Mokomoko (Restoration of Character, Mana, and Reputation) Act 2013
Te Ture mō Mokomoko (Hei Whakahoki i te Ihi, te Mana, me te Rangatiratanga) 2013

Mokomoko (Restoration of Character, Mana, and Reputation) Act 2013
Te Ture mō Mokomoko (Hei Whakahoki i te Ihi, te Mana, me te Rangatiratanga) 2013

Public Act2013 No 150
Date of assent17 December 2013
Commencementsee section 2
  • Preamble

    (1) In 1866, Te Whakatōhea Rangatira Mokomoko was tried and executed for the murder of Carl Sylvius Volkner. Following conviction, two of the co-accused of Mokomoko admitted their guilt. Those persons have since been pardoned. Throughout the trial Mokomoko maintained his innocence:

    (2) Following his conviction and before execution, Mokomoko composed the following waiata:

    Tangohia te taura i taku kakī, kia waiata au i taku waiata
    Kore te tākiri e tute nei ki te moenga
    Kei te hori te tangata tēnei au ki te raweke
    He pono te kī nei taku rauhia ki te moenga
    Koia kei te tangata mate kau au ki a te Uira
    Whakarewha te titiro te hukinga ia hau utiti
    He wareware noa te eke noa i te kaipuke
    He ahi mumura te pānga mai o te whakamā
    Me kawe ki tāwhiti hei homai mō te mekameka
    Te rerenga o te rā, ko te Kāwana kei Ūropi
    Māna e kī mai me tau au ki te tauwati
    Hei tūtaki ake mō te kuaha o te pouaka
    Haere mai nei au ka turaki mate ki te moenga eeee
           
    Take the rope from my throat so I am able to sing my song
    Violent shaking will not rouse me from my sleep
    They treat me like a common thief
    It is true that I embrace eternal sleep
    For that is the lot of a man condemned to die
    Shielded from harsh light
    With confused view I reflect on the vengeance taken
    And question the reason why
    Remember how I was taken on board ship
    Chained and shackled
    The memory of the shame burns within me so deep
    That to be taken to a place afar
    Right or wrong I am to die
    With the passing of time and the Governor of Europe
    They decided that I must hang
    With the closing of the lid on my box
    Only then will I get peace and eternal rest eeee

    (3) Today te whānau a Mokomoko use the opening line of the waiata as a whakatauākī with the following interpretation:

    Tangohia te taura i taku kakī, kia waiata au i taku waiata
    Have the strength to speak up and the truth will not be silenced

    (4) Mokomoko was hanged and buried at the old Auckland Jail and Courthouse. He was reinterred at Waiaua Marae at Ōpōtiki in October 1989, 123 years after his execution:

    (5) Reinterring Mokomoko in 1989 was the first step for te whānau a Mokomoko towards obtaining justice for their tupuna. The next step for te whānau a Mokomoko was to seek to have the Crown recognise their view that he was innocent:

    (6) In 1988, those persons of Ngāti Awa descent who were arrested, tried, and labelled as rebels in or around 1865 were given a statutory pardon and their character, mana and reputation were restored to them, their whānau, and Ngāti Awa as a whole. This was given effect through section 11 of Te Runanga o Ngati Awa Act 1988 and that section is set out in the Schedule of Te Runanga o Ngati Awa Act 2005:

    (7) On 15 June 1992, the Governor-General issued a free pardon to Mokomoko. The wording of the free pardon was prepared without consultation with te whānau a Mokomoko:

    (8) Te whānau a Mokomoko were concerned that, unlike section 11 of the Te Runanga o Ngati Awa Act 1988, the terms of the pardon for Mokomoko did not expressly restore his character, mana, and reputation, nor the character, mana, and reputation of his uri:

    (9) In its Te Urewera (Part 1) Inquiry Report (April 2009), the Waitangi Tribunal found the following in relation to te whānau a Mokomoko claim (Wai 203):

    • (a) by pardoning Mokomoko in 1992, the Crown acknowledged that its treatment of him had not been consistent with the Treaty of Waitangi; and

    • (b) the form and wording of that pardon had not redressed the original Treaty grievance; and

    • (c) a statutory pardon should be granted to Mokomoko following consultation with the claimants about the wording of the pardon; and

    • (d) in addition, the Crown should consult with the claimants about the nature of an appropriate tribute to mark the wrong done by perpetuating the false view that Mokomoko was largely responsible for the raupatu:

    (10) The Crown acknowledges with regret that the terms of the pardon granted to Mokomoko in 1992 did not expressly restore his character, mana, and reputation nor the character, mana, and reputation of his uri. The Crown regrets any ongoing shame or stigma this has caused for his uri:

    (11) The Crown and te whānau a Mokomoko have negotiated in good faith the terms on which the free pardon granted to Mokomoko in 1992 may now be given statutory recognition and the character, mana, and reputation of Mokomoko and his uri are to be restored:

    Kupu whakataki

    (1) I te tau 1866, i whakawākia tētahi rangatira o Te Whakatōhea, ko Mokomoko, ka patua kia mate mō te kōhurutanga o Carl Sylvius Volkner. I muri mai o te whakataunga whiu, tērā tētahi tokorua i whakapaetia ki te taha i a Mokomoko i whāki i tō rāua hara. Nō muri mai, ka tukuna he muru ki ērā tokorua. I waenga i te whakawā, i pūmau a Mokomoko ki tana kore hara:

    (2) I muri mai i te whakataunga whiu, i mua i tana whakamatenga, ka titoa e Mokomoko te waiata e whai ake nei:

    Tangohia te taura i taku kakī, kia waiata au i taku waiata
    Kore te tākiri e tute nei ki te moenga
    Kei te hori te tangata tēnei au ki te raweke
    He pono te kī nei taku rauhia ki te moenga
    Koia kei te tangata mate kau au ki a te Uira
    Whakarewha te titiro te hukinga ia hau utiti
    He wareware noa te eke noa i te kaipuke
    He ahi mumura te pānga mai o te whakamā
    Me kawe ki tāwhiti hei homai mō te mekameka
    Te rerenga o te rā, ko te Kāwana kei Ūropi
    Māna e kī mai me tau au ki te tauwati
    Hei tūtaki ake mō te kuaha o te pouaka
    Haere mai nei au ka turaki mate ki te moenga eeee
           
    Take the rope from my throat so I am able to sing my song
    Violent shaking will not rouse me from my sleep
    They treat me like a common thief
    It is true that I embrace eternal sleep
    For that is the lot of a man condemned to die
    Shielded from harsh light
    With confused view I reflect on the vengeance taken
    And question the reason why
    Remember how I was taken on board ship
    Chained and shackled
    The memory of the shame burns within me so deep
    That to be taken to a place afar
    Right or wrong I am to die
    With the passing of time and the Governor of Europe
    They decided that I must hang
    With the closing of the lid on my box
    Only then will I get peace and eternal rest eeee

    (3) I ēnei rā, whakamahia ai e te whānau a Mokomoko te rārangi tuatahi o te waiata hei whakatauākī, me te whakapākehātanga e whai ake nei:

    Tangohia te taura i taku kakī, kia waiata au i taku waiata
    Have the strength to speak up and the truth will not be silenced

    (4) I tāronahia kia mate a Mokomoko, ka tanumia ki te Whareherehere me te Wharekōti tawhito o Tāmaki Makaurau. Nō te Oketopa o te tau 1989, ka hahua mai ia, ka nehua ki te marae o Waiaua ki Ōpōtiki, e 123 ngā tau i muri mai i te whakamatenga:

    (5) Ko te nehutanga tuarua o Mokomoko i te tau 1989 te tapuwae tuatahi mō te whānau a Mokomoko ki te rapu tika mō tō rātou tupuna. Ko te tapuwae tuarua mō te whānau a Mokomoko, ko te rapu whakaaetanga i te Karauna kia mana tō rātou whakaaro kāore ōna hara:

    (6) Nō te tau 1988, ko ngā tāngata o Ngāti Awa i mauhereheretia, i whakawākia, i tapaina he “tangata hara”, i roto i ērā wā o 1865 ka whakawhiwhia ki tētahi muru-ā-ture me te whakahokinga o te ihi, te mana, te rangatiratanga ki a rāua, ki ō rāua whānau, me Ngāti Awa whānui tonu. I whakamanatia ēnei āhuatanga ki roto i te wāhanga 11 o te Ture o Te Runanga o Ngati Awa 1988, ā, kua whakatakotoria tērā wāhanga ki roto i te Kupu āpiti o te Ture o Te Runanga mo Ngati Awa 2005:

    (7) I te 15 o Hune 1992, i tukuna e te Kāwana-Tianara tētahi muru herekore ki a Mokomoko. Ko ngā tuhinga kōrero mō tērā muru herekore i whakaritea ki waho o ngā whiriwhiringa ki te whānau a Mokomoko:

    (8) Ka āwangawanga te whānau a Mokomoko, tērā karekau i rite ki te wāhanga 11 o te Ture o Te Runanga o Ngati Awa 1988, ko ngā whakataunga o te muru mō Mokomoko kāore i āta whakahoki i tana ihi, tana mana, me tana rangatiratanga, me te kore hoki i whakahoki i te ihi, te mana, me te rangatiratanga o āna uri:

    (9) I roto i tāna Rīpoata Patapatai mō Te Urewera (Wāhanga 1) (i puta i te Āperira o 2009) i whakataua e te Taraipiunara o Waitangi ēnei āhuatanga e whai ake nei e pā ana ki te kerēme a te whānau a Mokomoko (Wai 203):

    • (a) i tana tuku muru ki a Mokomoko i te tau 1992, i whakaae te Karauna ko ana whakawhiu ki runga i a ia, karekau i ōrite ki ngā whakaritenga o Te Tiriti o Waitangi; ā

    • (b) ngā whakatakatokoranga o ngā kōrero me ngā kupu o taua muru karekau i aro atu ki ngā haranga Tiriti; ā

    • (c) me tuku he muru-ā-ture ki a Mokomoko i muri mai o te whiriwhiringa kōrero me ngā kaikerēme mō ngā kupu tika hei whakauru ki roto i te muru; ā

    • (d) hei tāpiri, kia kōrero te Karauna me ngā kaikerēme mō te āhua o tētahi tohu whakamihi e whakaatu ana i ngā kōrero hē, arā, nā Mokomoko i pakaru whānui ai te raupatu:

    (10) E pōuri ana te Karauna mō tāna whakataunga kōrero mō te muru i tukuna ki a Mokomoko i te tau 1992 karekau i āta whakahoki rawa i tana ihi, me tana mana, me tana rangatiratanga, me te ihi me te mana me te rangatiratanga o āna uri. Kei te tino pōuri te Karauna mō te whakamā me ngā kōrero whakaparahako i pā ki runga ki āna uri:

    (11) Kua tau ngā whiriwhiringa pono i waenganui i te Karauna me te whānau a Mokomoko mō te muru i tukuna ki runga i a Mokomoko i te tau 1992, arā, me whakatau-ā-ture te whakaaetanga kia whakahokia te ihi, te mana me te rangatiratanga o Mokomoko kia rite anō mō āna uri:

The Parliament of New Zealand therefore enacts as follows: Nō reira, ka whakaturetia e te Pāremata o Aotearoa ēnei e whai ake nei: