Waikato-Tainui Raupatu Claims (Waikato River) Settlement Bill

  • enacted

Hon Christopher Finlayson

Waikato-Tainui Raupatu Claims (Waikato River) Settlement Bill

Government Bill


As reported from the committee of the whole House



1 Title

2 Commencement

Part 1
Preliminary provisions

3 Overarching purpose of settlement

4 Purpose of Act

5 Guiding principles of interpretation

6 Interpretation

7 Act binds the Crown

Part 2
Settlement redress through legislation

Statement of significance of Waikato River to Waikato-Tainui

8 Statement

Recognition of vision and strategy for Waikato River

Te Ture Whaimana

9 Scope of vision and strategy


9A Relationship of sections 9B to 9F with Resource Management Act 1991

9B Vision and strategy is part of Waikato Regional Policy Statement

9C Effect of vision and strategy on Resource Management Act 1991 planning documents

9D Updating Resource Management Act 1991 planning documents to conform with reviewed vision and strategy

9E Effect of vision and strategy on resource consent conditions and designations

9F Statement about vision and strategy in Conservation Act 1987 documents and Resource Management Act 1991 planning documents

10 Status of vision and strategy for other enactments

11 Duty to have particular regard to vision and strategy


13A Initial review

13B Subsequent reviews

13C Purpose and conduct of reviews


14 Amendments made by Order in Council

Establishment of, and granting of functions and powers to, Waikato River Authority

15 Establishment and purpose of Authority

General functions and powers

16 General functions

17 General powers

Resource consent functions

18 Accredited commissioners

18A Sections 18B to 18F apply to applications for resource consents relating to Waikato River

18B Notice of applications

18C Hearing committees

18D Call-ins

18E Section 100A of Resource Management Act 1991

18F Section 147(1)(c) of Resource Management Act 1991

Waikato River Clean-up Trust function

18G Trustee

Administrative provisions

18H Presentation of annual reports

19 Other provisions on Authority

Co-management arrangements

Integrated river management plan for Waikato River

24 Meaning of integrated river management plan

25 Preparation and approval of plan

26 Effect of components

27 Review and amendment of plan

Waikato-Tainui environmental plan

28 Preparation and availability

29 Effect

Joint management agreements

29A Duty to make

29B Scope

29C Contents

29D Principles for development and operation

29E Monitoring and enforcement

29F Preparation, review, change, or variation of Resource Management Act 1991 planning document

29G Resource consent process

29H Process for finalising

29I Suspension

29J Waiver of rights

29K Legal framework

29L Extension

29M Review and amendment

29N Other powers not affected

29O Exercise of powers in certain circumstances

Recognition of customary activities

30 Crown acknowledgement

30A Authorised customary activities

30AA Management of authorised customary activities

30B Statutory authorisation for certain structures

30C Tangihanga and hari tuupaapaku

30D Process to deal with significant adverse effects on environment

30E Joint management agreement must include processes relating to customary activities

30F Waikato-Tainui flora cultural harvest plan

Redress relating to certain assets


34 Creating or disposing of interests

Crown-owned river-related land

34A Definitions for sections 34B to 34P

34B Sites of significance

34C Registration of ownership of fee simple sites

34D Registration of ownership of reserve sites

34E Pootatau Te Wherowhero

34F Council's rights relating to soil conservation and river control

34G How various Acts affect sites of significance

34H How Conservation Act 1987 and Reserves Act 1977 affect reserve sites

34I How fisheries enactments affect reserve sites

34J Managed properties

34K Registration of ownership of managed properties

34L Council's duties relating to soil conservation and river control

34M How Public Works Act 1981 affects managed properties

34N How various other Acts affect managed properties

34O Additional managed properties


34P Duty to make co-management agreement

Right of first refusal over Huntly Power Station

35 Definitions for sections 36 to 38

36 Right of first refusal over leasehold estate in Huntly Power Station

37 Effect of section 36

38 Duties of LINZ concerning Huntly Power Station

Right of first refusal over licence

39 Definitions for section 40

40 Right of first refusal over licence

41 Effect of section 40


42 Meaning of raupatu claim

43 Raupatu claims settled

44 Certain rights, actions, and decisions not affected

45 Duties of LINZ concerning memorialised lands


46 Rule against perpetuities

47 Regulations and bylaws

48 Accords

48A Authority and Trust: public bodies, entities, and authorities

49 Consequential amendments

Schedule 1
Principles described in Kiingitanga Accord

Schedule 2
Vision and strategy for Waikato River

Schedule 2A
Authorised customary activities

Schedule 2B
Process to review vision and strategy

Schedule 2C
Terms of Waikato River Clean-up Trust

Schedule 3
Waikato River Authority

Schedule 5
Integrated river management plan

Schedule 6
Consequential amendments

Legislative history

  • Preamble

    The Relationship of Waikato-Tainui with the Waikato River
    Noo taatou te awa. Noo te awa taatou. E kore e taea te wehe te iwi o Waikato me te awa. He taonga tuku iho naa ngaa tuupuna. E whakapono ana maatou ko taa maatou, he tiaki i taua taonga moo ngaa uri whakatupu. Robert Te Kotahi Mahuta 1975
    Te Mana o te Awa

    (1) To Waikato-Tainui, the Waikato River is a tupuna (ancestor) which has mana (prestige) and in turn represents the mana and mauri (life force) of the tribe. Respect for te mana o te awa (the spiritual authority, protective power and prestige of the Waikato River) is at the heart of the relationship between the tribe and their ancestral river:

    Mana whakahaere

    (2) Mana whakahaere embodies the authority that Waikato-Tainui and other River tribes have established in respect of the Waikato River over many generations, to exercise control, access to and management of the Waikato River and its resources in accordance with tikanga (values, ethics and norms of conduct). For Waikato-Tainui, mana whakahaere has long been exercised under the mana of the Kiingitanga:

    Raupatu and the River: Invasion and War, Confiscation of Waikato lands

    (3) Waikato-Tainui, as at 1840, possessed their River, and their lands in accordance with their tikanga along with other Waikato River iwi. The Treaty of Waitangi guaranteed in the Maori text te tino rangatiratanga o o ratou wenua o ratou kainga me o ratou taonga katoa or in the English text the full exclusive and undisturbed possession of their Lands and Estates Forests Fisheries and other properties which they may collectively or individually possess so long as it is their wish and desire to retain the same in their possession:

    (4) Waikato-Tainui made public statements of their authority over the Waikato River from the time they first became concerned that the Crown might itself claim authority over it. When the Governor’s intentions to put an iron steamer on the River became known late in 1862, Patara Te Tuhi, editor of the Kiingitanga newspaper Te Hokioi, expressed the opposition of the chiefs warning that the gunboat might not enter the River without permission. He asserted tribal authority over the River in these words: E hara a Waikato awa i a te kuini, erangi no nga Maori anake. (The Waikato River does not belong to the Queen of England, it belongs only to Maori.):

    (5) In July 1863, the Crown's military forces crossed the Mangataawhiri River. In the ensuing war of 1863-64, the Crown's forces attacked by both land and water. The Crown's armed steamers and barges played a crucial role in the invasion as they carried Crown forces and supplies up the Waikato River and into the Waipaa River, and shelled Waikato defences:

    (6) In December 1863, Crown forces occupied Ngaaruawaahia, the home of the King and the political centre of the Kiingitanga. During the war, many communities who supported the Kiingitanga were driven out of the Waikato. In 1864-65 military settlements, including Hamilton and Cambridge, were established on the Waikato River, and also on the Waipaa River:

    (7) Confiscation of Waikato lands followed in 1865. The Waikato confiscation area extended from the Hauraki Gulf to Karapiro in the east, via Pukekura, Oraakau and the Puuniu River to the south, and from Whaingaroa (Raglan) to Te Puuaha o Waikato in the west:

    Waikato-Tainui Experience of Raupatu

    (8) From the time of the Raupatu, the Crown assumed control of, and exercised jurisdiction over, the Waikato River. Waikato-Tainui were excluded from decision making: nor were they consulted as to their understanding of the River and its ecosystems. Waikato-Tainui rights and interests (whether at law, equity, custom or by the Treaty of Waitangi or otherwise), and the authority and control that they exercised to protect and ensure the well-being of the River and its resources, were denied:

    (9) Following the Raupatu and the cessation of hostilities, new settlers occupied the confiscated lands, and farms and towns were developed along the Waikato River. The River was used for farming, coal mining, power generation schemes, the discharge of waste, and domestic and industrial abstraction. The wetlands were drained, flood protection schemes were initiated and sand and shingle were removed. While all of these uses of the Waikato River contributed to the economic growth of New Zealand, they also contributed to the pollution and deterioration of the health of the Waikato River and have significantly impacted on the fisheries and plant life of the River:

    (10) Though they have continued to assert their mana whakahaere in order to protect the Waikato River and all its resources under the mana of the Kiingitanga, according to their tikanga, Waikato-Tainui believe that their ability to meet their obligations to the Waikato River, as their Awa Tupuna (Ancestral River), and to ensure its well-being has been severely compromised. Waikato-Tainui feel this sense of injustice as strongly today as they did in the past:

    Waikato-Tainui Commitment to the Search for Justice

    (11) In the changing legal and political landscape of New Zealand, Waikato-Tainui have always maintained the importance of their unique relationship with the River, and the need to respect and restore its well-being:

    (12) Robert Te Kotahi Mahuta, who led the Kiingitanga search for justice from the 1970s, appealed against the granting of water rights for the Huntly Power Station, at a time when little consideration was given to Waikato-Tainui values and rights. From 1985, a new commitment by the Crown to addressing historical grievances brought hope to Waikato-Tainui that their Raupatu claim, which affected both lands and the River, might be resolved. Waikato-Tainui negotiated their claim directly with the Crown and reached settlement in 1995, excluding and preserving their claims in respect of the Waikato River:

    (13) From the late 1980s, Waikato-Tainui also sought to protect the River, and their Raupatu claim, through negotiation with the Crown, and through the courts, from the impact of the Government’s policy of privatisation of assets and corporatisation. In particular, Waikato-Tainui were concerned that their interests in the River would be depleted and that this would further alienate Waikato-Tainui from the River. The Crown agreed not to transfer water rights, issued in perpetuity, to any State enterprise. The new Resource Management regime included limits for the period for which water rights could be granted:

    (14) The Resource Management Act 1991 gave regional and local authorities substantial functions and powers over natural resources, including the power to grant resource consents for River use. The Act did not, however, provide for protection of te mana o te awa and te mana whakahaere of Waikato-Tainui. Since the Act came into effect, Waikato-Tainui have been involved as respondents in many consent hearings, seeking conditions which would protect the River:

    (15) Negotiations with the Crown were commenced by Robert Te Kotahi Mahuta on behalf of Waikato-Tainui in 1999. Following his death, they recommenced in 2005, leading to the deed of settlement and the Kiingitanga Accord between the Crown and Waikato-Tainui dated 22 August 2008:

    (16) From the 1860s to the present, Waikato-Tainui have continually sought justice for their Raupatu claim and protection for the River. The principles of te mana o te awa and mana whakahaere have long sustained the Waikato River claim together with the principles described in the Kiingitanga Accord, and those principles underlie the new regime to be implemented by this settlement:

    Crown Acknowledgements

    (17) In summary, the Crown acknowledges:

    • (a) that the historical Waikato River claims by Waikato-Tainui arise from the 1860s raupatu and its consequences; and

    • (b) that the Crown’s 1863 invasion by both land and the Waikato River was a double blow to Waikato-Tainui; and

    • (c) that the Crown’s breach of the Treaty of Waitangi denied Waikato-Tainui their rights and interests in, and mana whakahere over, the Waikato River; and

    • (d) that Waikato-Tainui never willingly or knowingly relinquished their rights and interests in, or authority over, the Waikato River; and

    • (e) the importance to Waikato-Tainui of the principle of te mana o te Awa; and

    • (f) to Waikato-Tainui the Waikato River is a tupuna which has mana and in turn represents the mana and mauri of Waikato-Tainui; and

    • (g) that to Waikato-Tainui, the Waikato River is a single indivisible being; and

    • (h) that for Waikato-Tainui, their relationship with, and respect for, the Waikato River gives rise to their responsibilities to protect the mana and mauri of the River and exercise their mana whakahaere in accordance with their long established tikanga; and

    • (i) that for Waikato-Tainui, their relationship with, and respect for, the Waikato River lies at the heart of their spiritual and physical wellbeing, and their tribal identity and culture; and

    • (j) that the Crown has failed to respect, provide for and protect the special relationship of Waikato-Tainui with the Waikato River; and

    • (k) that the deterioration of the health of the Waikato River, while under the authority of the Crown, has been a source of distress for the people of Waikato-Tainui; and

    • (l) that the pollution, degradation and development of the Waikato River, its lakes, streams and wetlands have caused the decline of once rich fisheries that, for generations, had sustained the people’s way of life and their ability to meet obligations of manaakitanga, and this is a further source of distress; and

    • (m) that the Crown respects the deeply felt obligation of Waikato-Tainui to protect te mana o te awa; and

    • (n) that the Crown seeks a settlement that will recognise and sustain the special relationship of Waikato-Tainui with the Waikato River; and

    • (o) that the Crown undertakes to assist and work with Waikato-Tainui to restore their mana whakahaere; and

    • (p) that Waikato-Tainui wish to promote the concept of a korowai to bring the River tribes together as an affirmation of their common purpose to protect te mana o te awa:

The Parliament of New Zealand therefore enacts as follows: