island) in his approach to negotiating with them. However, the purchase was not completed in 1846 after negotiations with another iwi broke down:

    (8) In 1848, McLean completed the Whanganui purchase. Despite Spain's recommendation to the Crown that it pay Māori £1,000 for 40 000-acres, McLean negotiated the sale of a larger 86 200 acre area at the same price of £1,000. Ngāti Apa (North Island) were allocated £100 of the purchase money. Three reserves were set aside for Ngāti Apa (North Island), including over 2 200-acres at Waikupa and 2 smaller reserves at Te Marangai and Omanaia:

    Rangitikei–Turakina transaction, 1849

    (9) Ngāti Apa (North Island) negotiated a number of informal lease arrangements with Pākeha settlers from the mid-1840s, including several south of the Rangitikei River. In 1848, during the negotiations over the Whanganui purchase, Ngāti Apa (North Island) offered a large area of land in the Whangaehu and Turakina districts to the Crown. Ngāti Apa (North Island) rangatira spoke of a desire to form close relationships with European settlers. In September 1848, Aperahama Tipae wrote to Governor Grey asking that there be many Pākeha for me, a multitude, so that my kainga be full. Similarly, the prominent Ngāti Apa (North Island) rangatira Kawana Te Hakeke stated that his considerations in offering to sell land were the same as those of his elders before him, namely to ensure the security and nurturing of his people:

    (10) The Government was eager to purchase land in this area to open it up for settlement and pastoral development, exercising its right of pre-emption under the Treaty of Waitangi. It also wanted to extend British influence among Māori in this area, and to cultivate allies among the leading chiefs along the west coast of the lower North Island:

    (11) In January 1849, Donald McLean, who was now a Crown purchase agent, began negotiations with Ngāti Apa (North Island) for the acquisition of land between the Rangitikei and Whangaehu rivers. McLean and Ngāti Apa (North Island) met frequently over a period of more than 3 months. The precise content of these discussions is unclear. The only written record of negotiations is the diary kept by McLean at the time. There was some debate over the extent of land to be included in the purchase. In April 1849, when McLean travelled to Mangawhero on the northern banks of the Whangaehu River, Ngāti Apa (North Island) accompanied him as he laid down the purchase boundary to include all the land worth acquiring in the neighbourhood. A deed was signed for the Rangitikei–Turakina block on 15 May 1849. The deed described the inland boundary as extending as far inland as Ngāti Apa's interior claims extended. The precise delineation of the boundary on the ground was not finally settled between the Government, Ngāti Apa (North Island), and other iwi until 1850. The deed covered almost 260 000-acres between the Rangitikei River and Mōtū Karaka, on the northern side of the Whangaehu River. The deed set aside several land reserves for Ngāti Apa (North Island), totalling approximately 38 000-acres:

    (12) The parties agreed on a price of £2,500 for the block (a little under 2 pence per acre). The Crown's land purchase policy at the time was generally to acquire land as cheaply as possible, in the belief that Māori would reap substantial economic advantages from the growth of European settlement around them. Crown agents frequently used this argument to encourage Māori to sell land cheaply. The Government intended to use its profits from the onsale of land to promote European settlement, finance infrastructure, and provide some direct benefits to Māori. Such expenditure would form the real payments for their lands. Although the purchase price of £2,500 was much lower than Ngāti Apa (North Island)'s initial request for this land, Ngāti Apa (North Island) agreed to the transaction because they wished to obtain various benefits from the establishment of a European settlement in their vicinity, including peace, protection, and prosperity. In March 1849, one rangatira said, We have married our land to the Europeans and entirely given our greatest property to the Europeans:

    (13) In the negotiations over reserves, some Ngāti Apa (North Island) asked for reserves relating to hapū land holdings. McLean did not agree to all of the reserves that Ngāti Apa (North Island) hapū initially asked for, some of which he described as extravagant and unnecessary. Instead, he negotiated for the creation of a large reserve of around 35 000-acres between the Whangaehu and Turakina rivers. This area would be set aside as a place for all the members of the Ngātiapa tribe to collect and settle on. As such, it was not solely intended for those hapū who had previously occupied the area. Traditionally, hapū derived rights to land in a number of ways, including ancestral association and occupation. The tribal reserve agreed to in the deed changed Ngāti Apa (North Island)'s previous land-holding arrangements, effectively requiring some sections of Ngāti Apa to accept members of other hapū onto their customary lands. McLean reported to his superiors that the size and location of the Whangaehu–Turakina reserve would make it sufficient and desirable for the eventual settlement of the whole tribe. He later advised that any alienation of this land by way of leases to European farmers would seriously injure their future welfare and prosperity:

    (14) Two smaller reserves were set aside near Ngāti Apa (North Island) kainga at Parewanui and Turakina, of 1 600 and 900-acres respectively. It is unclear whether these reserves were intended to be hapū reserves, with ownership based on ancestry and occupation, or tribal reserves for the general benefit of all Ngāti Apa (North Island), like the Whangaehu–Turakina lands. The deed also established a reserve at the small spot where Te Kawana Hakeke was buried, and provided for Ngāti Apa (North Island) to fish and take eels from the lagoons and other places that have not been (are not) drained by the Europeans. McLean promised verbally during the negotiations that Ngāti Apa (North Island) could continue bird snaring on the land they had sold so long as this did not interfere with the operations of the settlers:

    (15) Ngāti Apa (North Island) and the Crown viewed the Rangitikei–Turakina transaction as important not only for the transfer of land, but also for the forming of new political relationships and the future development of Ngāti Apa (North Island). At the signing of the deed, Aperahama Tipae stated that Ngāti Apa (North Island) would look up to the Governors as their guardians, and were now closely united with Europeans as their friends. McLean's official report of the deed signing described Ngāti Apa (North Island) as a rude, uncultivated race, whose improvement as a tribe has hitherto been much neglected. While he predicted that settlers would encounter initial difficulties with the tribe, McLean thought the “increasing knowledge” and improved circumstances of Ngāti Apa (North Island) following from the cession of their land and their contact with settlers would soon bring about a perfectly amicable understanding between them and the settler population. Ngāti Apa (North Island) subsequently spent £800 of the purchase money on agricultural implements, livestock, and clothing. In 1851, McLean noted that they were living on most friendly terms with their English neighbours. The following year, when the final instalment of purchase money was paid for the block, Ngāti Apa (North Island) signed a deed receipt in which they promised to fully unite with and protect the Europeans who are living with us on our lands. In 1854, Ngāti Apa (North Island) rangatira presented prized mere and other taonga to a missionary to give to the Queen as a symbol of their loyalty to the Crown:

    Ngāti Apa (North Island)–Crown relationship, 1850–1866

    (16) Ngāti Apa (North Island) did not take part directly in any further land transactions with the Crown in the 1850s. In 1859, they were gifted part of the purchase money from a transaction between the Crown and another iwi for the Awahou block, on the southern boundary of their tribal area:

    (17) Ngāti Apa (North Island) were mostly supportive of the settler Government during the 1860s, by which time tension over Crown land purchasing was widespread amongst North Island Māori. In 1860, members of Ngāti Apa (North Island) spoke in support of the Governor at the Kohimarama Conference, a large gathering at which Crown and iwi representatives met to discuss issues relating to land sales, law and order, and the Treaty of Waitangi. Kawana Hunia and some of his Rangitikei followers supported the Kingitanga in the early 1860s. However, this chief and 61 Ngāti Apa (North Island) fought alongside Crown forces in the New Zealand Wars in 1865:

    (18) From the mid-1860s, there were strong disputes among iwi of the Rangitikei–Manawatū region in relation to leasing revenues, and the nature of the land interests held by the various groups. In 1866, the iwi agreed to resolve these disputes by selling the land between the Rangitikei and Manawatū rivers to the Crown. The Crown paid £25,000 for this 241 000-acre block, with £10,000 going to Ngāti Apa (North Island). Ngāti Apa (North Island) received 4 000 of the approximately 24 000-acres of land reserves set aside in this transaction. They later protested, in 1899, that they had wanted to reserve a larger portion of the block:

    (19) Once again, at the signing of the purchase deed, Ngāti Apa (North Island) affirmed their desire for positive relationships with settlers and their loyalty to the Crown. The Rangitikei–Manawatū transaction was specifically excluded from new native land laws introduced by the Crown in the early 1860s:

    Introduction of native land laws

    (20) Under the Native Land Acts of 1862 and 1865, the Crown established the Native Land Court to determine the owners of Māori land according to Native Custom and to convert customary title into title derived from the Crown. The Native Land Acts also set aside the Crown’s pre-emptive right of land purchase, to give individual Māori named as owners by the Court the same rights as Pākeha to lease and sell their lands to private parties as well as the Crown:

    (21) The Native Land Acts introduced a significant change to the native land tenure system. Customary tenure was able to accommodate the multiple and overlapping interests of different iwi and hapū to the same piece of land. The Court was not designed to accommodate the complex and fluid customary land usages of Māori within its processes, because it assigned permanent ownership. In addition, land rights under customary tenure were generally communal but the new land laws gave land rights to individuals:

    Status of Ngāti Apa (North Island) reserves from the Rangitikei–Turakina transaction

    (22) From 1867, members of Ngāti Apa (North Island) sought titles for their reserves from the Rangitikei–Turakina purchase through the Native Land Court. The Crown and Ngāti Apa (North Island) had agreed in the 1849 deed that the 35 000 acre reserve between the Whangaehu and Turakina rivers was to be “for all the members of the Ngātiapa tribe to collect and settle on”:

    (23) The first reserve block to come before the Native Land Court was decided on the basis of the 1849 deed. This was the 8 650 acre Ruatangata block, which the Court, in 1867, awarded to Aperahama Tipae in trust for all of Ngāti Apa (North Island). However, in the years that followed the Court began awarding title to blocks from within the general reserve to hapū and individuals who could demonstrate ancestral and customary interests in the area. In practice, this meant that many Ngāti Apa (North Island) from south of the Whangaehu–Turakina area were excluded from ownership of the tribal reserve lands:

    (24) Over the next 2 decades there was considerable tension within Ngāti Apa (North Island) over the basis on which the Court was awarding title to the reserves. Some relied on the provision in the 1849 deed that the Whangaehu–Turakina lands were to be a tribal reserve, while others sought titles based on their ancestral and occupation interests in the block:

    (25) The Native Reserves Act 1873 introduced a new regime over lands reserved from Crown purchases. This led to doubt about whether the Native Land Court continued to have jurisdiction to investigate title to the reserves. As a result, the Native Land Court referred the question of jurisdiction over the Maputahi No 2 block to the Supreme Court. In February 1882, the Supreme Court ruled that Maputahi No 2 and other blocks in the Whangaehu–Turakina Reserve were outside the jurisdiction of the Native Land Court. Some Ngāti Apa (North Island) then petitioned Parliament to overturn this decision, while at least one Ngāti Apa (North Island) rangatira urged the Government to uphold the Court’s ruling in order to maintain the tribal reserve:

    (26) In September 1882, within months of the Supreme Court decision, Parliament passed urgent legislation to place the Whangaehu–Turakina Reserve within the Native Land Court’s jurisdiction. Ngāti Apa (North Island) reserves at Parewanui and Turakina were given similar status. The Native Land Court awarded all subsequent titles to the Ngāti Apa (North Island) reserves on the basis of ancestry and occupation, in spite of continued protest from sections of Ngāti Apa (North Island) about the provisions of the 1849 deed:

    (27) During the 1870s, some members of Ngāti Apa (North Island) began to show concern about the sale of reserve lands. In 1871, members of Ngāti Apa (North Island) resolved to permanently set aside a large tract of land between the Whanganui and Turakina rivers as a safeguard against future landlessness. Five years later, in 1876, Ngāti Apa (North Island) rangatira Aperahama Tahunuiarangi petitioned Parliament about the insufficiency of the reserves created for him and his tribe as a result of earlier Crown purchases. Parliament took no action. Despite the concerns of Tahunuiarangi and others the reserve lands of Ngāti Apa (North Island) began to be gradually alienated from the 1870s. In 1908, the Stout–Ngata Commission recommended that the remaining land in the Whangaehu–Turakina reserve, as well as Māori land within the original Rangitikei–Turakina block, be reserved for Māori occupation. However, the majority of this land was alienated before 1920 and more still by the mid-20th century:

    General impact of native land laws, 1867–1909

    (28) Native Land Court hearings sometimes resulted in significant financial and social costs for Māori communities. In some cases, survey charges and other costs involved in securing title through the Native Land Court were considerable. There were some instances after 1872 of Ngāti Apa (North Island) incurring considerable accommodation, food, and legal costs attending hearings which were sometimes held outside their tribal area. Ngāti Apa (North Island) also sometimes experienced hardships relating to cold, hunger, disease, and alcohol:

    (29) There was opposition within Ngāti Apa (North Island) to the operation of the Native Land Court as well as to the alienation of their lands. In the 1870s, some Ngāti Apa (North Island) joined the Hawke’s Bay-based Repudiation Movement. At a Repudiation Movement hui at Pakowhai in 1876, several Ngāti Apa (North Island) chiefs called for the abolition of the Native Land Court and an end to land sales. Ngāti Apa (North Island) also demonstrated a desire to settle land disputes among their own tribal komiti (committees) and for their decisions to be supported by the Government. Komiti, such as Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Apa, had earlier succeeded in balancing competing interests and settling disputes in regards to some Ngāti Apa (North Island) lands before they came before the Native Land Court. While some awards reflected decisions that had been made within Ngāti Apa (North Island), the Court did not always take into account the wishes of komiti, especially if there were objections by others to the komiti’s submissions:

    (30) Ngāti Apa (North Island) were not always awarded title to the lands they claimed. In 1879, Ngāti Apa (North Island) disagreed with the Court’s decision to exclude them from the title to the 104 000-acre Otamakapua block. Native land legislation at this time did not provide for an appellate court but did provide for Māori who disagreed with a court finding to apply to the Government to order a rehearing. Consequently, Ngāti Apa (North Island) applied to the Government for a rehearing. One of the judges who heard the original title application wrote a memorandum for the Chief Judge of the Native Land Court, recommending that the application be rejected. The Chief Judge passed the memorandum on to the Government and endorsed the advice within it. The Minister of Native Affairs concurred with this advice. In 1885, the Chief Judge told Parliament's Native Affairs Committee that he regarded the lack of an appellate court as an imperfection in the native land laws. An appellate court was not established until 1894:

    (31) The rules of succession as applied by the Court saw an increasing number of individuals placed on titles to increasingly fragmented blocks. Native Land Court awards were made in the names of individuals, and while Ngāti Apa (North Island) managed to retain some of the land blocks awarded to them, over time interests in land were often individualised and partitioned. Crowded titles, indebtedness, and the difficulties of accessing development capital may have left some owners with few other options but to sell:

    Alienation of land, 1867–1909

    (32) In addition to sales of some Ngāti Apa (North Island) reserves, almost 140 000-acres of Ngāti Apa (North Island) lands were alienated to the Crown or settlers between 1867 and 1909. Crown purchases accounted for 73% of the land alienation in this period, including 2 transactions that totalled in excess of 75 000-acres. The Government’s method of negotiating for land before 1879 frequently involved the payment of advances to Māori prior to determination of title:

    (33) In November 1899, over 200 members of Ngāti Apa (North Island) hosted a meeting with Premier Richard Seddon and other Government ministers at Turakina. Ngāti Apa (North Island) told Seddon that, despite the provision in the 1849 deed that their fishing rights would cease if their fisheries were drained by settlers, their parents had not appreciated that such things could be affected. They also told Seddon that they had not understood that the Europeans were capable of felling their forests. Ngāti Apa (North Island) asked for the remaining lakes and swamps to be reserved, and also requested compensation for the previous drainages:

    (34) Ngāti Apa (North Island) argued in their meeting with Seddon that the lands they had sold to the Crown were fertile, valuable, and yielded considerable taxes and profit to the Government. They asked Seddon to pass an Act to restrict the remaining Ngāti Apa (North Island) lands from being sold, mortgaged, or seized for debt, in order to prevent the iwi from becoming landless. No such legislation was passed:

    Twentieth century

    (35) Ngāti Apa (North Island) lands continued to be alienated in the 20th century. Following the passage of the Native Land Act 1909, which removed all alienation restrictions on land titles awarded by the Native Land Court, the Aotea Māori Land Board approved individuals’ requests to sell their land. Some of these sales were prompted by the accumulation of debt:

    (36) In 1907, some Ngāti Apa (North Island) gifted 2-acres of land at Kauangaroa to the Crown for the establishment of a native school. A school was not established at the site until 1929, despite numerous requests from Ngāti Apa (North Island) in the intervening period:

    (37) In the early 20th century, many Ngāti Apa (North Island) were attracted to spiritual leaders and movements. The first of these leaders was the Ngāti Apa (North Island) spiritual healer and prophetess Mere Rikiriki. Her followers showed concerns about their loss of land and mana. Following the First World War, many of Ngāti Apa were also drawn to the spiritual and political leader Tahupotiki Wiremu Ratana, whose tribal origins included Ngāti Apa (North Island). From the early 1920s, the Ratana Movement began campaigning for pan-tribal political objectives, including the ratification of the Treaty of Waitangi. Ratana and his followers took their concerns across the world. In 1924, Ratana and a number of his followers, including some Ngāti Apa (North Island), attempted to present a petition to King George V of Great Britain, but they were refused an audience:

    (38) From the 1920s, the Government sought to assist Māori to develop their remaining lands into viable economic units. A development scheme was created in 1937 for Ngāti Apa (North Island) lands near the Whangaehu River, but the scheme was wound up in the early 1950s, encumbered with debt:

    (39) After World War II, many members of Ngāti Apa (North Island) moved away from their tribal lands to urban areas, part of a national trend in which economic opportunities appeared to be better in urban areas than in rural areas. In 1962, the Department of Māori Affairs was pursuing a policy of providing housing in Whanganui and evacuating families from Kauangaroa. The department was trying to encourage Māori to move from remote rural areas to urban districts where more employment and better social amenities existed:

    (40) Over the second half of the 20th century, Ngāti Apa (North Island) became even more disconnected from their tribal lands. The last house in Ngāti Apa (North Island)'s traditional kainga at Parewanui was demolished in the 1960s. One rangatira was to remark around the same time that Ngāti Apa (North Island) was practically landless. Today, Ngāti Apa (North Island) own less than 1% of their traditional lands:

The Parliament of New Zealand therefore enacts as follows: