Summary Proceedings Amendment Act 2011

Reprint
as at 1 August 2012

Coat of Arms of New Zealand

Summary Proceedings Amendment Act 2011

Public Act2011 No 32
Date of assent22 July 2011
Commencementsee section 2

Note

Changes authorised by section 17C of the Acts and Regulations Publication Act 1989 have been made in this reprint.

A general outline of these changes is set out in the notes at the end of this reprint, together with other explanatory material about this reprint.

This Act is administered by the Ministry of Justice.


Contents

1 Title

2 Commencement

3 Principal Act amended

4 Interpretation

5 Summary procedure for infringement offences

6 New section 23A inserted

7 Mode of service of documents on defendant

8 Power to correct irregularities in proceedings for infringement offences

9 New section 78C inserted

10 New sections 79 to 79D and heading substituted

11 Further amendments to principal Act relating to service

12 Fines generally payable within 28 days

13 New section 81 substituted

14 New section 82 substituted

15 Order for immediate payment of fine

16 New section 84 substituted

17 Section 85 repealed

18 New sections 86 to 86H substituted

19 New section 87 substituted

20 Power to obtain information in respect of beneficiaries

21 Publication of name of fines defaulter

22 Deduction of fines

23 Offences in relation to deduction notices

24 Penalty for late deductions

25 New sections 88 to 88AG substituted

26 Consequential and related amendments arising from substitution of new sections 88 to 88AG in principal Act

27 New sections 88A and 88B substituted

28 Scale of imprisonment for non-payment of fine

29 New section 91 substituted

30 Effect of warrant of commitment

31 New heading and sections 92A to 92I inserted

32 New headings and sections 93 to 100T substituted

Written cautions in case of certain traffic fines

Seizure, release, and sale of property

33 Protection of Registrar, bailiff, etc

34 Effect of attachment order

35 Power to obtain information in respect of employers

36 New section 105 substituted

37 Liability of employer

38 Section 106A substituted

39 Extent to which attachment orders bind the Crown

40 New sections 106E and 106EA substituted

41 Review of Registrar's decision

42 Provision as to issue of warrant pending appeal

43 No action against Justice unless act in excess of jurisdiction or without jurisdiction

44 New section 209A inserted

45 Rules and regulations

46 Further consequential amendments to principal Act

47 Transitional provisions relating to pre-commencement fines and warrants

Schedule 1
Amendments consequential on amendments to Summary Proceedings Act 1957 relating to service

Schedule 2
Consequential and related amendments arising from substitution of new sections 88 to 88AG in Summary Proceedings Act 1957

Schedule 3
Further amendments to Summary Proceedings Act 1957


The Parliament of New Zealand enacts as follows:

1 Title
  • This Act is the Summary Proceedings Amendment Act 2011.

2 Commencement
  • (1) The following provisions come into force on the day after the date on which this Act receives the Royal assent:

    • (c) section 27 (but only to the extent that it relates to section 88B of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957):

    • (d) section 31 (but only to the extent that it relates to section 92I of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957):

    (2) The rest of this Act comes into force on a date appointed by the Governor-General by Order in Council, and 1 or more orders may be made bringing different provisions into force on different dates.

    (3) Any provisions of this Act that are not in force on the expiry of the period of 15 months that starts on the date on which this Act receives the Royal assent come into force (despite subsection (2)) on that expiry.

    Section 2(2): sections 4, 6, 10–16, 18–26, 27 (but only to the extent that it relates to section 88A of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957), 28–30, 31 (except as it relates to section 92I of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957), 32–40, 41(2), 42–44, 46, 47, and Schedules 1, 2, and 3 brought into force, on 13 February 2012, by the Summary Proceedings Amendment Act 2011 Commencement Order 2011 (SR 2011/394).

    Section 2(2): sections 5, 7–9, and 41(1) brought into force, on 1 August 2012, by the Summary Proceedings Amendment Act 2011 Commencement Order 2012 (SR 2012/133).

3 Principal Act amended
4 Interpretation
  • Section 2(1) is amended by inserting the following definition in its appropriate alphabetical order:

    Police employee has the same meaning as in section 4 of the Policing Act 2008.

5 Summary procedure for infringement offences
  • (1) Section 21(3A) is amended by omitting the defendant to pay the infringement fee in each place where it appears and substituting in each case the infringement fee to be paid.

    (2) Section 21(3C)(a) is amended by omitting the defendant to pay the infringement fee and substituting the infringement fee to be paid.

    (3) Section 21 is amended by repealing subsections (5) and (5A) and substituting the following subsections:

    • (5) If,—

      • (a) under subsection (3), particulars of a reminder notice are provided before the close of the date that is 6 months after the date on which the infringement offence is alleged to have been committed; and

      • (b) those particulars are verified under subsection (4B),—

      then the court in which the reminder notice is deemed, by subsection (4C), to have been filed is also deemed to have made an order (as if on the determination of an information in respect of the offence) that the defendant pay a fine equal to the amount of the infringement fee then remaining unpaid for the offence together with costs of the prescribed amount.

    • (5A) If,—

      • (a) under subsection (3D), particulars of a reminder notice are provided before the close of the date that is 12 months after the date on which the infringement offence is alleged to have been committed; and

      • (b) those particulars are verified under subsection (4B),—

      then the court in which the reminder notice is deemed, by subsection (4C), to have been filed is also deemed to have made an order (as if on the determination of an information in respect of the offence) that the defendant pay a fine equal to the amount of the infringement fee then remaining unpaid for the offence together with costs of the prescribed amount.

6 New section 23A inserted
  • The following section is inserted above section 24:

    23A Service of documents: sections 24 to 29 not to apply to Part 3
    • Sections 24 to 29 do not apply to any summons or other document required to be served under Part 3; sections 79A to 79D apply instead.

7 Mode of service of documents on defendant
  • Section 24(1) is amended by repealing paragraph (d) and substituting the following paragraphs:

    • (d) in the case of a notice relating to an infringement offence or a minor offence as defined in section 20A(12), by being sent by letter by ordinary post addressed to the defendant at the defendant's last known place of residence or business; or

    • (e) in the case of a notice relating to an infringement offence required to be served on a defendant who does not have a known place of residence in New Zealand but has a known electronic address, by being sent to the defendant at that address in electronic form:.

8 Power to correct irregularities in proceedings for infringement offences
  • (1) Section 78B(1)(a) is amended by omitting , whether on the basis of a statutory declaration or evidence given before the Judge, and substituting on the basis of information provided with the application.

    (2) Section 78B(1)(a) is amended by repealing subparagraph (ii) and substituting the following subparagraphs:

    • (ii) the defendant (not being a defendant who, under section 78C(1) or (3), is ineligible to rely on this ground) did not in fact receive the reminder notice required to have been served on the defendant under section 21; or

    • (iia) the defendant did not in fact receive a copy of the notice of hearing required to have been served on the defendant under section 21; or.

    (3) Section 78B(1)(a) is amended by adding the following subparagraph:

    • (viii) the defendant paid the infringement fee to the informant at the address specified in the infringement notice before or within 28 days after service on the defendant of a reminder notice in respect of the offence to which the notice relates; or.

    (4) Section 78B is amended by inserting the following subsections after subsection (1):

    • (1A) No more than 1 application, made in reliance on the ground stated in subsection (1)(a)(ii), may be granted in respect of the same defendant for the same infringement offence.

    • (1B) An application under subsection (1) may be made—

      • (a) in writing in a form approved under section 209A; or

      • (b) electronically in a manner approved by the chief executive of the Ministry of Justice.

    • (1C) An application under subsection (1) may be—

      • (a) made to any Court; and

      • (b) considered in another Court besides the one to which it is made.

    (5) Section 78B(2)(c) is amended by inserting if both parties agree, after immediately.

    (6) Section 78B is amended by repealing subsection (4) and substituting the following subsections:

    • (4) A Registrar may not exercise the power conferred by subsection (2)(d) except where the application is made under subsection (1)(a)(viii) or (1)(b).

    • (4A) A Judge or Registrar must deal with an application under subsection (1) on the papers unless the Judge or Registrar considers that a hearing is necessary.

    • (4B) While an application under subsection (1) is pending,—

      • (a) no warrant, order, or notice may be issued or take effect to enforce the order to which that application relates; and

      • (b) the Registrar must take appropriate steps to ensure that the order is not acted on.

    • (4C) Despite subsection (4B), if, before an application under subsection (1) is made, any property has been seized under a warrant to seize property to enforce the order to which that application relates,—

      • (a) any seized property that has not been sold, assigned, applied, released, or otherwise disposed of must be retained under section 100B(3) while the application is pending; or

      • (b) if the seized property has been sold but the proceeds of sale have not been applied in accordance with section 100N or 100R, the proceeds must be retained while the application is pending.

    • (4D) If the order to which the application relates continues in effect after the application is determined or is discontinued, the property must be dealt with, and any fees and costs payable under an enactment in respect of the property are payable, as if the application had not been made.

    • (4E) If, on the determination of the application, the order is set aside or ceases to have effect in accordance with subsection (5), the owner—

      • (a) is entitled to—

        • (i) the return of the property if the property has been retained in accordance with subsection (4C)(a); or

        • (ii) the proceeds of any sale if the proceeds have been retained in accordance with subsection (4C)(b); and

      • (b) is not liable for any fees and costs payable under an enactment in respect of the property.

    • (4F) In any case where a Judge or Registrar gives a direction authorising the service of a reminder notice or a copy of a reminder notice under subsection (2)(a) or (b) (a new reminder notice) in replacement of, or by reference to, a previous reminder notice, then—

      • (a) section 21(3)(b), (3D)(b), and (10)(a), if applicable to the case, apply as if the reference to the date of service of the reminder notice were a reference to the date of the direction by the Judge or Registrar; and

      • (b) section 21(3B), (5)(a), (5A)(a), and (8)(d), if applicable to the case, apply as if the reference to the time when the offence is alleged to have been committed were a reference to the date of the direction by the Judge or Registrar.

    • (4G) If, under subsection (2)(b), a Judge or Registrar authorises the informant to serve on the defendant a new reminder notice, the defendant may not give notice requesting a hearing in respect of the infringement offence to which the notice relates if the Registrar is satisfied that the notice was filed following the defendant's default in paying 1 or more instalments under an arrangement entered into under section 21(3A) or (3C)(a).

    • (4H) If, under subsection (2)(d), an order is set aside following an application made by the informant under subsection (1)(b), the setting aside is not a bar to any other proceedings in the same matter.

9 New section 78C inserted
  • The following section is inserted after section 78B:

    78C Certain defendants ineligible to rely on non-receipt of reminder notice
    • (1) A defendant is not eligible to rely, under section 78B(1)(a)(ii), on the ground that the defendant did not in fact receive a reminder notice if the Registrar is satisfied that the defendant was personally served with the infringement notice to which the reminder notice relates.

      (2) However, even though a defendant has been personally served with an infringement notice relating to an infringement offence, subsection (1) does not apply to the defendant if the defendant—

      • (a) has entered into an arrangement, under section 21(3A) or (3C)(a), in respect of that infringement offence; and

      • (b) following a default in the payment of 1 or more instalments under that arrangement, has been served by ordinary post with a reminder notice in respect of that infringement offence.

      (3) In the case of an infringement notice issued for an owner liability offence, the defendant is not eligible to rely on the ground stated in section 78B(1)(a)(ii) unless the Registrar is satisfied that, at the date of the commission of that offence, the defendant complied or was not responsible for complying with any applicable obligations imposed on the defendant by Part 17 of the Land Transport Act 1998 and any regulations made under that Act in respect of the motor vehicle to which the infringement notice relates.

      (4) The Registrar must be satisfied of the matters referred to in subsection (3) on the basis of documentary evidence of a kind approved by the Registrar.

      (5) In this section, owner liability offence means an offence referred to in section 41A of the Transport Act 1962 or section 133 of the Land Transport Act 1998.

10 New sections 79 to 79D and heading substituted
  • Section 79 is repealed and the following sections and heading are substituted:

    79 Interpretation
    • (1) In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires,—

      amount of reparation or reparation means—

      • (a) any amount that is required to be paid under a sentence of reparation; or

      • (b) any amount that is required to be paid under an order of reparation

      chief executive means the chief executive of the Ministry of Justice

      default balance means the amount owed by a defendant in respect of 1 or more overdue fines

      employer includes, in relation to payments of the kind referred to in this section in the definition of salary or wages, the person or body making the payments

      fine

      • (a) includes any amount of money, or any part of an amount of money, that a person is obliged to pay under a sentence or an order imposed by a court, whether that amount is described as a fine or as costs, levies, expenses, fees, reparation, or otherwise; and

      • (b) includes any offender levy and any prescribed costs, expenses, or fees payable in respect of the enforcement of an obligation to pay any amount of money, or any part of an amount of money, described in paragraph (a); but

      • (c) does not include any amount of money ordered to be paid in a civil proceeding

      hire purchase agreement means—

      • (a) an agreement under which goods are let or hired with an option to purchase, however the agreement describes the payments, under which the person who agrees to purchase the goods is given possession of them before the total amount payable has been paid:

      • (b) an agreement for the purchase of goods by instalment payments, however the agreement describes the payments, under which the person who agrees to purchase the goods is given possession of them before the total amount payable has been paid

      imposed, in relation to a fine, includes ordered and deemed to be ordered

      impoundment costs, in relation to a motor vehicle that has been seized while impounded under section 96 or 96A of the Land Transport Act 1998, means the fees and charges for towage and storage that are prescribed or assessed in the manner specified by regulations made under section 167 of that Act, and, where those fees and charges have already been paid by the chief executive, means the amount required to reimburse the chief executive for that payment

      interest means any proprietary interest, whether legal or equitable, and whether vested or contingent

      lease does not include a hire purchase agreement or a rental service agreement to which the holder of a rental service licence under the Land Transport Act 1998 is a party

      negotiable instrument has the same meaning as in section 16 of the Personal Property Securities Act 1999

      offender levy means a levy imposed under section 105B of the Sentencing Act 2002

      order of reparation means—

      • (a) an order made under section 106, 108, or 110 of the Sentencing Act 2002; or

      • (b) an order made in respect of a child, or any parent or guardian of that child, under section 84(1)(b) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act 1989; or

      • (c) an order made in respect of a young person, or any parent or guardian of that young person, under section 283(f) or (g) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act 1989; or

      • (d) an order that—

        • (i) requires the payment of any amount as compensation or restitution to the victim of an offence against any enactment; and

        • (ii) is declared by the Governor-General, by Order in Council, to be an order of reparation for the purposes of this Part

      overdue, in relation to a fine, means—

      • (a) that the fine has, in breach of the provisions of an enactment or the terms of a sentence, an order, or a direction, not been paid in full within the time provided or fixed by the enactment, sentence, order, or direction; and

      • (b) that the defendant's obligation to pay the fine has not been resolved

      person who is registered, in relation to a motor vehicle, means the person who is registered under the Land Transport Act 1998 in respect of the vehicle, and where several persons are so registered, means any one of those persons

      property includes money and negotiable instruments

      resolved, in relation to a defendant's obligation to pay a fine, means that—

      • (a)  the fine is being reduced, or is to be reduced,—

        • (i) by an arrangement under any of sections 81, 86, and 86C; or

        • (ii) by a deduction notice issued under section 83(1B)(b), 83(2)(c), 87(2)(c), 87B(1A), or 88AE(1)(a); or

        • (iii) by an attachment order issued under section 87(2)(b) or 88AE(1)(a); or

        • (iv) in accordance with a direction given under section 88AE(1)(h); or

      • (b) the defendant is currently subject to a substituted sentence in respect of that fine; or

      • (c) the fine may not be further enforced because of a direction given under section 88AE(1)(i); or

      • (d) the order to pay the fine is set aside under section 78B(2)(d) or the fine otherwise ceases to be payable as a result of an appeal

      salary or wages includes—

      • (a) a retiring allowance or pension or other payment of a similar nature:

      • (b) all payments of weekly compensation made by the Accident Compensation Corporation under the Accident Compensation Act 2001:

      • (c) a bonus or an incentive payment:

      • (d) a payment of commission:

      • (e) a payment in consideration of work performed under a contract for services:

      • (f) a benefit

      secured party has the same meaning as in section 16 of the Personal Property Securities Act 1999, except that the reference to security interest is a reference to security interest as defined by this subsection

      security agreement has the same meaning as in section 16 of the Personal Property Securities Act 1999, but does not include a lease

      security interest has the same meaning as in section 17 of the Personal Property Securities Act 1999, but does not include a lease

      substituted sentence means a warrant of commitment issued under section 83(2)(a) or 88AE(1)(b) or any sentence imposed under section 88AE(1)(c) to (e)

      traffic fine means a fine payable in respect of a traffic offence

      traffic offence means—

      • (a) any offence against the Transport Act 1962, the Road User Charges Act 2012, the Transport (Vehicle and Driver Registration and Licensing) Act 1986, the Land Transport Act 1998, or the Land Transport Management Act 2003 or against any regulation, rule, or bylaw made under any of those Acts:

      • (b) any offence against any regulation, rule, or bylaw made under any other Act if the offence relates to the use of motor vehicles or parking places or transport stations

      use, in relation to a motor vehicle, includes driving, drawing, towing, or propelling by means of another vehicle, and permitting to be on any road

      written caution means a caution issued under section 93.

      (2) For the purposes of this section and sections 93 to 100T, a person is, in relation to a defendant, a substitute for the defendant or a substitute if—

      • (a) the person is served with a written caution, under section 93, about the defendant's default in paying a traffic fine for a traffic offence; and

      • (b) within 4 years after the date of service of that written caution, the defendant—

        • (i) commits a further traffic offence while using a motor vehicle that, at the time of the commission of that further offence, the person owned or had an interest in; and

        • (ii) has a traffic fine imposed on him or her for that further traffic offence; and

        • (iii) defaults, and continues to be in default, on the fine described in subparagraph (ii).

      (3) For the purposes of sections 93 to 100T, property is owned by a person whether the person owns it solely or as a joint tenant or tenant in common with any other person.

      (4) For the purposes of the exercise of any power, or the performance of any duty or function, under this Part, the person who is registered in respect of a motor vehicle is taken to be the owner of the motor vehicle unless the person exercising the power or performing the duty or function is satisfied that the person who is registered is not the owner of that motor vehicle.

      (5) A reference in sections 93 to 100T to a person holding a motor vehicle as nominee for a defendant or for a substitute for the defendant is a reference to a person who purports to be the owner or who is the person who is registered in respect of the motor vehicle but whose purported ownership or registration is subject to an understanding or arrangement that the person—

      • (a) is not to acquire any rights, or only limited rights, in the motor vehicle; and

      • (b) will, in relation to the motor vehicle, act on behalf of the defendant or a substitute for the defendant.

    Service under this Part

    79A Service of documents under this Part
    • (1) If a person is required to serve a document under this Part, the requirement may be met in any of the following ways:

      • (a) by an authorised process server—

        • (i) delivering the document to the recipient or bringing it to the recipient's notice if the recipient refuses to accept it; or

        • (ii) in the case of a written caution,—

          • (A) leaving the document for the recipient at the recipient's place of residence with another person (other than the defendant) who appears to be of or over the age of 14 years; or

          • (B) leaving the document for the recipient at the recipient's place of business or place of work with another person (other than the defendant); or

        • (iii) in any other case,—

          • (A) leaving the document for the recipient at the recipient's place of residence with another person who appears to be of or over the age of 14 years; or

          • (B) leaving the document for the recipient at the recipient's place of business or place of work with another person:

      • (b) by sending the document to the recipient by prepaid post addressed to the recipient's last known place of residence or business:

      • (c) if the recipient has a known electronic address, by sending it to the recipient at that address in electronic form:

      • (d) if authorised by regulations made under section 212, by the Registrar or the chief executive conveying, in accordance with those regulations, the contents of the document to the recipient orally (including by telephone).

      (2) However, a District Court Judge or Justice or Community Magistrate or the Registrar may, if he or she thinks fit, direct that a document must be served in accordance with subsection (1)(a)(i).

      (3) For recipients to whom section 79B applies, subsection (1) is modified to the extent provided by that section.

      (4) Despite subsection (1), a written caution under section 93 must be served by an authorised process server in accordance with paragraph (a) of that subsection or, where applicable, section 79B(2)(b) or (4).

      (5) In this section and in section 79B,—

      authorised process server means a person who is—

      • (a) a constable; or

      • (b) a Police employee authorised by the Commissioner of Police to serve documents under this Part; or

      • (c) an officer of the Court; or

      • (d) a person or a member of a class of persons authorised by a District Court Judge or Registrar to serve documents either generally or in respect of a particular case or class of case; or

      • (e) an officer or employee of a corporation that is authorised by the Secretary for Justice to serve documents under this Part

      officer, in relation to a body corporate or Crown organisation, includes a person involved in the decision making or management of the body or organisation

      recipient means the person required to be served

      serve, in relation to a document,—

      • (a) includes giving the document to a person; but

      • (b) does not include filing the document in a Court under rules of court or otherwise.

    79B Service provisions modified in special cases
    • (1) If a document is served in accordance with this section, it is, for the purposes of section 79A, taken to be served on the recipient concerned.

      (2) If the recipient is a body corporate or a Crown organisation, a document may be served—

      • (a) if it may be sent under section 79A(1)(b) or (c) by being sent, in accordance with either of those paragraphs, to the body corporate or Crown organisation for the attention of an officer or employee of that body or organisation:

      • (b) by an authorised process server delivering the document to an officer or employee of the body corporate or Crown organisation at its head office, principal place of business, or registered office, or bringing it to the officer's notice or the employee's notice if that person refuses to accept it.

      (3) If a solicitor has signed a memorandum stating that the solicitor is authorised to accept service of a document on behalf of the recipient, the document may be served on the solicitor in any way authorised by section 79A.

      (4) In addition to the ways of service authorised by section 79A, an authorised process server may, in the following cases, serve a document by delivering or sending it to, or by leaving it with,—

      • (a) in the case of a recipient who lives or works on board a vessel (including a vessel belonging to the Royal New Zealand Navy), the person on board who is apparently in charge of the vessel:

      • (b) in the case of a recipient who is a member of the New Zealand Armed Forces, the officer apparently in command of the unit or detachment to which the recipient belongs:

      • (c) in the case of a recipient who is a prisoner, the manager or other officer apparently in charge of the prison.

    79C Manner of notification not requiring particular document
    • (1) If a provision in this Part requires or contemplates that an official notify a person about a matter, without requiring that the person receive a particular document, the official may notify the person face to face or by telephone, or by prepaid post, fax, email, text, or other electronic means.

      (2) In this section, official means—

      • (a) a Registrar; or

      • (b) a bailiff; or

      • (c) any other officer of the Court; or

      • (d) the chief executive; or

      • (e) a person authorised by the chief executive.

    79D Proof of service or notification
    • (1) The service of any document or the notification of a matter may be proved—

      • (a) by affidavit or oral evidence made or given by the person who served the document or made the notification, stating the fact, date, time, and mode of service or notification; or

      • (b) by an endorsement on a copy of the document or, where applicable, on a printout that records an electronic document, showing the fact, date, time, and mode of service or notification; or

      • (c) in any manner prescribed by regulations.

      (2) An endorsement under subsection (1)(b) must be signed by the person who served the document or who made the notification.

      (3) Every person who wilfully endorses any false statement of the fact, date, time, or mode of service on a copy of any document or on a computer printout commits an offence, and is liable on conviction on indictment to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years or to a fine not exceeding $2,000 or to both.

      (4) If a document is served by sending it by prepaid post, then, unless the contrary is shown, the document is served when it would have been delivered in the ordinary course of post, and in proving service it is sufficient to prove that the letter concerned was properly addressed and posted.

      (5) If a document is served by sending it in electronic form, then, unless the contrary is shown, the document is served at the time the electronic communication first enters an information system outside the control of its originator, and in proving service it is sufficient to prove that the document concerned was properly addressed and sent.

      (6) In this section, information system means a system for producing, sending, receiving, storing, displaying, or otherwise processing electronic communications.

    Section 10: amended, on 1 August 2012, by section 94 of the Road User Charges Act 2012 (2012 No 1).

11 Further amendments to principal Act relating to service
  • The principal Act is amended in the manner indicated in Schedule 1.

12 Fines generally payable within 28 days
  • Section 80 is amended by inserting or the Sentencing Act 2002 after this Act.

13 New section 81 substituted
  • Section 81 is repealed and the following section substituted:

    81 Time to pay or payment by instalments
    • (1) If a fine is payable, the Court may—

      • (a) make an order doing either or both of the following:

        • (i) allowing a greater time than 28 days for payment:

        • (ii) allowing payment to be made by instalments; or

      • (b) direct the Registrar to determine whether to enter into an arrangement with the defendant allowing greater time to pay or to pay by instalments, or both, under section 86.

      (2) If an amount of reparation or an offender levy (whenever imposed) is payable, an order made under subsection (1)(a) or an arrangement entered into under section 86—

      • (a) must include payment of—

        • (i) the reparation:

        • (ii) the levy; and

      • (b) must not result in amounts owed by a defendant being paid in a different order of priority to that set out in section 86E.

      (3) The Court may take into account information received from any source about the defendant's financial capacity before making an order under subsection (1)(a).

      (4) If the Court makes an order under subsection (1)(a) and the Court is subsequently satisfied either that the defendant provided false or misleading information about the defendant's financial capacity before the order was made or that the defendant's financial capacity has changed significantly since the order was made, the Court may, after giving the defendant the opportunity to be heard, vary, suspend, or cancel the order.

14 New section 82 substituted
  • Section 82 is repealed and the following section substituted:

    82 Financial capacity of defendant
    • (1) If a Court, on the determination of a complaint, proposes to order that the defendant pay a fine, the Court must take into account the defendant's financial capacity, and sections 41 to 43 of the Sentencing Act 2002 apply with any necessary modifications.

      (2) If a Court is considering making an order under section 81(1)(a) or 83(1), or makes a direction under section 81(1)(b) of this Act or section 36(1)(c) of the Sentencing Act 2002, the Court may direct that the defendant make a declaration as to financial capacity (in which case sections 42 to 43 of the Sentencing Act 2002 apply with any necessary modifications).

15 Order for immediate payment of fine
  • (1) Section 83 is amended by repealing subsections (1) and (1A) and substituting the following subsections:

    • (1) If a fine is payable, the Court may order the defendant to pay the fine immediately if,—

      • (a) in the case of a fine that consists of or includes an amount of reparation, the Court is satisfied that the defendant has sufficient means to pay the fine immediately; or

      • (b) in any other case, the Court is satisfied that the defendant has sufficient means to pay the fine immediately and either—

        • (i) the defendant has no fixed place of residence; or

        • (ii) the Court is satisfied that, because of the gravity of the offence, the character of the defendant, or other special circumstances, the fine should be paid immediately.

    • (1A) If an amount of reparation or an offender levy (whenever imposed) is payable, an order made under subsection (1)—

      • (a) must require payment of the following at the same time as any other amount payable under the order:

        • (i) the reparation:

        • (ii) the levy; and

      • (b) must not result in amounts owed by a defendant being paid in a different order of priority to that set out in section 86E.

    • (1B) If any order of a Registrar to pay an amount of reparation immediately is not complied with, the Registrar may—

      • (a) issue a warrant to seize property in a form approved under section 209A; or

      • (b) issue a deduction notice requiring a bank to deduct the amount due from a sum payable or to become payable to the defendant; or

      • (c) refer the matter to a District Court Judge for the Judge to consider whether a warrant of commitment should be issued under subsection (2)(b) (which applies with any necessary modifications).

    (2) Section 83(2) is amended by omitting under subsection (1) of this section and substituting to pay a fine immediately.

    (3) Section 83(2)(a) is amended by omitting the prescribed form and substituting a form approved under section 209A.

    (4) Section 83 is amended by inserting the following subsection after subsection (2):

    • (2A) Subsection (2)(a) and (b) do not apply if the only amount payable under the order is an offender levy.

16 New section 84 substituted
  • Section 84 is repealed and the following section substituted:

    84 Notice of fine
    • (1) Where, on the determination of an information or a complaint, the defendant is ordered to pay or becomes liable to pay a fine, the Registrar must promptly give the defendant a notice of the fine.

      (2) Every notice given under subsection (1) must—

      • (a) state the amount of the fine:

      • (b) state the date on or before which payment of the fine is to be made:

      • (c) state the times and places at which payment of the fine may be made:

      • (d) inform the defendant of the defendant's rights of appeal:

      • (e) inform the defendant that a Registrar or bailiff may enter into an arrangement with the defendant for an extension of time to pay, whether by instalments or otherwise:

      • (f) inform the defendant that if the fine is not paid within 28 days after the day on which it was imposed, and no order has been made under section 81(1)(a) and no arrangement has been entered into under section 86 or 86C, the following kinds of enforcement may be taken (which must be explained in general terms):

        • (i) a warrant to seize property:

        • (ii) an attachment order:

        • (iii) a deduction notice:

        • (iv) a driver licence stop order:

      • (g) notify the defendant that, instead of taking the kinds of enforcement action described in paragraph (f), the Registrar may issue a warrant to arrest the defendant and have the defendant brought before a District Court Judge:

      • (h) notify the defendant that any default balance of the defendant will be disclosed to recognised users (within the meaning of section 92A) who are authorised to receive that information.

      (3) Failure to comply with this section does not of itself invalidate any subsequent proceeding.

      (4) Despite the requirements of this section, it is the responsibility of the defendant to take all necessary steps to find out the decision of the Court, the defendant's obligations under that decision, and the defendant's rights in relation to that decision.

      (5) It is not necessary to comply with the requirements of this section in any case where, before the notice is given,—

      • (a) a fine is paid in full; or

      • (b) an order is made under section 81(1)(a) or 83(1); or

      • (c) an arrangement is entered into under section 86 or 86C.

17 Section 85 repealed
  • Section 85 (which requires that a final notice of fine be delivered or sent to the defendant) is repealed.

18 New sections 86 to 86H substituted
  • Sections 86, 86A, and 86B are repealed and the following sections substituted:

    86 Registrar may arrange extension of time to pay
    • (1) If a fine is payable and is not subject to an order for immediate payment, the Registrar may enter into an arrangement with a defendant or with a representative of the defendant to allow for either or both of the following:

      • (a) a greater time for payment:

      • (b) payment to be made by instalments.

      (2) No arrangement under subsection (1) may permit a fine to remain unpaid for more than 5 years after the date on which the arrangement is entered into.

      (3) Before the Registrar enters into an arrangement under subsection (1), the Registrar may consider any information received from any person about the financial position of the defendant or, as the case requires, about the defendant's representative.

      (4) In any case where any information described in subsection (3) comes from a third party, the information must include details of the source of the information and the date to which the information relates.

      (5) In this section and in sections 86A, 86C, and 86D, representative means—

      • (a) a person who—

        • (i) enters into the arrangement concerned with the defendant's written or oral consent; and

        • (ii) appears to the Registrar to have the defendant's consent to do so; or

      • (b) a person who is authorised to enter into the arrangement concerned by operation of law.

    86A Registrar may vary, suspend, or cancel arrangement for extension of time to pay fine or attachment order
    • (1) A Registrar may determine that an arrangement extending the time to pay a fine, or an attachment order, be varied, suspended, or cancelled if the Registrar has reason to believe that—

      • (a) the defendant or, as the case requires, the defendant's representative has, for the purpose of entering into the arrangement, supplied false or misleading information about the financial position of the defendant or, as the case requires, the defendant's representative; or

      • (b) the financial position of the defendant or, as the case requires, the defendant's representative has changed significantly since the date on which the arrangement was entered into; or

      • (c) the defendant has, in connection with the making of the attachment order, supplied false or misleading information about the financial position of the defendant; or

      • (d) the financial position of the defendant has changed significantly since the date on which the attachment order was made.

      (2) A Registrar may determine that an arrangement extending the time to pay a fine be varied, suspended, or cancelled if another fine that is not subject to the arrangement is imposed on the defendant and—

      • (a) the defendant agrees to the determination proposed by the Registrar; or

      • (b) the defendant defaults in the payment of the subsequent fine, and—

        • (i) the Registrar is unable to contact the defendant; or

        • (ii) the Registrar contacts the defendant but is unable to reach an agreement with the defendant as to how the subsequent fine is to be paid.

      (3) If, in a case where there is an arrangement extending the time to pay a fine with a representative of the defendant, a further fine that is not subject to the arrangement is imposed on the defendant, the Registrar may determine that the arrangement—

      • (a) be varied, suspended, or cancelled if the representative agrees to the determination proposed by the Registrar:

      • (b) be suspended or cancelled if the defendant defaults in the payment of the subsequent fine, and—

        • (i) the Registrar is unable to contact the representative; or

        • (ii) the Registrar contacts the representative but is unable to reach an agreement with the representative as to how the subsequent fine is to be paid.

      (4) A Registrar may determine that an attachment order be varied, suspended, or cancelled if—

      • (a) another fine that is not subject to the attachment order is imposed on the defendant; and

      • (b) the defendant defaults in the payment of the subsequent fine.

      (5) If subsection (1)(a) or (b), (2)(b)(ii), or (3)(b)(ii) applies, the Registrar must, before he or she makes a determination in relation to the arrangement,—

      • (a) notify the defendant or, as the case requires, the defendant's representative—

        • (i) of the proposed determination and the reasons for the proposed determination; and

        • (ii) that the defendant or, as the case requires, the defendant's representative may give reasons, in an oral or written submission to the Registrar, why the proposed determination should not be made; and

        • (iii) that, if it is intended to make an oral submission, that intention must be advised to the Registrar within 10 days after the date of the notification and that any such submission must be made at a time specified by the Registrar; and

        • (iv) that any written submission must be received by the Registrar within 10 days after the date of the notification; and

      • (b) consider any—

        • (i) oral submission made in accordance with paragraph (a)(iii); and

        • (ii) written submissions received within the 10-day period referred to in paragraph (a)(iv).

      (6) Any written submissions that may be made under subsection (5) may be made electronically.

      (7) In no case may a fine to which a determination relates remain unpaid for more than 5 years after the date on which the determination takes effect.

      (8) A determination under this section takes effect on the following dates:

      • (a) where subsection (1)(a) or (b), (2)(b)(ii), or (3)(b)(ii) applies,—

        • (i) if the Registrar receives neither a request to make an oral submission nor a written submission within the 10-day period referred to in subsection (5)(a)(iii) or (iv), on the date on which that period expires; or

        • (ii) if after hearing an oral submission in accordance with subsection (5)(a)(iii), or considering a written submission received within the 10-day period referred to in subsection (5)(a)(iv), the Registrar decides to proceed with the proposed determination, on a specified date that the Registrar notifies to the defendant or, as the case requires, the defendant's representative:

      • (b) where subsection (2)(a) or (3)(a) applies, on the date that the Registrar obtains the agreement of the defendant or, as the case requires, the defendant's representative under either of those subsections:

      • (c) where subsection (1)(c) or (d), (2)(b)(i), (3)(b)(i), or (4) applies, on a date specified by the Registrar.

      (9) In this section and sections 86C, 86D, 87, and 87AA, arrangement extending the time to pay a fine means an arrangement that—

      • (a) allows for either or both of the following:

        • (i) a greater time to pay a fine:

        • (ii) payment by instalments; and

      • (b) is entered into by—

        • (i) a Registrar under section 86; or

        • (ii) a bailiff under section 86C (in which case the arrangement must have come into force in accordance with that section).

    86B Determinations affecting attachment orders
    • (1) If an attachment order is cancelled or suspended under section 86A, the Registrar must serve notice of the cancellation or suspension on the employer to whom it relates and the cancellation or suspension takes effect when it is so served.

      (2) If a variation of an attachment order takes effect under section 86A, the Registrar must issue a new attachment order under section 87 in place of the existing order.

    86C Bailiff may arrange extension of time to pay
    • (1) If a fine is payable and is not subject to an order for immediate payment, a bailiff may enter into an arrangement extending the time to pay the fine with a defendant or with a representative of the defendant.

      (2) No arrangement extending the time to pay the fine may permit a fine to remain unpaid for more than 5 years after the date on which the arrangement is entered into.

      (3) As soon as practicable after a bailiff enters into an arrangement extending the time to pay the fine, the bailiff must notify the Registrar of the arrangement.

      (4) When the Registrar is notified of the arrangement, the Registrar may, after taking into account any information received from any person about the financial position of the defendant or, as the case requires, of the defendant's representative, cancel the arrangement within 7 days after being notified of that arrangement.

      (5) In any case where any information described in subsection (4) comes from a third party, the information must include details of the source of the information and the date to which the information relates.

      (6) The arrangement comes into force,—

      • (a) if the Registrar approves the arrangement before the expiry of 7 days after the day on which the Registrar is notified of the arrangement, when the Registrar gives that approval:

      • (b) if on the expiry of 7 days after the day on which the Registrar is notified of the arrangement the Registrar has neither approved nor cancelled the arrangement, on the eighth day after the day on which the Registrar is so notified.

      (7) The defendant or, as the case requires, the defendant's representative—

      • (a) may make payments under the arrangement when it comes into force in accordance with subsection (6); and

      • (b) is not prevented from making payments in respect of a fine if those payments are not part of the arrangement.

    86D Bailiff may vary, suspend, or cancel arrangement for extension of time to pay fine
    • (1) A bailiff may determine that an arrangement extending the time to pay a fine be varied, suspended, or cancelled if the bailiff has reason to believe that—

      • (a) the defendant or, as the case requires, the defendant's representative has, for the purpose of entering into the arrangement, supplied false or misleading information about the financial position of the defendant or, as the case requires, the defendant's representative; or

      • (b) the financial position of the defendant or, as the case requires, the defendant's representative has changed significantly since the date on which the arrangement was entered into.

      (2) A bailiff may determine that an arrangement extending the time to pay a fine be varied, suspended, or cancelled if another fine that is not subject to the arrangement is imposed on the defendant and—

      • (a) the defendant agrees to the determination proposed by the bailiff; or

      • (b) the defendant defaults in the payment of the subsequent fine, and—

        • (i) the bailiff is unable to contact the defendant; or

        • (ii) the bailiff contacts the defendant but is unable to reach an agreement with the defendant as to how the subsequent fine is to be paid.

      (3) If, in a case where a representative of a defendant is party to an arrangement extending the time to pay a fine, a further fine that is not subject to the arrangement is imposed on the defendant, the bailiff may determine that the arrangement—

      • (a) be varied, suspended, or cancelled if the representative agrees to the determination proposed by the bailiff:

      • (b) be suspended or cancelled if the defendant defaults in the payment of the subsequent fine, and—

        • (i) the bailiff is unable to contact the representative; or

        • (ii) the bailiff contacts the representative but is unable to reach an agreement with the representative as to how the subsequent fine is to be paid.

      (4) If subsection (1), (2)(b)(ii), or (3)(b)(ii) applies, the bailiff must, before he or she makes a determination in relation to the arrangement,—

      • (a) notify the defendant or, as the case requires, the representative—

        • (i) of the proposed determination and the reasons for the proposed determination; and

        • (ii) that the defendant or, as the case requires, the defendant's representative may give reasons, in an oral or a written submission to the bailiff, why the proposed determination should not be made; and

        • (iii) that, if it is intended to make an oral submission, that intention must be advised to the bailiff within 10 days after the date of the notification and that any such submission must be made at a time specified by the bailiff; and

        • (iv) that any written submission must be received by the bailiff within 10 days after the date of the notification; and

      • (b) consider any—

        • (i) oral submission made in accordance with paragraph (a)(iii); and

        • (ii) written submissions received within the 10-day period referred to in paragraph (a)(iv).

      (5) Any written submissions that may be made under subsection (4) may be made electronically.

      (6) In no case may a fine to which a determination relates remain unpaid for more than 5 years after the date on which the determination takes effect.

      (7) As soon as practicable after the bailiff makes a determination under this section, the bailiff must notify the Registrar of the determination.

      (8) When the Registrar is notified of the determination, the Registrar may, after taking into account any information received from any person about the financial position of the defendant or, as the case requires, the defendant's representative, cancel the determination within 7 days after being notified of that determination.

      (9) In any case where any information described in subsection (8) comes from a third party, the information must include details of the source of the information and the date to which the information relates.

      (10) If the Registrar does not cancel the determination, the determination comes into force 8 days after the Registrar is notified of that determination or on the day on which the Registrar sooner approves the determination.

    86E Priority of payments received from defendant
    • (1) Any payments received from a defendant in respect of a fine must be applied in the following order of priority:

      • (a) in payment of any amount of reparation:

      • (b) in payment of any offender levy:

      • (c) in payment of any other type of fine.

      (2) Subsection (1) applies regardless of when any amount owed by the defendant was imposed or became due.

    86F Manner in which amounts of reparation must be applied in cases involving same offence
    • (1) This section applies if a person (the liable person) is required to pay an amount of reparation to 2 or more persons in relation to the same offence (whether the requirement to pay the amount of reparation arose before or after the commencement of this section).

      (2) Any payments received from the liable person must be applied, as between the persons to whom the defendant is required to pay reparation, in the proportion that reflects the relative total or proportionate amounts ordered to be paid to each of them (or in equal amounts if the Court did not specify different amounts).

      (3) Subsection (2) applies subject to any contrary direction by a Court.

    86G Manner in which amounts of reparation must be applied in cases involving different offences
    • (1) This section applies—

      • (a) if a person (the liable person) is required to pay an amount of reparation to a person or persons in relation to an offence; and

      • (b) if the liable person is later required to pay an amount of reparation to another person or other persons in relation to another offence; and

      • (c) if both the amounts referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b) have not been paid in full; and

      • (d) whether the requirements to pay the amounts referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b) arose before or after the commencement of this section.

      (2) For the purpose of subsection (1), it does not matter whether or not the offence referred to in subsection (1)(b) is of the same kind as the offence referred to in subsection (1)(a).

      (3) Any payments received from the liable person must, in respect of 1 or more amounts of reparation imposed on the same day in respect of different offences committed by the liable person, be applied (in accordance with section 86F if applicable)—

      • (a) as between the persons to whom the defendant is required to pay the reparation; and

      • (b) in the proportion that reflects the relative total or proportionate amounts ordered to be paid to each of them.

      (4) Any payments received from the liable person must, in respect of any amounts of reparation imposed on the liable person on different days, be applied (in accordance with section 86F or subsection (3), if applicable) first in satisfaction of the amount of reparation that was imposed first in time.

      (5) After the amount of reparation referred to in subsection (4) has been paid in full, any further payments received from the liable person must next be applied (in accordance with section 86F or subsection (3), if applicable) in satisfaction of the amount of reparation that was imposed next in time.

      (6) This section applies subject to any contrary direction by a Court.

    86H No Crown liability for error, etc, in applying payments of amounts of reparation
    • The Crown is not liable to any person for any error, omission, or delay in applying any payment of an amount of reparation in accordance with sections 86E to 86G.

19 New section 87 substituted
  • Section 87 is repealed and the following section substituted:

    87 Action if fine or instalment not paid or if arrangement or attachment order cancelled
    • (1) This section applies if—

      • (a) the defendant defaults in the payment of any fine; or

      • (b) the defendant defaults in the payment of any instalment in respect of a fine that may be paid by instalments; or

      • (c) a Registrar cancels an arrangement extending the time to pay a fine, or an attachment order, in accordance with section 86A; or

      • (d) an arrangement extending the time to pay a fine is cancelled in accordance with section 86D.

      (2) The Registrar may—

      • (a) issue a warrant to seize property; or

      • (b) make an attachment order attaching any salary or wages payable or to become payable to the defendant; or

      • (c) issue a deduction notice requiring a bank to deduct the amount due from a sum payable or to become payable to the defendant.

      (3) Enforcement procedures commenced under this section must cease on payment of the unpaid amount of the fine.

      (4) If a default is made in the payment of any instalment in respect of a fine that may be paid by instalments, proceedings may be taken as if default had been made in the payment of all instalments that remain unpaid.

      (5) Subsection (2)(a) does not apply if the only amount in default is an offender levy.

      (6) The powers conferred by this section may not be exercised by a Registrar who is a constable.

20 Power to obtain information in respect of beneficiaries
  • (1) Section 87AA(1)(a)(i) is amended by omitting section 87(1)(b) and substituting section 87(2)(b).

    (2) Section 87AA(1)(a) is amended by repealing subparagraph (ia) and substituting the following subparagraph:

    • (ia) considering whether an arrangement extending the time to pay a fine or an attachment order is to be varied, suspended, or cancelled under section 86A or 86D; or.

    (3) Section 87AA(1)(a)(ii) is amended by omitting section 105(3) and substituting section 105(7).

    (4) Section 87AA(1) is amended by omitting , by notice in writing,.

    (5) Section 87AA(2)(e) is amended by omitting residential telephone number and substituting all telephone numbers.

    (6) Section 87AA(2)(g) is amended by omitting any benefit that is paid to the defendant and substituting the defendant in his or her capacity as a beneficiary.

    (7) Section 87AA(3) is amended—

    • (a) by omitting any request and substituting a requirement; and

    • (b) by omitting notice and substituting requirement.

    (8) Section 87AA is amended by inserting the following subsection after subsection (3):

    • (3AA) A requirement under subsection (1) may be made by post or by fax, email, or other electronic means.

    (9) Section 87AA(3A) is amended by omitting on receipt of a notice under subsection (1) and substituting on receipt of a requirement under subsection (1).

21 Publication of name of fines defaulter
  • Section 87A(1)(d) is amended by omitting section 81 or section 86 or section 86A and substituting section 81(1)(a) or 86 or 86C.

22 Deduction of fines
  • Section 87B is amended by repealing subsection (1) and substituting the following subsections:

    • (1) This section applies if—

      • (a) a fine is payable by a defendant; and

      • (b) the defendant is, by virtue of an order made under section 81(1)(a) or 83(1), an arrangement made under section 86 or 86C, or a direction given under section 88AE(1)(h),—

        • (i) ordered to pay the fine immediately; or

        • (ii) allowed a greater time for payment; or

        • (iii) allowed to pay by instalments; and

      • (c) the defendant either—

        • (i) fails to comply with the order, arrangement, direction, or condition; or

        • (ii) refuses, without reasonable excuse, to enter into an arrangement.

    • (1A) The Registrar may issue a deduction notice requiring a bank to deduct the amount due from a sum that is payable or becomes payable to the defendant, until the deduction notice is revoked in accordance with section 87C or discharged under section 87H.

23 Offences in relation to deduction notices
  • Section 87G(b) is amended by omitting to the Registrar and substituting in accordance with section 208.

24 Penalty for late deductions
  • (1) Section 87I(1) is amended by omitting pay to the Registrar and substituting pay in accordance with section 208.

    (2) Section 87I(5) is amended by omitting to the Registrar.

25 New sections 88 to 88AG substituted
  • Section 88 is repealed and the following sections are substituted:

    88 Actions if fine remains unpaid
    • (1) This section applies if—

      • (a) the Registrar has taken enforcement action under section 87(2), but the fine remains unpaid; or

      • (b) the Registrar is satisfied that the defendant does not have the means to pay the fine; or

      • (c) the Registrar is satisfied that—

        • (i) reasonable steps have been taken to locate the defendant, but the defendant has not been located and therefore enforcement action would be unlikely to be effective; or

        • (ii) for any other reason enforcement action would be unlikely to be effective.

      (2) The Registrar may—

      • (a) order that the defendant be brought before the Registrar; or

      • (b) refer the matter to a District Court Judge or Community Magistrate with a report on the circumstances of the case.

      (3) If the Registrar refers a matter to a District Court Judge or Community Magistrate, the Registrar may order that the defendant be brought before the Judge or Community Magistrate.

      (4) For the purposes of subsection (2)(a) or (3), the Registrar may, if necessary, issue a warrant for the arrest of the defendant.

      (5) Despite subsection (1), this section does not apply if the only amount that remains unpaid is an offender levy.

    88AA Form and execution of warrant for arrest
    • (1) A warrant for arrest issued under section 88(4) may be in the form of a computer printout of information entered by a Registrar into a computer system accessible to the Police or a bailiff.

      (2) In addition to subsection (1), the following provisions apply to the warrant for arrest:

      • (a) information about a defendant that the Registrar entered may be printed out by a constable or bailiff, and for all purposes constitutes a warrant for the arrest of the defendant:

      • (b) the warrant is valid for a period of 7 days beginning on the date of its printing, and the warrant then lapses:

      • (c) at any time and from time to time after a warrant lapses under paragraph (b),—

        • (i) the Registrar may re-enter the particulars into the same computer system or enter the particulars into any other computer system available to the Police or a bailiff:

        • (ii) a constable or bailiff may obtain a further printout of the original information entered by the Registrar or obtain a printout of the re-entered information or of the information entered into the other computer system, and each one of the printouts constitutes a fresh warrant for the arrest of the defendant.

      (3) A constable or bailiff may execute a warrant for arrest issued under section 88(4) or a computer printout that, under this section, constitutes a warrant for arrest.

      (4) This section does not limit any other provision of this Act.

    88AB Provisions for defendant arrested under warrant for arrest issued for purpose of section 88(2)(a)
    • If a defendant is arrested under a warrant for arrest issued for the purpose of section 88(2)(a), the following provisions apply:

      • (a) the defendant must be brought before the Registrar:

      • (b) the defendant is bailable as of right:

      • (c) section 46 of this Act and Part 3 of the Bail Act 2000 apply with any necessary modifications as if the appearance before the Registrar constituted part of the hearing of a charge:

      • (d) for the purpose of any bail application by the defendant, if the defendant cannot practicably be brought immediately before the Registrar, a District Court Judge, or a Community Magistrate, then a Police employee or a bailiff may take the bail bond of the defendant and Parts 1 to 3 of the Bail Act 2000 apply with any necessary modifications as if the bail bond were taken by a Police employee under section 21(1) of that Act.

    88AC Provisions for defendant arrested under warrant for arrest issued for purpose of section 88(3)
    • If a defendant is arrested under a warrant for arrest issued for the purpose of section 88(3), the following provisions apply:

      • (a) the defendant must be brought before a District Court Judge or Community Magistrate or, if neither a District Court Judge nor a Community Magistrate is available, the Registrar:

      • (b) if the defendant is brought before the Registrar, the Registrar must appoint a time and place for the defendant to appear before a District Court Judge or Community Magistrate:

      • (c) the defendant is bailable as of right:

      • (d) section 46 of this Act and Part 3 of the Bail Act 2000 apply with any necessary modifications as if the appearance before the Registrar or a District Court Judge or Community Magistrate constituted part of the hearing of a charge:

      • (e) if the defendant cannot practicably be brought immediately before a District Court Judge or Community Magistrate or the Registrar, then a Police employee or a bailiff may take the bail bond of the defendant and Parts 1 to 3 of the Bail Act 2000 apply with any necessary modifications as if the bail bond were taken by a Police employee under section 21(1) of that Act.

    88AD Powers of Registrar in relation to defendant brought before Registrar
    • (1) If a defendant is brought before a Registrar under section 88(2)(a), the Registrar may examine the defendant as to the defendant's financial position.

      (2) The Registrar may also—

      • (a) invoke 1 or more of the enforcement actions in section 87(2); or

      • (b) enter into an arrangement with the defendant under section 86; or

      • (c) if the Registrar is satisfied that neither of the actions described in paragraphs (a) and (b) will be effective, refer the defendant to a District Court Judge or Community Magistrate with a report on the case (in which case sections 88(3) and (4), 88AA, and 88AC apply).

    88AE Powers of District Court Judge or Community Magistrate after considering report of Registrar under section 88AD
    • (1) After considering the report of the Registrar prepared under section 88AD and the defendant's financial position (whether determined from a declaration of financial capacity prepared by the defendant or from other sources), a District Court Judge or Community Magistrate may—

      • (a) refer the matter to the Registrar with a direction that 1 or more of the enforcement actions referred to in section 87(2), as specified in the direction, be invoked; or

      • (b) subject to section 106E, direct that a warrant of commitment in the prescribed form be issued; or

      • (c) subject to sections 80A to 80ZM of the Sentencing Act 2002 and section 106E of this Act, sentence the defendant to a sentence of home detention; or

      • (d) subject to sections 69B to 80 of the Sentencing Act 2002 and section 106E of this Act, sentence the defendant to a sentence of community detention; or

      • (e) subject to sections 55 to 80 of the Sentencing Act 2002 and section 106E of this Act, sentence the defendant to community work; or

      • (f) direct that action be taken for a lesser amount than the fine due; or

      • (g) if the amount that the defendant owes for 1 unpaid fine, or in total for more than 1 unpaid fine, is $5,000 or more, refer the matter to the Registrar with a direction that action be taken to enforce 1 or all of the fines making up the total owing by the defendant as if the fine or fines were an order for the payment of money and as if the Registrar had obtained the order; or

      • (h) direct that a greater time for payment of the fine be allowed, subject to any conditions that the Judge or Community Magistrate may direct; or

      • (i) direct that no further enforcement proceedings be taken for the fine for any period or subject to any conditions that the Judge or Community Magistrate may direct; or

      • (j) remit the fine or a part of the fine.

      (2) A Community Magistrate may not—

      • (a) direct the issue of a warrant of commitment under subsection (1)(b):

      • (b) sentence a defendant to a sentence of home detention under subsection (1)(c).

      (3) If a Community Magistrate considers that the issue of a warrant of commitment or a sentence of home detention is appropriate in any case, the Community Magistrate must refer the matter to a District Court Judge (in which case sections 45 to 59, to the extent that they are applicable and with the necessary modifications, apply).

      (4) Despite subsection (1), a period of imprisonment or a sentence of home detention must not be imposed on the defendant for a fine if—

      • (a) the fine was imposed for a traffic offence (as defined in section 2(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act 1989) not punishable by imprisonment; and

      • (b) at the date of the commission of the offence, the defendant was a young person within the meaning of that Act.

      (5) If a District Court Judge or Community Magistrate exercises any power conferred by subsection (1) and considers it appropriate to do so, he or she may also make an order under section 88AG for the return of the defendant.

      (6) The remission of the whole or any part of an amount of reparation does not affect the right of the person who suffered the harm, loss, or damage to bring civil proceedings, or make claims under any accident compensation legislation applicable at the time of the offending, to recover the amount so remitted.

    88AF Further provisions relating to powers of District Court Judge or Community Magistrate in section 88AE
    • (1) A warrant of commitment or a sentence of community work, community detention, or home detention may be issued or imposed under section 88AE(1) even though the defendant was not liable to be imprisoned on the determination of the information or complaint for which the fine was imposed.

      (2) Any warrant of commitment directed to be issued under section 88AE(1)(b) may be issued by any District Court Judge and may be withdrawn at any time by any District Court Judge.

      (3) If any direction is given under section 88AE(1)(f), the difference between the amount due under the fine and the amount for which action is directed to be taken under that provision is no longer payable and no proceedings may be taken or continued for its recovery.

      (4) If a District Court Judge or Community Magistrate makes any order (other than a direction for the issue of a warrant of commitment) under section 88AE, the Judge or Community Magistrate may postpone the issue or defer the operation of the order for any period and subject to any conditions that he or she may direct.

    88AG Power of District Court Judge or Community Magistrate to order return of defendant
    • (1) If a District Court Judge or Community Magistrate makes any order (other than an order that directs the issue of a warrant of commitment) under section 88AE and considers it appropriate to do so, he or she may also issue an order for the return of the defendant. However, the order must not be executed until the time that the defendant ceases to comply with any of the conditions of the order under section 88AE, including (without limitation) the making of periodic payments due under an attachment order.

      (2) A constable or bailiff may execute an order for the return of the defendant issued under subsection (1).

      (3) If a fine is being paid by attachment order, no order issued under subsection (1) for the return of a defendant may be executed until the time that the Registrar has confirmed with the employer that no periodic payment or payments have been made and the reason why no payment or payments have been made.

      (4) If a defendant is detained in accordance with an order issued under subsection (1), the provisions of section 88AC apply.

26 Consequential and related amendments arising from substitution of new sections 88 to 88AG in principal Act
  • The enactments specified in Schedule 2 are amended in the manner indicated in that schedule.

27 New sections 88A and 88B substituted
  • Sections 88A and 88B are repealed and the following sections substituted:

    88A Civil enforcement of fines
    • (1) If, under section 88AE(1)(g), a District Court Judge gives a direction in relation to 1 or more fines, the District Court is deemed to have made, in its civil jurisdiction, an order that the defendant pay the Registrar the total amount of that fine or those fines.

      (2) The order deemed to have been made under subsection (1) may be enforced as if that order were a final order for the payment of money and as if the Registrar were the relevant judgment creditor.

      (3) The Registrar may take steps, under section 66 of the District Courts Act 1947, to have the order deemed to have been made under subsection (1) removed into the High Court.

      (4) Action to enforce the order deemed to have been made under subsection (1) must be taken—

      • (a) under the District Courts Act 1947 and the District Courts Rules 2009 unless that order is removed into the High Court; or

      • (b) under the High Court Rules if that order is removed into the High Court.

    88B Remission of fine
    • (1) The Registrar may make an order remitting an amount of reparation if—

      • (a) the amount outstanding is $25 or less; and

      • (b) the amount of reparation was imposed at least 3 years before the date on which the Registrar makes the order remitting it; and

      • (c) the Registrar has—

        • (i) obtained the consent of the person who suffered the harm, loss, or damage; or

        • (ii) made reasonable efforts to find the person who suffered the harm, loss, or damage to obtain his or her consent, and has not been able to find that person and obtain his or her consent.

      (2) The Registrar may make an order remitting any fine that does not include reparation if—

      • (a) the amount outstanding is not greater than $50 or any other amount prescribed by regulations made under section 212; and

      • (b) the fine was imposed at least 1 year before the date on which the Registrar makes the order remitting the fine.

      (3) The Registrar may at any time make an order remitting any fine other than reparation if the Registrar is satisfied that the defendant is a deceased individual or a body corporate or an unincorporated body that has been wound up.

      (4) For the purposes of subsections (1) to (3), court costs or other costs that are referable to any reparation must be excluded from that reparation.

      (5) The Registrar may at any time make an order remitting any amount of court costs and costs associated with the enforcement of a fine, including court costs and costs associated with the enforcement of reparation or any offender levy.

      (6) The Registrar may at any time make an order remitting any fine that is lower than the lowest amount expressed on any coin that is legal tender in New Zealand.

28 Scale of imprisonment for non-payment of fine
  • Section 90(a) is amended by omitting by imprisonment and substituting by a period of imprisonment of more than 3 months.

29 New section 91 substituted
  • Section 91 is repealed and the following section substituted:

    91 Defendant on substituted sentence to be discharged on payment of fine
    • (1) On the payment of a fine for which a defendant is imprisoned on a warrant of commitment for non-payment of the fine, the Registrar must immediately notify the prison manager of the payment, and the manager must discharge the defendant from the prison unless the defendant is also in custody for some other reason.

      (2) On the payment of a fine for which a defendant is subject to a sentence of community work, community detention, or home detention for non-payment of the fine, the Registrar must immediately notify the probation officer supervising the sentence of the payment, and the probation officer must direct that the defendant be no longer subject to that sentence unless the defendant is also subject to a sentence of community work, community detention, or home detention (as the case may be) for some other reason.

      (3) If a defendant who is subject to a period of imprisonment or any sentence referred to in subsection (2) makes part payment of not less than 10% of the total amount for which the period of imprisonment or sentence was imposed, the Registrar must immediately—

      • (a) calculate the amount of the part payment as a proportion of the total amount for which the period of imprisonment or sentence was imposed; and

      • (b) reduce the period of imprisonment or the sentence by the number of hours or days (whichever applies) that, as nearly as possible, bears the same proportion as the proportion referred to in paragraph (a); and

      • (c) notify the prison manager or the probation officer supervising the sentence of the payment and the reduction in the defendant's period of imprisonment or sentence.

      (4) On completion of a term of imprisonment or any sentence referred to in subsection (2), the fine in respect of which the term of imprisonment or the sentence was imposed is remitted.

30 Effect of warrant of commitment
  • Section 92 is amended by inserting , or section 28I of the District Courts Act 1947, or section 19 of the Crimes Act 1961, as the case may be after section 90.

31 New heading and sections 92A to 92I inserted
  • The following heading and sections are inserted after section 92:

    Disclosure of default balances to certain authorised persons

    92A Interpretation
    • (1) In this section and in sections 92B to 92I, unless the context otherwise requires,—

      access code means any form of data that enables a recognised user to submit a fine status query

      agency has the same meaning as in section 2(1) of the Privacy Act 1993

      credit reporter has the same meaning as in the credit reporting code of practice, but regardless of whether payment for information about creditworthiness is involved and whether that information is in respect of individuals or bodies corporate

      credit reporting code of practice means a code of practice relating to credit reporting for the time being issued under the Privacy Act 1993

      fine status query means a query as to whether a query subject has a default balance and, if so, the amount of that balance

      fine status response means a response to a fine status query

      fines enforcement records means the records of the Ministry of Justice described in Schedule 5 of the Privacy Act 1993 in the item relating to the enforcement of fines and other orders

      identifying particulars means,—

      • (a) in the case of an individual, the individual's—

        • (i) full name; and

        • (ii) former names and aliases (if any); and

        • (iii) sex; and

        • (iv) date of birth; and

        • (v) current address; and

        • (vi) previous addresses (if applicable), but not more than 2; and

        • (vii) occupation (if applicable); and

        • (viii) employer (if any) identified by name; and

        • (ix) driver licence number (if any) as defined in the credit reporting code of practice; and

        • (x) driver licence card number (if any) as defined in the credit reporting code of practice; and

      • (b) in the case of a person that is not an individual, the person's—

        • (i) full name; and

        • (ii) current address; and

        • (iii) previous addresses (if applicable), but not more than 2; and

        • (iv) trading name (if applicable)

      query subject means the person about whom a fine status query is to be made, is being made, or has been made, under section 92D

      recognised user means an agency that—

      • (a) is a credit reporter; or

      • (b) is a member of a class of persons specified by regulations made under section 92I for the purposes of this definition; or

      • (c) the Minister for Courts has, in accordance with criteria prescribed by regulations made under section 92I, authorised as a recognised user

      subscriber, in relation to a credit reporter, means a person who, under an agreement that complies with requirements prescribed by the credit reporting code of practice, has access to information held by that credit reporter.

      (2) Subparagraphs (ix) and (x) of the definition of identifying particulars in subsection (1) do not apply unless the definition of credit information in the credit reporting code of practice includes driver licence numbers and driver licence card numbers.

    92B Purpose of disclosure and use of information
    • (1) The purpose of sections 92C to 92I is to provide incentives to defendants who have default balances to pay or resolve the required payments in accordance with this Act.

      (2) In order to achieve that purpose, sections 92C to 92I—

      • (a) authorise the chief executive to disclose fine status responses to recognised users to enable—

        • (i) credit reporters to report that information to subscribers; and

        • (ii) recognised users other than credit reporters to assess the creditworthiness of query subjects and to protect themselves against the possible subordination of their security interests that might otherwise be required by this Act:

      • (b) authorise credit reporters to disclose fine status responses—

        • (i) to subscribers to enable them to assess the creditworthiness of query subjects; and

        • (ii) in particular, to those subscribers who are credit providers to enable them to protect themselves against the possible subordination of their security interests that might otherwise be required by this Act:

      • (c) authorise the chief executive to use identifying particulars received from recognised users to enhance the accuracy and completeness of the fines enforcement records:

      • (d) require the chief executive to monitor the compliance of recognised users and to audit their records for that compliance.

    92C Access codes
    • (1) If satisfied that an agency is a recognised user, the chief executive may issue to the agency an access code.

      (2) The access code may be issued subject to any conditions or restrictions that the chief executive considers appropriate.

      (3) If satisfied that a recognised user has breached any provision of this Act or regulations made under section 92I or has failed to comply with any conditions or restrictions imposed under subsection (2), the chief executive may, in accordance with regulations made under section 92I, cancel the access code issued to the recognised user.

      (4) If the chief executive is satisfied that the access code of a recognised user should not have been cancelled or that any breach on the part of any recognised user whose access code has been cancelled is unlikely to recur, the chief executive may issue to that recognised user another access code.

    92D Recognised user may submit fine status query
    • (1) A fine status query must—

      • (a) be sent in a manner approved by the chief executive; and

      • (b) identify the recognised user; and

      • (c) set out the identifying particulars of the query subject; and

      • (d) provide an assurance that—

        • (i) the query subject has consented to the submission of a fine status query that includes the identifying particulars of the query subject, and to the disclosure of any resulting fine status response to the recognised user and, if the recognised user is a credit reporter, also to any subscriber on whose behalf the fine status response is sought; and

        • (ii) if the fine status query is sent by a credit reporter, the credit reporter is acting on a request by a subscriber.

      (2) A recognised user who sends a fine status query must keep, for the period specified by regulations made under section 92I, a record evidencing the consent given by the query subject for the purpose of the fine status query.

    92E Fine status response by chief executive
    • (1) When the chief executive receives a fine status query, the chief executive must, where practicable, perform, or have an electronic system perform, the following operations:

      • (a) check if the fine status query has been submitted by a recognised user:

      • (b) if the identity of the recognised user is confirmed, compare the identifying particulars of the query subject with identifying particulars recorded in the fines enforcement records:

      • (c) if the identifying particulars of the query subject in the fine status query are, according to prescribed criteria, shown to correspond with those of a defendant recorded in the fines enforcement records as having a default balance, the chief executive must send the recognised user a fine status response stating that, as at the date of the response, the query subject has a default balance and the amount of that balance:

      • (d) in any case to which paragraph (c) does not apply, the chief executive must send the recognised user a fine status response stating that the identifying particulars of the query subject do not correspond with the identifying particulars of any defendant shown in the fines enforcement records as having a default balance.

      (2) If compliance with subsection (1) is for any reason impracticable, the chief executive must notify the recognised user that the fine status query cannot be processed and may ask the recognised user to submit another fine status query.

    92F Disclosure and use of fine status response restricted
    • (1) A recognised user may not disclose the information contained in a fine status response unless the decision is made—

      • (a) for the purpose of making the information available, in accordance with the Privacy Act 1993, to the query subject to whom the information relates; or

      • (b) for the purposes of an audit conducted under section 92H or to a Registrar under section 100K; or

      • (c) in accordance with subsection (2), in any case where the recognised user is a credit reporter.

      (2) A credit reporter may only disclose the information contained in a fine status response to the subscriber who requested the information, and only if the disclosure is made not later than 24 hours after receipt, under section 92E, of that response.

      (3) A person who contravenes this section or who discloses or uses information in contravention of any regulations made under section 92I is, for the purposes of Part 8 of the Privacy Act 1993, taken to have breached an information privacy principle under section 66(1)(a)(i) of that Act.

    92G Query subject to be notified of proposed combination of information
    • (1) This section applies where—

      • (a) the identifying particulars submitted in a fine status query about a query subject diverge in 1 or more respects (the diverging particulars) from the identifying particulars by which a particular defendant, with a default balance, is identified in the fines enforcement records; and

      • (b) the chief executive nevertheless has reason to believe that the identifying particulars are those of that defendant; and

      • (c) the chief executive proposes to combine the diverging particulars with the identifying particulars shown in the fines enforcement records about the defendant.

      (2) Before the chief executive combines the diverging particulars with the identifying particulars shown in the fines enforcement records about the defendant, the chief executive must first comply with section 103 of the Privacy Act 1993 as if the diverging particulars were a discrepancy and the proposed combination were an adverse action taken against the query subject.

      (3) If, following the chief executive's compliance with section 103 of the Privacy Act 1993, any information in the fine status response sent to a recognised user about a query subject is shown to be incorrect, the chief executive must notify the recognised user of the corrected information.

      (4) If the recognised user is a credit reporter who has disclosed the information contained in the fine status response to a subscriber, the credit reporter must promptly advise the subscriber of the corrected information.

      (5) For the purposes of section 100K, any corrected information received by a recognised user or subscriber under subsection (3) or (4) must be disregarded.

    92H Monitoring and audits by chief executive
    • (1) The chief executive must—

      • (a) monitor the compliance of recognised users with sections 92D and 92F, with regulations made under section 92I, and with conditions imposed on recognised users by the chief executive:

      • (b) in accordance with regulations made under section 92I, audit the records of recognised users for that compliance.

      (2) In performing the chief executive's functions under subsection (1), the chief executive must periodically report to the Privacy Commissioner on the performance of the chief executive's functions under that subsection.

      (3) The chief executive must—

      • (a) monitor his or her compliance with sections 92C to 92G and this section and with any regulations made under section 92I; and

      • (b) report to the Privacy Commissioner, at agreed intervals, on that compliance.

    92I Regulations
    • (1) The Governor-General may, by Order in Council made on the recommendation of the Minister for Courts, make regulations for all or any of the following purposes:

      • (a) prescribing the criteria to be applied by the Minister for Courts in authorising agencies as recognised users:

      • (b) specifying classes of persons for the purposes of the definition of recognised user in section 92A:

      • (c) prescribing the procedure, requirements, or other matters in relation to the cancellation of access codes, including the circumstances when access codes may be suspended immediately pending their proposed cancellation and when prior notice about the proposed cancellation and the opportunity for submissions in that respect are required to be given to the recognised user concerned:

      • (d) providing for the manner in which fine status responses are disclosed to recognised users:

      • (e) providing for the manner in which identifying particulars received from recognised users are processed:

      • (f) requiring recognised users to take all reasonable steps to ensure that a query subject's driver licence number (if any) or driver licence card number (if any), or both, are obtained from the query subject by or on behalf of the recognised user each time a fine status query is submitted:

      • (g) prescribing criteria for assessing whether the identifying particulars of a query subject in a fine status query correspond with those of a person shown in the fines enforcement records as having a default balance:

      • (h) prescribing criteria by which divergences in particulars are to be regarded, or are not to be regarded, as diverging particulars for the purposes of section 92G:

      • (i) prescribing restrictions on the disclosure and use, by recognised users and subscribers, of the information contained in fine status responses, including, without limitation, restrictions on combining that information with other information:

      • (j) prescribing the manner in which the information contained in a fine status response may be disclosed by a recognised user who is a credit reporter to the subscriber who requested the information:

      • (k) prescribing the period for which fine status responses may be retained or used by recognised users and subscribers, and requiring the destruction of those responses on the expiry of specified periods:

      • (l) providing for the manner and timing of audits conducted under section 92H, and for the delivery of audit reports to the Privacy Commissioner and any other persons specified in the regulations:

      • (m) prescribing, for audit purposes, the kinds of records that recognised users must keep in respect of fine status queries and fine status responses, and the manner in which, and the duration for which, those records must be kept:

      • (n) providing for a person's status as a recognised user to be terminated by the Minister for Courts in specified circumstances, even though that person comes within the definition of that term in section 92A:

      • (o) prescribing the fees that are payable in respect of access codes allocated by the chief executive, fine status queries, or fine status responses.

      (2) Before the Minister for Courts recommends the making of regulations under subsection (1), the Minister must—

      • (a) consult the Privacy Commissioner; and

      • (b) be satisfied that the proposed regulations are consistent with the purpose stated in section 92B(1) and the legislative framework described in section 92B(2).

      (3) Subsection (1)(f) does not apply unless the definition of credit information in the credit reporting code of practice includes driver licence numbers and driver licence card numbers.

      (4) This section does not limit section 212.

32 New headings and sections 93 to 100T substituted
  • Sections 93 to 100Y are repealed and the following headings and sections substituted:

    Written cautions in case of certain traffic fines

    93 Written caution to person holding interest in motor vehicle
    • (1) If a defendant defaults in paying any traffic fine for a traffic offence committed while using a motor vehicle in which the defendant does not appear to have an interest, the Registrar may order that a written caution be issued and served on any person who appears to own or to have an interest in the motor vehicle.

      (2) Despite subsection (1), a written caution is not to be served—

      • (a) on anyone if the Registrar is satisfied that the motor vehicle—

        • (i) was stolen or converted at the material time; or

        • (ii) was let on hire at the material time in accordance with a rental service licence under the Land Transport Act 1998; or

      • (b) on a person who the Registrar is satisfied is a secured party under a security agreement relating to the motor vehicle, or the lessor of the motor vehicle under a lease, but who has no relationship of another kind with the defendant.

      (3) The written caution must state that any motor vehicle in which the person has an interest is liable to be seized if the defendant defaults in paying a traffic fine for any further traffic offence committed—

      • (a) while using a motor vehicle in which the person has an interest as owner or otherwise; and

      • (b) within 4 years after the date on which the written caution is served on the person.

      (4) A written caution must provide the following information:

      • (a) the name and identifying details of the defendant:

      • (b) the relevant traffic fine that the defendant has defaulted in paying:

      • (c) the identifying details of the motor vehicle in which the relevant traffic offence or traffic offences were committed:

      • (d) that the recipient is believed to have owned or to have had an interest in the motor vehicle at the material time and that none of the reasons stated in subsection (2) has been established to the satisfaction of the Registrar:

      • (e) the recipient’s right to seek a review of the Registrar’s decision to order the service of the written caution on the recipient.

    94 Review of written caution
    • (1) A person served with a written caution under section 93 may, within 20 working days after the date of service, apply to the Court for a review by a District Court Judge of the decision to serve the person, on 1 or more of the following grounds:

      • (a) the motor vehicle was stolen or converted at the material time:

      • (b) the person did not own or have an interest in the motor vehicle at the material time:

      • (c) the person is a secured party under a security agreement relating to the motor vehicle, or the lessor of the motor vehicle under a lease, but who has no relationship of another kind with the defendant:

      • (d) the motor vehicle was let on hire at the material time in accordance with a rental service licence under the Land Transport Act 1998.

      (2) Every application must include a statutory declaration that specifies a ground stated in subsection (1) and why that ground applies.

      (3) The Judge must conduct the review on the papers unless the Judge considers that a hearing is necessary.

      (4) If the Judge is satisfied that a ground stated in subsection (1) applies, the following provisions apply:

      • (a) the Judge must cancel the written caution served on the applicant:

      • (b) if the ground for cancelling the applicant's written caution is that stated in subsection (1)(a) or (d), the Judge must also cancel the written caution served on any other person under the same order that required service of the written caution on the applicant:

      • (c) the Registrar must notify every person (including the applicant) whose written caution is cancelled of that outcome:

      • (d) if a written caution served on a person is cancelled, the written caution is deemed not to have been served on the person.

    95 Written caution of no effect if fine quashed or set aside
    • (1) If the fine in respect of which a written caution has been served on a person is quashed or set aside, the written caution ceases to have effect and is deemed not to have been served.

      (2) If a written caution ceases to have effect under subsection (1), the Registrar must notify every person served with the written caution of that outcome.

    96 Challenge of seizure by persons treated as substitutes
    • (1) If a motor vehicle is seized on the basis that the person who owns or appears to own it or has or appears to have an interest in it, is a substitute for the defendant, that person may, within 7 days after the date of the seizure, apply to a District Court Judge to challenge the seizure on 1 or more of the following grounds:

      • (a) the motor vehicle was stolen or converted at the material time:

      • (b) the person did not own or have an interest in the motor vehicle at the material time:

      • (c) the person is a secured party under a security agreement relating to the motor vehicle or the lessor of the motor vehicle under a lease, but has no relationship of another kind with the defendant:

      • (d) the motor vehicle was let on hire at the material time in accordance with a rental service licence under the Land Transport Act 1998:

      • (e) the person took all reasonable steps to prevent the defendant from committing the traffic offence or traffic offences:

      • (f) the person had not, before the commission of the relevant traffic offence, been served with a written caution under section 93 in relation to the defendant.

      (2) Every application must include a statutory declaration that specifies a ground stated in subsection (1) and why that ground applies.

      (3) The Judge must consider the application on the papers unless the Judge considers that a hearing is necessary.

      (4) The Judge may order the return of the motor vehicle if satisfied that—

      • (a) a ground stated in subsection (1)(a) or (d) applies; or

      • (b) another ground stated in subsection (1) applies to the applicant and to every other person who is treated as a substitute for the defendant; or

      • (c) it would, in the circumstances, be unreasonable for the vehicle to be sold or disposed of.

    Seizure, release, and sale of property

    97 Purposes of sections 98 to 100T
    • The purposes of sections 98 to 100T are—

      • (a) to enable a fine or any fines in default to be collected more effectively through the seizure of property; and

      • (b) in cases where the fine or fines in default relate to traffic offending, to reduce opportunities for offending of that kind.

    98 Warrant to seize property
    • (1) If any warrant to seize property is issued under section 83(2)(a), 87(2)(a), or 88AE(1)(a), the warrant applies so as to authorise the seizure of—

      • (a) any property that is apparently the property of the defendant:

      • (b) any motor vehicle that is apparently the property of the substitute if the warrant is issued for a traffic fine and there is a substitute for the defendant.

      (2) Every warrant to seize property of the kind described in subsection (1)(a) or (b), or both, must—

      • (a) be in a form approved under section 209A; and

      • (b) contain full details of the fine and the amount remaining unpaid in respect of the fine.

      (3) A warrant to seize property referred to in subsection (1) may be in the form of a computer printout of information entered by a Registrar into a computer system accessible to the Police or a bailiff.

      (4) In addition to subsection (3), the following provisions apply to the warrant to seize property:

      • (a) information about a defendant that the Registrar entered may be printed out by a constable or bailiff, and for all purposes constitutes a warrant to seize property:

      • (b) the warrant is valid for a period of 28 days beginning on the date of its printing, and the warrant then lapses:

      • (c) at any time and from time to time after a warrant lapses under paragraph (b),—

        • (i) the Registrar may re-enter the particulars into the same computer system or enter the particulars into any other computer system available to the Police or a bailiff:

        • (ii) a constable or bailiff may obtain a further printout of the original information entered by the Registrar or obtain a printout of the re-entered information or of the information entered into the other computer system, and each one of the printouts constitutes a fresh warrant to seize property.

      (5) A constable or bailiff may execute a warrant to seize property referred to in subsection (1) or a computer printout that, under this section, constitutes a warrant to seize property.

      (6) Subsection (3) does not limit any other provision of this Act.

    99 Seizure of property
    • (1) For the purpose of executing any warrant to seize property, the bailiff or constable executing it may enter any premises, by force if necessary, if that bailiff or constable has reasonable cause to believe that property in respect of which the warrant is issued is on the premises.

      (2) If any person is in actual occupation of the premises, the bailiff or constable must, on entering, produce the warrant to that person and demand payment.

      (3) Where the fine is paid on the production of a warrant to seize property, the payment must be recorded on the warrant and the warrant is then of no further effect.

      (4) Without limiting anything in section 100C, any bailiff or constable seizing a motor vehicle under a warrant to seize property may, instead of or while seizing the vehicle, immobilise the vehicle by attaching to the vehicle any device designed for that purpose.

      (5) When property is seized under a warrant to seize property, the bailiff or constable must promptly give the defendant or the substitute a notice in a form approved by the chief executive—

      • (a) identifying the property seized; and

      • (b) directing the defendant or the substitute for the defendant to notify the Registrar, within 7 days after the date of the seizure, whether the defendant or the substitute owns or has an interest in the property and to give the Registrar the name and address of any other person who owns or has an interest (including a lease or security interest) in the property.

      (6) The notice required to be given by subsection (5) must be delivered to the defendant or the substitute, or left for the defendant or the substitute in a conspicuous place at the premises from which the property is seized, or sent to the defendant or the substitute by ordinary post, fax, email, or other electronic means.

    100 Seizure of motor vehicles impounded under Land Transport Act 1998
    • (1) Any motor vehicle in which the defendant or a substitute for the defendant appears to have an ownership interest or other interest may be seized under a warrant to seize property even if it is impounded under section 96 or 96A of the Land Transport Act 1998, as long as it has been impounded under that Act for at least 14 days.

      (2) The power to seize a motor vehicle described in subsection (1) is not limited by any appeal pending under section 102 or 110 of the Land Transport Act 1998.

    100A Seizure of motor vehicle not precluded by low value or low interest
    • Consistent with the purposes stated in section 97, a motor vehicle may be seized in accordance with this Part even though it would be uneconomic to sell the vehicle or the proceeds from a sale of the vehicle would be insufficient to pay the fine in default or any part of that fine, whether because of the low value of the vehicle or the low value of the interest that the defendant or the substitute has in the motor vehicle, or for any other reason.

    100B Seized property to be retained by or for Registrar
    • (1) The bailiff or constable executing a warrant to seize property must ensure that property seized under the warrant is—

      • (a) taken to the Registrar; or

      • (b) if the Registrar so directs, taken to, or retained by, any person or at any place specified for the purpose by the Registrar.

      (2) If any motor vehicle that is seized under a warrant to seize property fails to comply in any respect with section 242 of the Land Transport Act 1998, then—

      • (a) the vehicle may, despite that Act or any other enactment, be towed to any place specified by the Registrar; and

      • (b) no person who seizes, retains, or disposes of the vehicle in accordance with this Act is under any criminal or civil liability merely because of the failure of the vehicle to comply with that section.

      (3) The Registrar must ensure the seized property is retained until the fine is paid or the property is sold, or assigned or applied, or otherwise disposed of or released in accordance with a determination of the Registrar or a District Court Judge.

    100C Immobilisation of motor vehicles
    • (1) Any bailiff or constable executing a warrant to seize property may, while seizing or instead of seizing any motor vehicle, immobilise the vehicle by attaching to the vehicle any device designed for the purpose, pending the payment of the fine in default.

      (2) No motor vehicle may be immobilised under subsection (1) unless, at the time of its immobilisation, it is—

      • (a) on private property; or

      • (b) in a public place and the bailiff or constable is satisfied that immobilising the vehicle will not cause undue inconvenience to other persons.

      (3) Where any motor vehicle is immobilised under subsection (1), any bailiff or constable—

      • (a) may at any time seize the vehicle:

      • (b) must, on the direction of a Registrar, seize the vehicle.

      (4) When a motor vehicle is seized under subsection (3), section 100B applies accordingly.

      (5) If, 14 days after the date of the immobilisation of any motor vehicle under subsection (1), the fine remains unpaid or is not resolved, the Registrar must direct a bailiff or constable to seize the vehicle.

      (6) Every person commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding $1,000 who, without reasonable excuse,—

      • (a) tampers with, removes, or attempts to remove a device attached to a motor vehicle under subsection (1); or

      • (b) removes, or attempts to remove,—

        • (i) a motor vehicle to which a device is, or has been, attached under subsection (1); or

        • (ii) any part of that vehicle; or

        • (iii) any other property from that vehicle.

    100D Personal property securities register to be checked
    • (1) If property is seized under a warrant to seize property, the Registrar must, on the next working day after the property is seized, check whether a financing statement that relates to the property has been registered on the personal property securities register kept under the Personal Property Securities Act 1999.

      (2) If a financing statement has been registered, the Registrar must promptly notify the person named as the secured party (including any lessor) in the financing statement of the following:

      • (a) that the Registrar may, under section 100P, sell the property after the expiration of 7 days from the date of seizure if the fine remains unpaid and no claim has been made in respect of the property by a person other than—

        • (i) the defendant; or

        • (ii) where the property is a motor vehicle seized in respect of a traffic fine, a substitute for the defendant or a nominee for the defendant or the substitute:

      • (b) the rights that may be available to the person under sections 100H, 100J, and 100Q.

    100E Release of property if fine and other costs paid or if certain appeals successful
    • (1) Any property that has been seized and is retained by the Registrar may be returned to the person from whom it was seized or to the person apparently lawfully entitled to it if the following are paid:

      • (a) the fine:

      • (b) if the property is a motor vehicle that has been impounded under section 96 or 96A of the Land Transport Act 1998, any impoundment costs:

      • (c) all costs incurred in seizing, transporting, and storing the property.

      (2) Subsection (1) applies even though claims under any of sections 100F, 100H, and 100J are pending in respect of the property.

      (3) If the property is a motor vehicle that has been seized from a substitute for the defendant, the only type of fines required to be paid under subsection (1)(a) are ones imposed in respect of traffic offences committed by the defendant in a motor vehicle that, at the time of the commission of the offence, was owned by the substitute or in which the substitute had an interest.

      (4) If the property is a motor vehicle that has been seized while impounded under section 96 or 96A of the Land Transport Act 1998, the motor vehicle may not be released under subsection (1) before the day after the close of the 28-day period for which the vehicle would otherwise be required to be impounded under that Act.

      (5) Subsection (4) is subject to section 100L(1)(a) and (3).

      (6) If an appeal under section 102 or 110 of the Land Transport Act 1998 against the impoundment of the motor vehicle is allowed before the expiry of the 28-day period for which the motor vehicle would otherwise be required to be impounded under section 96 or 96A of that Act,—

      • (a) the Registrar must release the motor vehicle to the person who is registered in respect of that vehicle; and

      • (b) that person is not liable for any fees and costs payable under an enactment in respect of the motor vehicle.

      (7) Subsection (6)—

      • (a) applies despite subsection (1) and sections 100F to 100J, 100L, and 100P; but

      • (b) does not apply if the motor vehicle has already been released to a lessor or secured party under section 100H or 100L(1)(a) or been sold by the Court under section 100P.

    100F Release of property to certain owners
    • (1) If satisfied that the defendant does not own the seized property, the Registrar or a District Court Judge must release the property to a person who satisfies the Registrar or the Judge that—

      • (a) the person is the owner of the property; and

      • (b) in the case of a motor vehicle seized in respect of a traffic fine, the person is not a substitute for the defendant or a nominee for the defendant or the substitute.

      (2) If a person other than the defendant claims to own the property and the Registrar is not satisfied of the matters specified in subsection (1), the Registrar must issue a summons in a form approved under section 209A calling before the Court the claimant and the defendant or, if applicable in the case of a motor vehicle seized in respect of a traffic fine, the substitute for the defendant.

      (3) The issue of a summons under subsection (2) stays any action brought in respect of the claim.

      (4) Where a summons has been, or is to be, issued under subsection (2), the Registrar may release the property to the defendant or, if applicable in the case of a motor vehicle, to the substitute for the defendant if a deposit is paid or security is provided for whichever is the lesser of—

      • (a) the value of the seized property; or

      • (b) the fine in default, including the costs incurred in seizing, transporting, and storing the property, and any impoundment costs.

      (5) In any case where a motor vehicle has been seized while impounded under section 96 or 96A of the Land Transport Act 1998, the motor vehicle—

      • (a) may not be released under this section unless—

        • (i) the 28-day period for which the vehicle would otherwise be required to be impounded under that Act has expired; and

        • (ii) any impoundment costs have been paid into Court within 7 days after the close of that period or within any longer period specified by the Registrar in writing; and

      • (b) may be sold under section 100P if those costs are not paid in accordance with paragraph (a)(ii).

    100G Determination of claim by owners
    • (1) In determining a claim under section 100F(2), a District Court Judge may, if the property has not yet been sold, assigned, applied, or otherwise disposed of, release the property to the claimant if satisfied that—

      • (a) the defendant does not own the property; and

      • (b) in the case of a motor vehicle seized in respect of a traffic fine, the claimant is not a substitute for the defendant or a nominee for the defendant or the substitute.

      (2) The Judge may, if the property is a motor vehicle that has not yet been sold or otherwise disposed of, release the motor vehicle to a person whose motor vehicle was seized because the person was taken to be a substitute for the defendant if satisfied that 1 or more of the following grounds apply:

      • (a) the motor vehicle was stolen or converted at the material time:

      • (b) the person did not own or have an interest in the motor vehicle at the material time:

      • (c) the person is a secured party under a security agreement relating to the motor vehicle, or is the lessor of the motor vehicle under a lease, but who has no relationship of another kind with the defendant:

      • (d) the motor vehicle was let on hire at the material time in accordance with a rental service licence under the Land Transport Act 1998.

      (3) In the case of a motor vehicle seized in respect of a traffic fine, the Judge may ask any claimant to satisfy the Judge that any agreement, transfer, or change in registration or ownership is genuine if the Judge has reason to question whether the claimant is a nominee for the defendant or any substitute for the defendant.

      (4) A person who claims to have acquired property from the defendant after the commission of any offence or after the taking of any enforcement action against the defendant must satisfy the Judge that the transaction on which the acquisition was based was genuine.

      (5) In any case where the motor vehicle has been seized while impounded under section 96 or 96A of the Land Transport Act 1998, the motor vehicle—

      • (a) may not be released under this section unless—

        • (i) the 28-day period for which the vehicle would otherwise be required to be impounded under that Act has expired; and

        • (ii) any impoundment costs have been paid into Court within 7 days after the close of that period or within any longer period specified by the Registrar in writing; and

      • (b) may be sold under section 100P if those costs are not paid in accordance with paragraph (a)(ii).

      (6) If the claimant succeeds in the claim to the property,—

      • (a) any deposit paid or security provided must be returned to the person who provided it; and

      • (b) a District Court Judge may order the defendant to reimburse any person for any costs that have been paid into Court under section 100Q.

      (7) If the claimant does not succeed in the claim to the property, any deposit paid or security provided may be applied as if it were the proceeds of the sale of the property.

    100H Lessor may apply to Registrar
    • (1) This section applies if—

      • (a) the property seized is subject to a lease; and

      • (b) the lessor is not the defendant; and

      • (c) the property is a motor vehicle seized in respect of a traffic fine, and the lessor is neither—

        • (i) a substitute for the defendant; nor

        • (ii) a nominee for the defendant or the substitute.

      (2) The lessor may apply to the Court, at any time before the Registrar has sold the property, for the release of the property to the lessor as if the defendant or the substitute for the defendant or the nominee for the defendant or the substitute had breached the terms of the lease.

      (3) On an application under subsection (2), the Registrar or a District Court Judge may release the property to the lessor.

      (4) Property that is a motor vehicle may also be released under subsection (3) if it has been seized while impounded under section 96 or 96A of the Land Transport Act 1998 even though the 28-day period of impoundment for which the motor vehicle would otherwise be required to be impounded under that Act has not yet expired.

      (5) On the release of property under subsection (3) to the lessor, the lease is cancelled.

      (6) This section is subject to section 100M.

      Compare: 2002 No 9 s 140

    100I What happens if lessor does not apply to Registrar before property sold or disposed of
    • (1) This section applies if—

      • (a) section 100H applies; but

      • (b) the lessor does not apply to the Court for the release of the property under section 100H(2) before it is sold or disposed of; and

      • (c) the proceeds of the sale have not been fully applied.

      (2) The lessor may apply to the Court for the release of the proceeds of the sale of the property that have not been applied.

      (3) On an application under subsection (2), the Registrar or a District Court Judge may release the proceeds of the sale of the property in accordance with subsections (4) and (5).

      (4) The proceeds of the sale of the property must be applied in accordance with section 100R as if the definitions of security agreement and security interest in section 79 included a lease and the lessor were a secured party as defined in that subsection.

      (5) However, despite subsection (4), section 100R applies subject to the following modifications:

      • (a) the proceeds of the sale of the property must be applied in payment to the lessor of the amount to which the lessor would, but for the sale, have been entitled under the lease; and

      • (b) the proceeds of the sale of the property must be applied in the manner and order of priority set out in section 100R, except that,—

        • (i) in the case of a lease for a term of less than 1 year, those proceeds must be applied for the payment to the lessor described in paragraph (a) after they are applied for the payments described in section 100R(1)(a) and (b), but before they are applied for the remainder of the payments described in section 100R(1)(c) to (j); and

        • (ii) in the case of a lease for a term of more than 1 year, those proceeds must be applied for the payment to the lessor described in paragraph (a) as if they were payments described in section 100R(1)(c), and section 100R(2) applied.

      (6) On the release of the proceeds of the sale of the property to the lessor, the lease is cancelled.

    100J Claims by secured parties
    • (1) The Registrar or a District Court Judge must, on application or on his or her own initiative, recognise a security agreement in respect of seized property if satisfied that a person has rights over that property as a secured party.

      (2) The rights of a secured party may not be recognised under subsection (1) if the secured party is—

      • (a) the defendant; or

      • (b) in the case of a motor vehicle seized in respect of a traffic fine, a substitute for the defendant or a nominee for the defendant or the substitute.

      (3) When a security agreement has been recognised under subsection (1), the Registrar must take the action prescribed in section 100K if it appears to the Registrar that—

      • (a) the secured party is a person who enters into security agreements in the course of the person's business; and

      • (b) the defendant is the debtor under the security agreement; and

      • (c) the defendant has not become bankrupt or been put into liquidation since the date on which the defendant signed or assented to the security agreement (in this section and in section 100K referred to as the agreement date).

      (4) The Registrar must—

      • (a) establish the agreement date—

        • (i) from the security agreement or any other documentary evidence; or

        • (ii) if the agreement date cannot be so established, by determining the agreement date on the basis of any information that the Registrar considers relevant:

      • (b) ascertain, in accordance with section 100K, whether the defendant had a default balance recorded against the defendant's name.

    100K Certification of default balance
    • (1) In order to assist the Registrar to ascertain whether the defendant had a default balance recorded against the defendant's name, the secured party may present to the Registrar evidence of a fine status response about the defendant.

      (2) On being satisfied of the authenticity of the evidence presented under subsection (1), the Registrar must accept the fine status response if—

      • (a) the date to which the fine status response relates is not earlier than—

        • (i) 20 working days before the agreement date; or

        • (ii) 20 working days before the date on which the provision of credit secured under the security agreement was approved, where the Registrar is presented with satisfactory evidence of the date of that approval; or

      • (b) where the fine status response does not come within paragraph (a), the Registrar is satisfied that, in providing the credit secured under the security agreement, the secured party relied on that fine status response, and that there are exceptional circumstances that justify that reliance.

      (3) If—

      • (a) a fine status response accepted under subsection (2) does disclose a default balance consisting of 1 or more fines; and

      • (b) the defendant still owes those fines in whole or part—

      the Registrar must certify that the secured party's security interest is subject to that default balance, less any amounts by which those fines have since been paid or reduced.

      (4) If—

      • (a) there is no evidence, or no satisfactory evidence, of a fine status response or if a fine status response has not been accepted under subsection (2); and

      • (b) as at the agreement date, the defendant had a default balance consisting of 1 or more fines; and

      • (c) the defendant still owes those fines in whole or part—

      the Registrar must certify that the secured party's security interest is subject to that default balance, less any amounts by which those fines have since been paid or reduced.

      (5) If section 92D was not in force as at the agreement date, the Registrar must certify that the secured party's security interest is not subject to a default balance.

      (6) In this section, fine status response has the same meaning as in section 92A.

    100L Sale of secured property by secured party or by Court
    • (1) When the applicability of a default balance has been ascertained under section 100K, a District Court Judge or the Registrar may, if the property has not yet been sold,—

      • (a) release the property to a secured party, at the request of the secured party, and direct the secured party to sell the property and account for the proceeds of sale in accordance with section 100N; or

      • (b) order the sale of the property under section 100P.

      (2) If the Judge or Registrar takes action under subsection (1)(a) and 2 or more secured parties have requested the taking of that action, then the Judge or Registrar must release the property to the secured party with the highest-ranking security interest under the order of priority determined by Part 7 or 8 of the Personal Property Securities Act 1999.

      (3) If the property is a motor vehicle that has been seized while impounded under section 96 or 96A of the Land Transport Act 1998, the motor vehicle may also be released under subsection (1)(a) even though the 28-day period of impoundment for which the motor vehicle would otherwise be required to be impounded under that Act has not yet expired.

      (4) A purchaser of property that is sold to the purchaser under a direction given under subsection (1)(a) obtains, by virtue of this section, good title to the property free of all ownership interests and other proprietary interests held in the property before that sale.

      (5) Subsection (1)(a) is subject to section 100M.

    100M Certain payments required before release to lessor or secured party takes effect
    • (1) An order for the release of property under section 100H(3) or 100L(1)(a) does not take effect unless the following costs have been paid into court:

      • (a) if the property is a motor vehicle that has been impounded under section 96 or 96A of the Land Transport Act 1998, any impoundment costs:

      • (b) any costs incurred in seizing, transporting, and storing the property and in complying with the provisions of this Part:

      • (c) in the case of a secured party claiming under a security agreement, any applicable default balance certified under section 100K in respect of that agreement.

      (2) Any payments required to be paid by subsection (1) must be paid within 7 days after the day on which the lessor or secured party is notified of the decision to release the property, or within any longer period specified by the Registrar in writing.

      (3) If the payments specified in subsection (1) are not paid in accordance with subsection (2), the property may be sold under section 100P.

    100N Application of proceeds of sale by secured party
    • (1) A person to whom property is released under section 100L(1)(a) must, on selling the property,—

      • (a) account to the Registrar for the proceeds of the sale:

      • (b) pay into Court the proceeds of the sale, less—

        • (i) any amount paid under section 100M; and

        • (ii) the amount of the costs and expenses of, and incidental to, the sale.

      (2) The Registrar must then apply the balance remaining in accordance with section 100R(1)(c) to (j) and (2), with all necessary modifications.

    100O Failure by secured party to sell or account for proceeds
    • (1) If the secured party fails to comply with a direction under section 100L(1)(a) and has not sold the property,—

      • (a) the Registrar must issue, in a form approved by the chief executive, a warrant to recover property; and

      • (b) the property may be recovered under that warrant as the property of the defendant or (if the property is a motor vehicle seized from a substitute of the defendant) the substitute for the defendant; and

      • (c) section 98 applies in respect of the property with all necessary modifications.

      (2) As soon as practicable after the property is delivered into a Registrar’s custody under subsection (1), the Registrar must arrange for the sale of the property as if it were a sale under section 100P and apply the proceeds of sale in accordance with section 100R(1) or, as the case requires, in accordance with a direction under section 100R(5).

      (3) A secured party who fails, in whole or in part, to pay into Court the money required under section 100N(1)(b) is liable to the Crown for any amount not paid, and that amount may be recovered from the secured party as a debt due to the Crown.

    100P Sale or disposal of property seized
    • (1) If any fine in respect of which property has been seized under a warrant to seize property remains unpaid, a District Court Judge or the Registrar may, after the expiry of the relevant period specified in subsection (2), order—

      • (a) that the property be sold at public auction or in any other manner that the Judge or Registrar directs; or

      • (b) in the case of a negotiable instrument, that the Registrar obtain payment under, assign, or otherwise dispose of the negotiable instrument; or

      • (c) in the case of money, that the Registrar apply the money in accordance with section 100R.

      (2) The relevant period referred to in subsection (1) is 7 days after the day on which the property was seized or, if the property is a motor vehicle that was seized while impounded under section 96 or 96A of the Land Transport Act 1998, the later of—

      • (a) the day after the close of the 28-day period for which the motor vehicle would otherwise be required to be impounded under that Act; or

      • (b) the expiry of 8 days after the day on which the motor vehicle was seized.

      (3) A motor vehicle may be sold under this section even though it fails to comply in any respect with section 242 of the Land Transport Act 1998, and the purchaser of that motor vehicle—

      • (a) is, despite that Act or any other enactment, entitled to tow the motor vehicle to any appropriate place; and

      • (b) in so towing the vehicle, is under no criminal or civil liability merely because of the failure of the vehicle to comply with that section; and

      • (c) must comply in all respects with that Act as soon as the motor vehicle has been towed to that place.

      (4) Despite subsections (1) to (3), the Registrar may dispose of a motor vehicle in any manner that he or she thinks fit if the Registrar has reasonable grounds to believe that the motor vehicle is a low-value motor vehicle referred to in section 100A.

      (5) If the Registrar considers that a motor vehicle is not roadworthy and that it would be uneconomic to render it roadworthy, the Registrar must, before the motor vehicle is sold or disposed of under this section, apply, under the Land Transport Act 1998, to have the registration of the motor vehicle cancelled as if the Registrar were the person who, under that Act, is entitled to apply for that cancellation.

      (6) The sale of a motor vehicle that has been seized while impounded under section 96 or 96A of the Land Transport Act 1998 is not affected by any appeal that is pending after the 28-day period for which the motor vehicle would otherwise be required to be impounded under that Act, or by any appeal that is determined after that period.

      (7) In any case where a motor vehicle has been seized while impounded under section 96 or 96A of the Land Transport Act 1998, the vehicle may be sold under this section (even if the fine and all costs incurred in seizing, towing, and storing the vehicle have been paid) if any impoundment costs are not paid within—

      • (a) 7 days after the close of the 28-day period for which the vehicle would otherwise be required to be impounded under that Act; or

      • (b) any longer period specified by the Registrar in writing.

      (8) The sale of property by the Registrar is deferred by a pending claim in respect of the property only if the costs of storage have been paid under section 100Q or a deposit has been paid, or security has been provided, under section 100F.

      (9) However, the property may be sold and the proceeds of the sale must be held until the pending claim is determined if—

      • (a) the costs of storage have not been paid under section 100Q; or

      • (b) a deposit has not been paid, or security has not been provided, under section 100F.

      (10) The purchaser or assignee of property sold or disposed of under this section obtains, by virtue of this section, good title to the property free of all ownership interests and other proprietary interests held in the property before that sale or disposition.

    100Q Registrar must defer sale if storage costs paid
    • (1) Any person may pay into Court the costs incurred by the Court in storing any property and as long as those costs, and any recurring storage costs, are paid, the Registrar must defer the sale of the property.

      (2) A payment made under subsection (1) may not be less than the amount of the costs incurred in a period of 8 days.

    100R Application of proceeds of sale
    • (1) When property is sold under section 100P, the proceeds of the sale must be applied in the following manner and order of priority:

      • (a) if the property is a motor vehicle that has been impounded under section 96 or 96A of the Land Transport Act 1998, in payment of any impoundment costs:

      • (b) in payment of the costs of the sale (including all costs incurred in seizing, transporting, and storing the property and in complying with the provisions of this Part preliminary to sale):

      • (c) if 1 or more security agreements have been recognised under section 100J before the proceeds of the sale are fully applied, in payment to each secured party of the amount to which the secured party would, but for the extinguishment of the security interest concerned, have been entitled under that agreement less any applicable default balance certified, under section 100K, in respect of that agreement:

      • (d) in payment of any amount of reparation payable by the defendant:

      • (e) in payment of any offender levy:

      • (f) in payment of the fine specified in the warrant:

      • (g) in payment to any secured party or secured parties of the applicable default balance or the applicable default balances certified under section 100K and deducted under paragraph (c):

      • (h) in payment of any fees and accident insurance levies prescribed under section 242(2)(b) of the Land Transport Act 1998 that are outstanding in respect of the vehicle:

      • (i) in payment of any road user charges under Road User Charges Act 2012 that are outstanding in respect of the vehicle:

      • (j) to the defendant or, as the case requires, to the substitute for the defendant.

      (2) If any proceeds of sale are required to be applied to 2 or more security interests under subsection (1)(c), those proceeds must be applied in the order of the priority determined for those security interests by Part 7 or 8 of the Personal Property Securities Act 1999.

      (3) If any proceeds of sale are required to be applied to 2 or more default balances under subsection (1)(g), those proceeds must be applied to those default balances in the order of the priority determined for the applicable security interests by Part 7 or 8 of the Personal Property Securities Act 1999.

      (4) If the proceeds arise out of the sale of a motor vehicle owned by a substitute for the defendant or in which the substitute had an interest, the proceeds must be applied in the manner and order of priority specified in subsection (1), except that the payments described in paragraphs (d) to (f) of that subsection are limited to amounts imposed in respect of traffic offences committed by the defendant in a motor vehicle that, at the time of the commission of the offence, was owned by the substitute or in which the substitute had an interest.

      (5) The Judge may, on application or on his or her own initiative, give any directions as to the application of the proceeds of sale under this section.

    100S Remission of fine and costs of sale in certain cases involving motor vehicles
    • (1) This section applies if the realisation under section 100N or 100P of any motor vehicle seized in respect of a fine does not result in a reduction of the defendant's fine by more than $100.

      (2) The Registrar must—

      • (a) remit the impoundment costs and the costs of the sale of the motor vehicle (as those costs are described in section 100R(1)(a) and (b)); and

      • (b) remit—

        • (i) the entire fine in default for which the motor vehicle was seized, if the amount of that fine is $100 or less; or

        • (ii) $100 less any proceeds of that sale that have been applied towards paying the fine in default, if the amount of that fine is greater than $100.

        Example

        A motor vehicle seized in respect of a fine sells for $350. The impoundment costs and the costs of the sale of that motor vehicle are $300. This leaves a balance of $50 to be deducted from the fine. However, the Registrar must remit a further $50 of the fine in order to comply with the requirement for $100 to be deducted from the fine.

      (3) The reference to fine in subsection (2)(b) excludes—

      • (a) any reparation that the defendant is liable to pay, other than Court costs and other costs that have been added to that reparation; and

      • (b) any offender levy.

    100T Compensation to person with interest in property sold
    • (1) This section applies if—

      • (a) a person (other than the defendant or a substitute for the defendant or a nominee for the defendant or the substitute) suffers loss through the sale under section 100P of property in which the person had an interest; and

      • (b) the defendant or the substitute had not before the sale notified the Registrar of the person's interest in the property.

      (2) If this section applies, a Judge may, on the application of that person, order the defendant to pay to the person compensation in respect of the loss.

      (3) Subsection (2) does not limit or affect any other remedy that a person may have in respect of loss referred to in that subsection.

    Section 32: amended, on 1 August 2012, by section 94 of the Road User Charges Act 2012 (2012 No 1).

33 Protection of Registrar, bailiff, etc
  • Section 102 is amended by inserting sale, assignment, application, or after subsequent.

34 Effect of attachment order
  • Section 103(1) is amended—

    • (a) by omitting section 87(1)(b) and substituting section 87(2)(b); and

    • (b) by omitting writing in the prescribed form and substituting a form approved under section 209A.

35 Power to obtain information in respect of employers
  • (1) Section 104A(1A) is amended by omitting , by notice in writing,.

    (2) Section 104A(2) is amended—

    • (a) by omitting any request and substituting a requirement; and

    • (b) by omitting notice and substituting requirement.

    (3) Section 104A is amended by inserting the following subsection after subsection (2):

    • (2A) A requirement under subsection (1A) may be made by post or by fax, email, or other electronic means.

    (4) Section 104A(3) is amended by omitting notice and substituting requirement.

36 New section 105 substituted
  • Section 105 is repealed and the following section substituted:

    105 Content of attachment orders
    • (1) An attachment order must state—

      • (a) when deductions are to be made, by reference to a period of a week, fortnight, month, or some other period (the earnings period); and

      • (b) the amount or percentage to be deducted from the defendant's salary or wages for the earnings period; and

      • (c) an amount or percentage below which the net amount paid to the defendant for the earnings period must not fall; and

      • (d) that the money due and payable under the fine is, by way of the directed deductions, to be a charge on any salary or wages that from time to time while the attachment order remains in force become due and payable by the employer to the defendant.

      (2) The charge created by the attachment order—

      • (a) accrues from earnings period to earnings period, and on a day within, or following, each period that is specified in the attachment order; and

      • (b) attaches to all salary or wages that become due by the employer to the defendant at any time while the attachment order is in force, whether or not the contract of employment in respect of which the salary or wages so become due existed at the date of the attachment order; and

      • (c) prevails over and has priority to any assignment or charge created by the defendant (whether before or after the making of the attachment order against the defendant), so that the attachment order has the same effect as if no such assignment or charge had been made or created.

      (3) Every attachment order applies for a fixed period stated in the order, and must not apply for a period of more than 5 years after the date on which the order is made by the Registrar.

      (4) Despite subsections (1) and (2), no attachment order is to operate so that, when its effect is considered either alone or with the effect of any item specified in subsection (5), the net amount paid to a defendant for an earnings period is below the protected earnings rate for the earnings period; and, where necessary, the amount to be deducted from the defendant's salary or wages for the earnings period is treated as being reduced or cancelled accordingly.

      (5) The items referred to in subsection (4) are—

      • (a) a deduction notice or an attachment order under the Child Support Act 1991, the Family Proceedings Act 1980, the Social Security Act 1964, or the Tax Administration Act 1994:

      • (b) a deduction for the recovery of payments under section 86 of the Social Security Act 1964.

      (6) If any question arises in any case as to the priority to be accorded to an attachment order made under this Act, each of the items specified in subsection (5) has priority over that attachment order.

      (7) In this section,—

      net earnings, in relation to an earnings period, means the balance left after deducting from the defendant's salary or wages for the earnings period the amount of tax required to be withheld or deducted in accordance with the PAYE rules of the Income Tax Act 2007 if the salary or wages were the only salary or wages paid to the defendant by the employer for the earnings period

      protected earnings rate, in relation to an earnings period, means the higher of—

      • (a) 60% of net earnings for the earnings period; and

      • (b) the amount or percentage stated under subsection (1)(c).

37 Liability of employer
  • Section 106 is amended by repealing subsection (4) and substituting the following subsections:

    • (4) If the defendant gives notice of resignation, or is given notice of dismissal, from the employment of the employer to whom the attachment order relates, the employer must, within 7 days after receiving or giving the notice, notify the Registrar of the Court in which the attachment order was issued of the date of the last day of the defendant's employment.

    • (4A) If the employer to whom the attachment order relates ceases to pay salary or wages to the defendant for a reason other than the defendant's dismissal or resignation from the employment of the employer, the employer must, within 7 days after ceasing to pay the salary or wages, notify the Registrar of the Court in which the attachment order was issued of the day on which the salary or wages ceased to be paid.

38 Section 106A substituted
  • Section 106A is repealed and the following section substituted:

    106A Wrongful treatment of employee
    • Every employer commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding $1,000 who dismisses any employee or alters any employee's position in the employer's business or undertaking to the employee's prejudice by reason of—

      • (a) the employee having been ordered to pay 1 or more fines; or

      • (b) an attachment order having been served on the employer; or

      • (c) the employer becoming aware that an attachment order is being made or has been made in respect of the employee.

39 Extent to which attachment orders bind the Crown
  • Section 106B is amended by repealing subsection (3) and substituting the following subsection:

    • (3) If the defendant liable to pay a fine is a servant of the Crown, an attachment order may be made against the Crown as employer.

40 New sections 106E and 106EA substituted
  • Section 106E is repealed and the following sections are substituted:

    106E Restrictions on substituted sentences
    • (1) A District Court Judge or Community Magistrate must not impose a substituted sentence on a defendant for non-payment of 1 or more fines under this Part unless—

      • (a) an assessment of the defendant's financial capacity has been recently completed, being an assessment that does not include information given by a third party unless it also gives details of the source of the information and the date to which the information relates; and

      • (b) the Judge or Community Magistrate has considered the assessment; and

      • (c) the Judge or Community Magistrate is satisfied that all other methods of enforcing the fine or fines have been considered or tried and that they are inappropriate or have been unsuccessful.

      (2) A District Court Judge or Community Magistrate may, subject to the restrictions set out in this section, sentence a defendant to community work or community detention for non-payment of 1 or more fines under this Part.

      (3) A District Court Judge may, subject to the restrictions set out in this section,—

      • (a) sentence a defendant to home detention for non-payment of 1 or more fines under this Part:

      • (b) issue, or direct the issue of, a warrant of commitment for the imprisonment of a defendant for non-payment of 1 or more fines under this Part.

      (4) In sentencing a defendant for non-payment of 1 or more fines under this Part, the Court must impose the least restrictive sentence that is appropriate in the circumstances.

      (5) A District Court Judge or Community Magistrate must not sentence a defendant to a sentence of community detention in accordance with subsection (2) unless—

      • (a) a pre-sentence report has been provided in accordance with section 26A of the Sentencing Act 2002; and

      • (b) the Judge or Community Magistrate is satisfied of the matters in section 69C of the Sentencing Act 2002.

      (6) A District Court Judge must not sentence a defendant to a sentence of home detention in accordance with subsection (3)(a) unless—

      • (a) a pre-sentence report has been provided in accordance with section 26A of the Sentencing Act 2002; and

      • (b) the Judge is satisfied of the matters in section 80A(2)(a) of the Sentencing Act 2002; and

      • (c) either of the following applies:

        • (i) the defendant is already undergoing a sentence of home detention or is about to be sentenced to home detention for another offence at the time that the Judge is considering sentencing the defendant for non-payment of 1 or more fines under this Part:

        • (ii) the Judge is satisfied that the defendant has the financial capacity to pay the fine or fines.

      (7) A District Court Judge must not issue, or direct the issue of, a warrant of commitment for the imprisonment of a defendant in accordance with subsection (3)(b) unless—

      • (a) the defendant has had the same opportunity for legal representation as is available to a defendant who is liable to a sentence of imprisonment under section 30 of the Sentencing Act 2002; and

      • (b) the warrant of commitment can be executed immediately; and

      • (c) either of the following applies:

        • (i) the defendant is already undergoing a sentence of imprisonment or is about to be sentenced to imprisonment for another offence at the time that the Judge is considering the sentence for the defendant for non-payment of 1 or more fines under this Part:

        • (ii) the Judge is satisfied that the defendant has the financial capacity to pay the fine or fines.

      (8) Subsection (7) is subject to section 83.

      (9) Section 19 of the Sentencing Act 2002 applies if a defendant is already undergoing a sentence or is about to be sentenced for another offence at the time that a District Court Judge is considering the sentence for the defendant for non-payment of 1 or more fines under this Part.

    106EA Defendant may be arrested for assessment of financial capacity
    • (1) Before a District Court Judge sentences a defendant to home detention, or issues or directs the issue of a warrant of commitment, under section 88AE(1), he or she may direct that a warrant for the defendant's arrest be issued to have the defendant brought before a District Court Judge to enable the defendant's financial capacity to pay the fine or fines to be assessed.

      (2) In assessing the defendant's financial capacity to pay the fine or fines, a District Court Judge must take into account—

      • (a) the Court's assessment of the defendant's capacity to pay the fine or fines (whether based on the defendant's declaration of financial capacity or otherwise) when the fine or fines were imposed; and

      • (b) any change of circumstances since that original assessment was made; and

      • (c) the defendant's current financial position.

      (3) If a defendant is arrested under subsection (1), the provisions of section 88AC apply.

      (4) If a District Court Judge directs that a warrant for the defendant's arrest be issued under subsection (1),—

      • (a) the Registrar may issue the warrant; and

      • (b) a constable or bailiff may execute the warrant.

41 Review of Registrar's decision
  • (1) Section 106F(1) is amended by inserting section 78B or 78C or under after under.

    (2) Section 106F is amended by adding the following subsections:

    • (3) If the decision to which the application under subsection (1) relates is a decision to issue a warrant to seize property and that warrant has been executed,—

      • (a) any seized property that has not been sold, assigned, applied, released, or otherwise disposed of must be retained under section 100B(3) if an application for review is made under subsection (1) and the review is pending; or

      • (b) if the seized property has been sold but the proceeds of the sale have not been applied in accordance with section 100N or 100R, the proceeds must be retained if an application for review is made under subsection (1) and the review is pending.

    • (4) If, on the determination of the review, the Judge confirms the Registrar's decision to issue the warrant to seize property, the property must be dealt with, and any fees and costs payable under an enactment in respect of the property are payable, as if the application had not been made.

    • (5) If, on the determination of the review, the Judge rescinds the Registrar's decision to issue the warrant to seize property, the owner—

      • (a) is entitled to—

        • (i) the return of the property if the property has been retained in accordance with subsection (3)(a); or

        • (ii) the proceeds of any sale if the proceeds have been retained in accordance with subsection (3)(b); and

      • (b) is not liable for any fees and costs payable under an enactment in respect of the property.

    • (6) On a review of a Registrar's decision to issue a warrant to seize property, the Judge may, subject to subsection (5)(b), make any order on any matter (including costs) that the Judge thinks just, having regard to all the circumstances of the case.

42 Provision as to issue of warrant pending appeal
  • Section 124(5) is repealed and the following subsections are substituted:

    • (5) If a warrant to seize property is issued before a notice of intention to appeal is filed and—

      • (a) the warrant has not been executed, it must be suspended until the appeal has been determined or, as the case may be, until the District Court Judge or Justice or Justices have certified that it has not been prosecuted, or the Registrar of the High Court has certified that it has been dismissed for non-prosecution:

      • (b) the warrant has been executed,—

        • (i) any seized property that has not been sold, assigned, applied, released, or otherwise disposed of must be retained while the appeal is pending; or

        • (ii) if the seized property has been sold but the proceeds of the sale have not been applied in accordance with section 100N or 100R, the proceeds must be retained while the appeal is pending.

    • (6) If, on the determination of the appeal or the issue of a certificate described in subsection (5)(a), the determination in respect of which the warrant was issued continues in effect, the property must be dealt with, and any fees and costs payable under an enactment in respect of the property are payable, as if the notice of appeal had not been given.

    • (7) If, on the determination of the appeal, the determination in respect of which the warrant was issued is set aside or quashed, the owner—

      • (a) is entitled to—

        • (i) the return of the property if the property has been retained in accordance with subsection (5)(b)(i); or

        • (ii) the proceeds of any sale if the proceeds have been retained in accordance with subsection (5)(b)(ii); and

      • (b) is not liable for any fees and costs payable under an enactment in respect of the property.

43 No action against Justice unless act in excess of jurisdiction or without jurisdiction
  • Section 193(2) is amended by inserting property after warrant to seize.

44 New section 209A inserted
  • The following section is inserted after section 209:

    209A Chief executive of Ministry of Justice may approve forms
    • (1) The chief executive of the Ministry of Justice may approve and issue forms that the chief executive considers necessary for the purposes of this Act, not being forms required to be prescribed by regulations made under this Act.

      (2) Without limiting subsection (1),—

      • (a) more than 1 form may be approved and issued in relation to the same matter; and

      • (b) a form may be described by any name that the chief executive considers appropriate even though it relates to a matter that is described by a different name under this Act, so long as the form refers to the appropriate provision of this Act.

      (3) Every document purporting to be a form approved and issued by the chief executive under and for the purposes of this Act is deemed to have been so approved and issued unless the chief executive otherwise certifies.

45 Rules and regulations
  • (1) Section 212(2) is amended by inserting the following paragraph after paragraph (c):

    • (ca) prescribing the fees and charges to be paid for the purposes of this Act:.

    (2) Section 212(2) is amended by inserting the following paragraphs after paragraph (d):

    • (daa) providing for documents to be sent in electronic form under section 24(1)(e) or 79A(1)(c), including (without limitation) provisions for the retention of records that evidence the fact that, and the date and time when, such documents were sent to electronic addresses:

    • (dab) specifying, for the purposes of section 79A(1)(d), the kinds of documents that may be served by communicating their contents orally, and prescribing any conditions and restrictions for such communications and the ways in which such communications must be made, including any provisions for the recording of such communications and for the retention, custody, disclosure, use, and destruction of such recordings:.

46 Further consequential amendments to principal Act
  • The principal Act is amended in the manner indicated in Schedule 3.

47 Transitional provisions relating to pre-commencement fines and warrants
  • (1) The principal Act as amended by this Act applies to the enforcement of any fine whether adjudged, ordered, or deemed to be ordered to be paid before or after the commencement of this Act.

    (2) Section 10 of the Summary Proceedings (Vehicle Seizure) Amendment Act 2009 is consequentially repealed.


Schedule 1
Amendments consequential on amendments to Summary Proceedings Act 1957 relating to service

s 11

Section 87B

Subsection (3): repeal and substitute:

  • (3) The Registrar must give the defendant a copy of the deduction notice.

Subsection (4): omit issue to the defendant and substitute give the defendant.

Section 87C(1)

Omit in writing.

Section 87H(4)

Omit in accordance with section 87J.

Section 104

Subsection (1): repeal and substitute:

  • (1) When an attachment order is made, a copy of the order must be served on the employer to whom it relates.

Subsection (2): repeal.

Subsection (3): omit this section and substitute section 79A or 79B.


Schedule 2
Consequential and related amendments arising from substitution of new sections 88 to 88AG in Summary Proceedings Act 1957

s 26

Part 1
Amendments to Summary Proceedings Act 1957

Section 87AA(4)

Omit section 88(3)(a) and substitute section 88AE(1)(a).

Section 89

Subsection (1): omit section 88 and substitute sections 88 to 88AG.

Subsection (2): omit section 88(3) and substitute section 88AE(1).

Subsection (3): omit section 88(3) and substitute section 88AE(1).

Section 92

Omit section 88(3)(b) and substitute section 88AE(1)(b).

Omit section 88(3)(f) and substitute section 88AE(1)(f).

Section 102A(1)

Omit warrant under section 88 and substitute warrant for arrest issued under section 88(4) or a computer printout that, under section 88AA, constitutes a warrant for arrest.

Section 102B(1)

Omit warrant issued under section 88 and substitute warrant for arrest issued under section 88(4) or a computer printout that, under section 88AA, constitutes a warrant for arrest.

Section 103(1)

Omit section 88(3)(a) and substitute section 88AE(1)(a).

Section 203(2)(n)

Omit section 88(3)(fa) and substitute section 88AE(1)(g).

Part 2
Amendments to other Acts

Accident Compensation Act 2001 (2001 No 49)

Section 123(2)(e): omit sections 87(1)(b), 88(3)(a) and substitute sections 87(2)(b), 88AE(1)(a).

Legal Services Act 2011 (2011 No 4)

Paragraph (b) of the definition of criminal proceedings in section 4(1): omit section 88 and substitute sections 88 to 88AG.

Policing Act 2008 (2008 No 72)

Section 44(4): omit section 88 or 93 and substitute section 88AA or 98.


Schedule 3
Further amendments to Summary Proceedings Act 1957

s 46

Section 87A

Heading: omit fines and substitute fine.

Subsection (1)(c): insert 1 or more after in.

Subsection (2): omit fines and substitute fine.

Section 90

Omit any fine and substitute 1 or more fines.

Insert , for each fine, after not exceeding.

Section 91

Omit a fine in each place where it appears and substitute in each case 1 or more fines.


Contents

  • 1General

  • 2Status of reprints

  • 3How reprints are prepared

  • 4Changes made under section 17C of the Acts and Regulations Publication Act 1989

  • 5List of amendments incorporated in this reprint (most recent first)


Notes
1 General
  • This is a reprint of the Summary Proceedings Amendment Act 2011. The reprint incorporates all the amendments to the Act as at 1 August 2012, as specified in the list of amendments at the end of these notes.

    Relevant provisions of any amending enactments that contain transitional, savings, or application provisions that cannot be compiled in the reprint are also included, after the principal enactment, in chronological order. For more information, see http://www.pco.parliament.govt.nz/reprints/ .

2 Status of reprints
  • Under section 16D of the Acts and Regulations Publication Act 1989, reprints are presumed to correctly state, as at the date of the reprint, the law enacted by the principal enactment and by the amendments to that enactment. This presumption applies even though editorial changes authorised by section 17C of the Acts and Regulations Publication Act 1989 have been made in the reprint.

    This presumption may be rebutted by producing the official volumes of statutes or statutory regulations in which the principal enactment and its amendments are contained.

3 How reprints are prepared
  • A number of editorial conventions are followed in the preparation of reprints. For example, the enacting words are not included in Acts, and provisions that are repealed or revoked are omitted. For a detailed list of the editorial conventions, see http://www.pco.parliament.govt.nz/editorial-conventions/ or Part 8 of the Tables of New Zealand Acts and Ordinances and Statutory Regulations and Deemed Regulations in Force.

4 Changes made under section 17C of the Acts and Regulations Publication Act 1989
  • Section 17C of the Acts and Regulations Publication Act 1989 authorises the making of editorial changes in a reprint as set out in sections 17D and 17E of that Act so that, to the extent permitted, the format and style of the reprinted enactment is consistent with current legislative drafting practice. Changes that would alter the effect of the legislation are not permitted.

    A new format of legislation was introduced on 1 January 2000. Changes to legislative drafting style have also been made since 1997, and are ongoing. To the extent permitted by section 17C of the Acts and Regulations Publication Act 1989, all legislation reprinted after 1 January 2000 is in the new format for legislation and reflects current drafting practice at the time of the reprint.

    In outline, the editorial changes made in reprints under the authority of section 17C of the Acts and Regulations Publication Act 1989 are set out below, and they have been applied, where relevant, in the preparation of this reprint:

    • omission of unnecessary referential words (such as of this section and of this Act)

    • typeface and type size (Times Roman, generally in 11.5 point)

    • layout of provisions, including:

      • indentation

      • position of section headings (eg, the number and heading now appear above the section)

    • format of definitions (eg, the defined term now appears in bold type, without quotation marks)

    • format of dates (eg, a date formerly expressed as the 1st day of January 1999 is now expressed as 1 January 1999)

    • position of the date of assent (it now appears on the front page of each Act)

    • punctuation (eg, colons are not used after definitions)

    • Parts numbered with roman numerals are replaced with arabic numerals, and all cross-references are changed accordingly

    • case and appearance of letters and words, including:

      • format of headings (eg, headings where each word formerly appeared with an initial capital letter followed by small capital letters are amended so that the heading appears in bold, with only the first word (and any proper nouns) appearing with an initial capital letter)

      • small capital letters in section and subsection references are now capital letters

    • schedules are renumbered (eg, Schedule 1 replaces First Schedule), and all cross-references are changed accordingly

    • running heads (the information that appears at the top of each page)

    • format of two-column schedules of consequential amendments, and schedules of repeals (eg, they are rearranged into alphabetical order, rather than chronological).

5 List of amendments incorporated in this reprint (most recent first)