Outer Space and High-altitude Activities Bill

Outer Space and High-altitude Activities Bill

Government Bill

179—2

As reported from the Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Committee

Commentary

Recommendation

The Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Committee has examined the Outer Space and High-altitude Activities Bill and recommends that it be passed with the amendments shown.

Introduction

Space and high altitude activities create many opportunities, but they also present risks for national security, public safety, and the environment. With an aerospace company about to launch objects into space from New Zealand, a new law is needed to manage these risks, and to enable New Zealand to meet its international obligations.

The Outer Space and High-altitude Activities Bill would establish a regulatory regime to govern space launches from New Zealand and by New Zealand nationals operating overseas. It would cover launch vehicles, and payloads such as satellites. It would also provide a legal framework for high-altitude activities that originate from New Zealand.

The bill seeks to:

  • facilitate the development of a New Zealand space industry and ensure its safe and secure operation

  • implement certain international obligations that New Zealand has concerning space activities and space technology

  • manage any potential or actual liability that may arise from the space industry

  • establish a system for the regulation of space activities and certain high-altitude activities

  • preserve New Zealand’s national security and national interests.

This commentary covers the main changes we recommend to the bill. It does not discuss minor or technical changes.

Commencement

We recommend amending the date on which this legislation would come into force, from 3 to 6 months after the date on which it received the Royal assent. This would allow more time to develop the necessary regulations.

New Zealand’s international obligations concerning the peaceful use of outer space

New Zealand is committed to space activities for peaceful purposes through its existing law and international obligations. We would like to reinforce this commitment by referring more explicitly to the particular international obligations that New Zealand is required to implement.

We recommend inserting clause 3(ba) to list the main obligations in the Outer Space Treaty about not:

  • placing any objects carrying nuclear weapons or weapons of mass destruction anywhere in outer space

  • establishing military bases, installations, or fortifications on celestial bodies (natural bodies located outside of the Earth’s atmosphere, for example the sun, moon, and planets)

  • testing any type of weapons or conduct manoeuvres on celestial bodies.

Definitions of controlled airspace, high altitude, and high-altitude payload

We would like the bill to be clear about the altitude above which a vehicle in the air is considered to be a high-altitude vehicle. This would ensure that people cannot avoid the regime. Therefore, we recommend some changes to the definitions in clause 4, which we explain below.

For consistency, we consider it important to avoid having a different definition of “controlled airspace” than is applied under the Civil Aviation Act 1990. Therefore, we recommend deleting the definition of controlled airspace in clause 4 of the bill as introduced.

We recommend defining “high altitude” in clause 4 to mean an altitude that is above the highest upper limit of controlled airspace under the Civil Aviation Act 1990. As at the commencement of this Act this was flight level 600.1 This definition would maintain consistency with the Civil Aviation Act if the upper level of controlled air space under that Act was increased.

As introduced, the bill has a single definition of “payload”. It applies both to a payload intended to be launched or carried into outer space, and a payload intended to be placed into high altitude. We consider that providing separate definitions of “payload” and “high-altitude payload” would be clearer.

Accordingly, we recommend including in clause 4 a definition of “high-altitude payload”. Subject to any regulations made under clause 88(1)(13), this would mean an object carried or placed, or intended to be carried or placed, at high altitude. The object would include components of a high-altitude vehicle specifically designed or adapted for the object, and a load to be carried for testing purposes, or otherwise, on a non-profit basis.

Definitions of launch, launch facility, and launch vehicle

We recommend amending the definition of “launch” so that it is clear that the term applies to high-altitude vehicles, such as balloons, as well as to launches into outer space. The definition would continue to apply to attempted launches, as in the bill as introduced.

We also recommend changes to the definitions of “launch facility” and “launch vehicle”. Our proposed change to the launch vehicle definition includes explicit reference to vehicles intended to reach outer space, as well as to vehicles intended to carry or support the launch of a payload. We believe this definition would be clearer.

Definition of licensee

We recommend defining a “licensee” as the person who is the sole holder of the licence, or all of the holders of the licence. The definition would apply for a launch licence, an overseas launch licence, a facility licence, or a high-altitude licence. This would make it clear that there can be more than one licensee, as in the case of a joint venture.

Definition of permit holder

We recommend including a definition of “permit holder” to mean the person who is the sole holder of a payload permit or an overseas payload permit, or all of the holders, as the case may be. Like the definition of “licensee”, this would make it clear that there can be more than one permit holder.

Scope of the prohibition on launch activities

We recommend amending clause 7 to extend the launch activities that would be prohibited without a licence. We propose that they include a launch vehicle launched from a vehicle in the air that was launched from New Zealand.

When launch licence may be granted

Clause 9 of the bill as introduced refers to the factors that the Minister may take into account when considering whether to grant a launch licence. These factors include the criteria under clause 53 to determine whether a person is a fit and proper person.

We recommend reformulating this test. Rather than requiring the Minister to be satisfied that a person is fit and proper, we propose that the Minister could decline a licence if not satisfied that these conditions are met. To do this, we recommend inserting clause 9(2)(b), with corresponding changes in clauses 25(2)(b), 40(2)(b), and 48(2)(b).

We believe this would reduce the regulatory burden and associated compliance costs, which would in time be passed on as a cost to industry. We are aware of the need to ensure that New Zealand’s regulatory regime keeps compliance costs for industry as low as possible, while maintaining an internationally credible regime. This would strengthen New Zealand’s competitive advantage as a location for space activities.

All reasonable steps to be taken to manage risks to public safety

In clause 9(1)(c), we recommend adding the words “and will continue to take”, so that it reads “the applicant has taken, and will continue to take, all reasonable steps to manage risks to public safety”. This would make it clear that the Minister needs to consider the entire launch operation, not just the steps the applicant has taken at the time of the application.

National interest grounds for declining a licence or permit

In deciding whether to decline a licence or permit on national interest grounds, the Minister would need to consider the benefits of the activity against the risks it might pose to other national interests.

We recommend inserting clause 9(2A) to list the matters the Minister may have regard to in considering whether to decline to grant a licence if not satisfied that a launch under the licence would be in the national interest. These matters include:

  • economic or other benefits to New Zealand of the proposed launch

  • any risks to national security, public safety, international relations, or other national interests

  • the extent to which the risks can be mitigated by licence or permit conditions

  • any other matters that the Minister considers relevant.

We recommend that these same matters be inserted in new clauses 17(2A), 25(2A), 33(2A), 40(2A), and 48(2A).

Facility licence needed if launch facility specified in licence

We recommend inserting new clause 10(1)(d)(ia) to provide that, if a launch facility is specified in the launch licence, the licensee must have, or be satisfied that a person has, a facility licence for the launch facility.

Mitigation of orbital debris

The proliferation of orbital debris is an area of considerable focus internationally. Its mitigation is important for the development of a responsible and sustainable space industry.

Therefore, we propose requiring the Minister to be satisfied, before granting a launch licence, that the applicant has an orbital debris mitigation plan that meets any prescribed requirements. We recommend inserting clauses 9(ca), 17(aa), 25(ca), and 33(aa) to this effect.

This would make the orbital debris requirements explicit, and allow the Minister to decline a licence or permit application if not satisfied that an applicant has an adequate orbital debris mitigation plan.

Organisations with which licensee must consult

Clause 10(c) specifies the organisations a licensee must consult. We recommend amending it to require the licensee also to consult the Civil Aviation Authority about aviation safety, including the need for danger zones, restricted zones, and notices to airmen.

Adding the Civil Aviation Authority to the list would make the requirement explicit. We also recommend spelling out more clearly the purpose of the consultation requirements.

Issue of certificate where activity poses significant risk to national security

Clause 56(3) would allow the Prime Minister to issue a certificate that the activity, or proposed activity, poses a significant risk to national security.

We recommend inserting new clause 56(3A)(a) to require the Prime Minister to inform the licence or permit applicant of the reasons for the decision, except where this would involve a disclosure of information that would be likely to prejudice the security or defence of New Zealand or the Government’s international relations. We consider it fair to inform an applicant of the reasons for a decision to issue a certificate.

Under new clause 56(3A)(b) the Prime Minister must also inform the applicant of the right, under clause 57, to seek a review by the Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security.

Conduct of launch and operations

We recommend amending clause 10(1)(g)(v) to add “potentially harmful”. This would mean that a licensee must comply with conditions imposed by the Minister to avoid potentially harmful interference with the activities of others in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space.

This wording is more specific about the type of interference, and also reflects the language of the Outer Space Treaty, which refers to “potentially harmful interference”.

Payload permits

Clause 15 would prohibit a person from procuring the launch of a payload that is intended to reach outer space unless the person has a payload permit. Our proposed additional clauses 15(2A) and (2B) would make it clear that, while a payload permit is needed “at the time of the launch”, a launch of a payload may be arranged in advance of a permit being obtained.

Similarly, our proposed amendment to clause 31(2) would provide that a New Zealand national must not procure the launch of a payload unless that person has an overseas payload permit at the time of the launch.

Power to inspect a high-altitude payload

We recommend amending clause 61 to provide for the powers of an enforcement officer to be exercised in regard to a high-altitude payload.

The nature of a payload is of interest, and referring specifically to high-altitude payloads in this clause would enable an enforcement officer to investigate a particular payload further.

Providing for protection of sensitive space technology by declaring a debris protection area

Part 3 of the bill deals with enforcement and other matters, and is needed to give effect to New Zealand’s obligations under the Technology Safeguards Agreement (TSA) between New Zealand and the United States of America. This agreement deals with technology safeguards associated with US participation in space launches from New Zealand.

We recommend renaming subpart 2 of Part 3 to “Protection of sensitive space technology”. This new heading would more accurately reflect what the subpart is about, and the amendments we recommend to clauses 64 and 65. We recommend including clause 64 in subpart 2 of Part 3, because it also relates to the protection of sensitive technology.

Segregated areas and areas set aside

We recommend renaming clause 64 from “Security areas and security enhanced areas” to “Segregated areas and areas set aside”. We also propose amending clause 64, dealing with segregated areas, to use terminology that matches that used in the TSA. This would clarify the intent and reasons for the provisions.

Debris protection area

The provisions in clause 65 provide for the protection of sensitive US technology, including launch vehicles, spacecraft, and related equipment.

We recommend amending clause 65 to replace the reference in the heading from “debris recovery area” to “debris protection area”. This is because the term “debris recovery area” has a very specific meaning under the TSA. The provision would be applied to sites where launch failures or terminations occur.

We also recommend amending clause 65(1) to provide that the Minister may only declare a debris protection area if satisfied that doing so is necessary to comply with any international agreement relating to the protection of space technology. This amendment would narrow the scope of the clause and make it clearer in what circumstances a debris protection area may be declared. It would also make it clear that the bill would not prevent the public or media from viewing or taking photographs of space launches or reporting outside the debris protection area. However, under new clause 65(3), a person would need the permission of an enforcement officer or other authorised person to take any photograph, or record in any way an image of a launch vehicle, payload, or related equipment or debris, in a debris protection area.

We recommend inserting clause 65(4) to clarify that nothing in clause 65(3), concerning the recording of images or taking of samples from a debris protection site, applies to any person who is exercising a statutory function by conducting an investigation into an accident involving a launch.

Enforcement and offences in relation to debris protection area

Our proposed new clause 65(5) would provide for an enforcement officer to order a person to leave a debris protection area if the officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the person is contravening clause 65(3). Under clause 65(6) reasonable force could be used to remove a person who fails to follow an order to leave. Clause 65(7) would provide for a person who persists in not complying to be detained by an enforcement officer. Clause 65(8) would provide for the person detained to be delivered to a constable.

We recommend amending clause 76(1) to provide that a person who contravenes clause 65(3) commits an offence. Our amendments to clause 76(2) would provide that a person commits an offence if they fail or refuse to leave a debris protection area immediately after having been ordered to do so under clause 65(5).

We recommend inserting clause 76(3) to provide that a person who commits an offence against subsections (1) or (2) is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 months or to a fine not exceeding $2,000, or both.

Infringement offences

We recommend amending clause 78(2) to provide that a person who fails, without reasonable excuse, to display an identity card when in a segregated area or an area specially set aside is liable to an infringement fee of $1,000 or a fine imposed by a court not exceeding $2,000.

Similarly, our amendments to clause 79(3) would mean that a person who provides false or misleading information to an enforcement officer is liable to an infringement fee of $1,000 or a fine imposed by a court not exceeding $2,000.

Sharing of information with agencies

We recommend inserting clause 85A to provide for the sharing of information with the eight agencies listed, and any other agency in or outside New Zealand that holds information relating to activities to which the legislation would apply.

This would allow the Minister and the agencies to share information that is relevant to the performance of the agencies’ respective functions relating to outer space and high-altitude activities.

Breadth of regulation-making powers and safeguards

The regulation-making powers in the bill as introduced are intentionally broad. This is designed to provide flexibility for regulations to deal with rapidly evolving technologies and applications.

The Regulations Review Committee has written to us expressing concern about the breadth of the regulation-making powers in clause 88 of the bill. It suggests some additional safeguards.

We have considered the committee’s advice, and recommend adding to clause 88(1)(5) a non-exhaustive list of conditions that might be required for licences and permits. Such conditions may include requirements for:

  • safety systems or practices

  • security, including physical and information security

  • the reporting of accidents and incidents

  • obtaining advice, clearance, or any other matter or authority in relation to the re-entry of space objects from outer space or for the avoidance of collisions of space objects in outer space

  • the collection and dissemination of data obtained by remote sensing

  • the provision of information about ground stations to be used.

We consider that including the activities intended to be regulated would alleviate the concerns of the Regulations Review Committee, and minimise the risk of judicial review.

We also recommend removing the proposed regulation-making power in clause 88(17) which would authorise regulations to implement the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space 1975. This is because all of the obligations in the convention are imposed on the Government and can be implemented administratively.

We also recommend deleting clause 88(20) to remove provision for different levies for different classes of licensees or permit holders, or on any other differential basis. We recommend replacing this clause with a more general provision, in new clause 88(1A), allowing all regulations made under clause 88 to apply differently to different classes of licences and permits.

We recommend amending clause 88(25), which relates to exemptions from fees and levies, to require exemptions to be consistent with the purposes of the Act.

As outlined above, new clause 88(1A) would clarify that regulations made under this section may provide differently for different types of licence, permit, launch vehicle, payload, launch facility, high-altitude vehicle, high-altitude payload, or on any other differential basis.

We recommend inserting new clause 88A to describe what may be incorporated by reference in regulations made by the Governor-General.

Changes to Schedule 1

Schedule 1 of the bill provides for transitional, savings, and related provisions. We recommend amending clause 3 to provide for a 6-month transition period for payloads launched under the Rocket Lab agreement.

We recommend inserting clause 5A to enable the Minister, in issuing a high-altitude licence on or after the commencement date, to take into account any action or process undertaken before the commencement date if they substantially complied with the provisions of this legislation. This would ensure that licence applications from existing operators in high altitude could be dealt with quickly when the Act came into force.

Appendix

Committee process

The Outer Space and High-altitude Activities Bill was referred to the committee on 18 October 2016. The closing date for submissions was 1 December 2016. We received and considered 11 submissions from interested groups and individuals. We heard oral evidence from three submitters at hearings in Wellington.

We received advice from the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. The Regulations Review Committee reported to us on the powers contained in clause 88.

Committee membership

Todd Muller (Chairperson)

Hon Jacqui Dean

Hon Jo Goodhew

Dr Kennedy Graham

Hon Annette King

Hon David Parker

Dr Shane Reti

Jami-Lee Ross

Fletcher Tabuteau

Lindsay Tisch

Gareth Hughes replaced Dr Kennedy Graham for this item of business.

Key to symbols used

text inserted

text deleted

Hover your cursor over an amendment for information about that amendment. Download the PDF version to see this information in a form that can be printed out.

Hon Simon Bridges

Outer Space and High-altitude Activities Bill

Government Bill

179—2

Contents

Commentary
Key
1Title
2Commencement
3Purpose
4Interpretation
5Transitional, savings, and related provisions
6Act binds the Crown
7Launch of launch vehicle from New Zealand requires launch licence
8Application for launch licence
9When launch licence may be granted
10Conditions, indemnity, and insurance relating to launch licence
11Duration of launch licence
12Renewal of launch licence
13Continuing obligations of licensee
14Minister may vary, revoke, or suspend launch licence
15Launch or operation of payload from New Zealand requires payload permit
16Application for payload permit
17When payload permit may be granted
18Conditions, indemnity, and insurance relating to payload permit
19Duration of payload permit
20Continuing obligations of permit holder
21Minister may vary, revoke, or suspend payload permit
22Radiocommunications Act 1989 presumption does not apply to payloads under payload permit
23Overseas launch of launch vehicle requires overseas launch licence
24Application for overseas launch licence
25When overseas launch licence may be granted
26Conditions, indemnity, and insurance relating to overseas launch licence
27Duration of overseas launch licence
28Renewal of overseas launch licence
29Continuing obligations of licensee
30Minister may vary, revoke, or suspend overseas launch licence
31Overseas launch of payload requires overseas payload permit
32Application for overseas payload permit
33When overseas payload permit may be granted
34Conditions, indemnity, and insurance relating to overseas payload permit
35Duration of overseas payload permit
36Continuing obligations of permit holder
37Minister may vary, revoke, or suspend overseas payload permit
38Requirement for facility licence
39Application for facility licence
40When facility licence may be granted
41Conditions and indemnity relating to facility licence
42Duration of facility licence
43Renewal of facility licence
44Minister may vary, revoke, or suspend facility licence
45Meaning of launch
46Requirement for high-altitude licence
47Application for high-altitude licence
48When high-altitude licence may be granted
49Conditions and insurance relating to high-altitude licence
50Minister may revoke, vary, or suspend high-altitude licence
51Request for information
52Minister may take into account authorisation granted in country other than New Zealand
53Criteria for fit and proper person test
54Change of licensee or permit holder requires approval of Minister
55Minister may impose further conditions on transfer or change of control
56Minister must consult security Ministers about national security
57Review procedure in relation to certificate of risk to national security
58Appointment of enforcement officers
59Enforcement officers must produce evidence of appointment
60Functions of enforcement officers
61Powers of enforcement officers
62Provisions relating to entry to dwellinghouse or marae
63Constable may exercise enforcement powers
64Security areas and security enhanced areas
65Minister may declare debris recovery area
64Segregated areas and areas set aside
65Minister may declare debris protection area
66Launching without launch licence or overseas launch licence
67Launching or procuring launch of payload without payload permit or overseas payload permit
68Operating launch facility without facility licence
69Launching high-altitude vehicle without high-altitude licence
70False or misleading information in application for grant or renewal of licence or permit
71Offence to fail to comply with condition of licence or permit
72Providing false or misleading information to enforcement officer
73Interfering with launch vehicle or payload
74Security area and security enhanced area offences Offences relating to segregated areas and areas set aside
75Person in control of security area or security enhanced area segregated area or area specially set aside to ensure identity cards displayed
76Taking photographs, etc, or samples from debris recovery area
76Offences in relation to debris protection area
77Additional penalty for offences involving commercial gain or liability of the Crown under Outer Space Treaty or Liability Convention
78Failing to display identity card
79Providing false information to enforcement officer
80Offences deemed to be included in extradition treaties
81Interpretation
82Proceedings for infringement offence
83Infringement notices
84Payment of infringement fees
85Requirement to notify Minister of intention to develop or acquire missile technology
85ASharing of information with agencies
86Review of Act
87Giving of notices
88Regulations
88AIncorporation by reference
89Amendment to Search and Surveillance Act 2012
90Amendment to Summary Proceedings Act 1957
91Amendment to Health and Safety at Work Act 2015
92Amendment to Privacy Act 1993
Legislative history

The Parliament of New Zealand enacts as follows:

1 Title

This Act is the Outer Space and High-altitude Activities Act 2016.

2 Commencement

This Act comes into force on the day that is 3 6 months after the date on which this Act receives the Royal assent.

Part 1 Preliminary provisions

3 Purpose

The purpose of this Act is to—

(a)

facilitate the development of a space industry and provide for its safe and secure operation:

(b)

implement certain international obligations of New Zealand relating to space activities and space technology:

(ba)

without limiting paragraph (b), implement the obligations in the Outer Space Treaty not to

(i)

place in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or weapons of mass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner:

(ii)

establish military bases, installations, or fortifications on celestial bodies:

(iii)

test any type of weapons or conduct manoeuvres on celestial bodies:

(c)

manage any potential or actual liability that may arise from the space industry:

(d)

establish a system for the regulation of space activities and certain high-altitude activities:

(e)

preserve New Zealand’s national security and national interests.

4 Interpretation

In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,—

accident includes a launch failure

aircraft has the same meaning as in section 2 of the Civil Aviation Act 1990

airport means an airport, as defined by section 2 of the Airport Authorities Act 1966, that is operated by an airport authority or airport company under that Act that undertakes identified airport activities within the meaning of that Act

chief executive means the chief executive of the department of State that, with the authority of the Prime Minister, is responsible for the administration of this Act

Director of Civil Aviation means the Director of Civil Aviation appointed under section 72I of the Civil Aviation Act 1990

controlled airspace means controlled airspace as designated in rules made under section 29A of the Civil Aviation Act 1990

enforcement officer means a person appointed under section 58

facility licence means a licence granted under subpart 5 of Part 2

flight level, if defined in rules made under the Civil Aviation Act 1990, has the meaning given to it in those rules

ground station, subject to any regulations made under section 88(1)(12), means a facility or place in New Zealand in which equipment is used to track or communicate with a launch vehicle or payload that is licensed under this Act

(a)

a launch vehicle or payload that is licensed under this Act; or

(b)

a high-altitude vehicle that is licensed under this Act; or

(c)

a high-altitude payload that is carried by a high-altitude vehicle that is licensed under this Act

high altitude means an altitude above the higher of

(a)

flight level 600; and

(b)

the highest upper limit of controlled airspace under the Civil Aviation Act 1990

high-altitude licence means a licence granted under subpart 6 of Part 2

high-altitude payload, subject to any regulations made under section 88(1)(13),

(a)

means an object that is carried or placed, or is intended to be carried or placed, at high altitude; and

(b)

includes components of a high-altitude vehicle that are specifically designed or adapted for the object (but does not otherwise include a high-altitude vehicle or any of its component parts): and

(c)

includes a load to be carried for testing purposes or otherwise on a non-profit basis

high-altitude vehicle, subject to any regulations made under section 88(1)(13), means an aircraft or any other vehicle that travels, is intended to travel, or is capable of travelling above controlled airspace to high altitude

intelligence and security agency means—

(a)

the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service:

(b)

the Government Communications Security Bureau

International Radio Regulations means the Radio Regulations annexed to the International Telecommunications Convention, done at Geneva in 1992; and includes any amendment to or replacement of the regulations

launch includes an attempted launch

(a)

means

(i)

causing to take off or depart; or

(ii)

releasing; and

(b)

includes an attempted launch

launch facility, subject to any regulations made under section 88(1)(12),—

(a)

means a facility (whether fixed or mobile) or place from which it is intended to launch a launch vehicle; and

(b)

includes all other facilities that are necessary to launch a launch vehicle from the facility or place; but

(c)

does not include an airport

launch licence means a licence granted under subpart 1 of Part 2

launch vehicle, subject to any regulations made under section 88(1)(11), means—

(a)

a vehicle that carries or is capable of carrying a payload; or

(a)

a vehicle, the whole or any part of which

(i)

reaches, or is intended to reach, outer space; or

(ii)

carries or supports the launch of, or is intended to carry or support the launch of, a payload; or

(b)

any component part of the a vehicle described in paragraph (a)

Liability Convention means the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects done at London, Moscow, and Washington on 29 March 1972

licensee means

(a)

in relation to a launch licence, the person who is the sole holder of the launch licence or all of the holders of the launch licence, as the case may be:

(b)

in relation to an overseas launch licence, the person who is the sole holder of the overseas launch licence or all of the holders of the overseas launch licence, as the case may be:

(c)

in relation to a facility licence, the person who is the sole holder of the facility licence or all of the holders of the facility licence, as the case may be:

(d)

in relation to a high-altitude licence, the person who is the sole holder of the high-altitude licence or all of the holders of the high-altitude licence, as the case may be

Minister means the Minister of the Crown who, under the authority of any warrant or with the authority of the Prime Minister, is for the time being responsible for the administration of this Act

New Zealand national means—

(a)

a New Zealand citizen or permanent resident of New Zealand:

(b)

a body corporate established by or under the law of New Zealand

Outer Space Treaty means the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies done at London, Moscow, and Washington on 27 January 1967

overseas launch licence means a licence granted under subpart 3 of Part 2

overseas payload permit means a permit granted under subpart 4 of Part 2

payload, subject to any regulations made under section 88(1)(11),—

(a)

means an object that a person intends to place is carried or placed, or is intended to be carried or placed, in outer space by means of a launch vehicle or, as the case may be, to place above controlled airspace by means of a high-altitude vehicle; and

(b)

includes components of a launch vehicle or high-altitude vehicle that are specifically designed or adapted for the object (but does not otherwise include a launch vehicle or high-altitude vehicle or any of its component parts); and

(c)

includes a load to be carried for testing purposes or otherwise on a non-profit basis

payload permit means a permit granted under subpart 2 of Part 2

permit holder means

(a)

in relation to a payload permit, the person who is the sole holder of the payload permit or all of the holders of the payload permit, as the case may be:

(b)

in relation to an overseas payload permit, the person who is the sole holder of the overseas payload permit or all of the holders of the overseas payload permit, as the case may be

Registration Convention means the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space done at New York on 14 January 1975

related equipment, in relation to a launch vehicle, payload, high-altitude vehicle, or payload, or high-altitude payload means support equipment, ancillary items, components, and spare parts required to carry out the launch or other activities

security Ministers means—

(a)

the Minister in charge of responsible for the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service; and

(b)

the Minister responsible for the Government Communications Security Bureau

space object, subject to any regulations made under section 88(1)(11), means—

(a)

a launch vehicle that is launched, or is intended to be launched, into outer space; or

(b)

a payload that is carried or launched, or intended to be carried or launched, by a launch vehicle into outer space; or

(c)

the launch vehicle and the payload (if any) carried by the launch vehicle; or

(d)

any component part of the launch vehicle or payload, even if—

(i)

the part does not reach, or is not intended to reach, outer space; or

(ii)

the part results from the separation of a payload or payloads from a launch vehicle after launch

technical data

(a)

means information—

(i)

in any form, including oral information, blueprints, drawings, photographs, video materials, plans, instructions, computer software, and documents; and

(ii)

that is required for the design, engineering, development, production, processing, manufacture, use, operation, overhaul, repair, maintenance, modification, enhancement, or modernisation of launch vehicles or payloads, payloads, high-altitude vehicles, high-altitude payloads, or related equipment; but

(b)

does not include publicly available information.

5 Transitional, savings, and related provisions

The transitional, savings, and related provisions (if any) set out in Schedule 1 have effect according to their terms.

6 Act binds the Crown

(1)

Subject to subsection (2), this Act binds the Crown.

(2)

Except as otherwise expressly provided in this Act or any other Act, or in regulations made under this Act, nothing in this Act or in regulations made under this Act applies to the New Zealand Defence Force.

Part 2 Licences and permits

Subpart 1—Launch licences

7 Launch of launch vehicle from New Zealand requires launch licence

A person must not, launch a launch vehicle from a launch facility in New Zealand, launch a launch vehicle that is intended to reach outer space or to carry or support the launch of a payload that is intended to reach outer space or from a vehicle in the air that was launched from New Zealand, unless the person has a launch licence for the launch of the launch vehicle from the launch facility or the vehicle (as the case may be).

8 Application for launch licence

(1)

A person or persons may apply to the Minister for a launch licence for the launch of 1 or more launch vehicles of a particular type from a particular launch facility or vehicle (as the case may be).

(2)

The application must be made in accordance with prescribed requirements.

9 When launch licence may be granted

(1)

The Minister may grant a launch licence only if the Minister is satisfied that—

(a)

the applicant or a person who is to conduct the launch on the applicant’s behalf is technically capable of conducting a safe launch; and

(b)

the applicant and any person who is to have or is likely to have control over the exercise of the rights under the licence

(i)

are fit and proper persons to hold a launch licence or have control over the exercise of rights under the licence; and

(ii)

meet any other prescribed requirements; and

(c)

the applicant has taken, and will continue to take, all reasonable steps to manage risks to public safety; and

(ca)

the applicant has an orbital debris mitigation plan that meets any prescribed requirements; and

(d)

the proposed launch or launches under the licence are consistent with New Zealand’s international obligations; and

(i)

are consistent with New Zealand’s international obligations; and

(ii)

meet any other prescribed requirements.

(e)

the applicant and the proposed launch or launches meet any prescribed requirements.

(2)

The Minister may, despite being satisfied of all the matters in subsection (1), decline to grant a launch licence if the Minister considers that a proposed launch under the licence would not be in the national interest. is not satisfied that

(a)

a proposed launch under the licence is in the national interest; or

(b)

the applicant is a fit and proper person to hold a launch licence (see section 53); or

(c)

a person who is to have or is likely to have control over the exercise of the rights under the licence is a fit and proper person to have control over the exercise of rights under the licence (see section 53).

(2A)

In considering the national interest for the purposes of subsection (2)(a), the Minister may have regard to

(a)

economic or other benefits to New Zealand of the proposed launch:

(b)

any risks to national security, public safety, international relations, or other national interests:

(c)

the extent to which the risks can be mitigated by licence or permit conditions:

(d)

any other matters that the Minister considers relevant.

(3)

Before granting a launch licence, the Minister must consult the security Ministers in accordance with section 56.

(4)

The Minister must not grant a launch licence if a certificate is issued under section 56 in relation to the proposed launch.

10 Conditions, indemnity, and insurance relating to launch licence

(1)

A launch licence is subject to the following conditions: licensee must

(a)

a condition that the licensee must provide to the Minister, in accordance with any prescribed requirements, any prescribed information and any information requested by the Minister under section 51, which may include

(i)

the date, location, and intended trajectory of each proposed launch under the licence; and

(ii)

details of the intended and actual basic orbital parameters (including the nodal period, inclination, apogee, and perigee) of any part of a launch vehicle that reaches or is intended to reach outer space; and

(iii)

details of the ground station or ground stations that will be used to track or communicate with the launch vehicle; and

(iii)

any prescribed information relating to each launch; and

(aa)

comply with any request by the Minister under section 51; and

(b)

a condition that the licensee must notify the Minister, in accordance with any prescribed requirements, if any of the following occurs:

(i)

any changes relating to the licence that mean any information provided to the Minister in relation to the licence is no longer accurate; or

(ii)

in a case where the Minister has advised the licensee that the Minister took into account, under section 52, treated a licence, permit, or other authorisation granted to the licensee in a country other than New Zealand as satisfying any criteria under section 52, that licence, permit, or other authorisation changes, expires, or is revoked; or

(iii)

any part of a launch vehicle that reaches outer space is no longer in earth orbit (unless the licensee does not know, and could not reasonably know, that the part is no longer in earth orbit); and

(c)

a condition that the licensee must

(i)

comply with the International Radio Regulations:

(ii)

consult

(A)

Airways Corporation of New Zealand Limited; and

(B)

Maritime New Zealand; and

(C)

any meteorological service specified by the Minister in the licence to obtain meteorological information applicable to the launch; and

(c)

consult, in accordance with any prescribed requirements,

(i)

the Civil Aviation Authority about aviation safety including, without limitation, the need for danger zones, restricted zones, and notices to airmen; and

(ii)

Airways Corporation of New Zealand Limited about aviation safety including, without limitation, any air traffic control requirements; and

(iii)

Maritime New Zealand about maritime safety including, without limitation, the need for exclusion zones and notices to mariners; and

(iv)

Land Information New Zealand about any notices to mariners that are required; and

(ca)

obtain up-to-date meteorological information applicable to each launch; and

(d)

a condition that the licensee must have, or be satisfied on reasonable grounds that a person has,—

(i)

a payload permit for each payload that is intended to be carried or launched by the launch vehicle into outer space; and

(ia)

if a launch facility is specified in the launch licence, a facility licence for the launch facility; and

(ii)

all consents, approvals, permissions, or other authorisations required under New Zealand law for the proposed launch, including, without limitation, under environmental legislation, health and safety legislation, and civil aviation legislation; and

(e)

a condition that the licensee must conduct the launch and operations in a manner that—

(i)

minimises the risk of contamination of outer space or adverse changes to the earth’s environment; and

(ii)

takes into account the activities of others in the use of outer space; and

(iii)

is consistent with New Zealand’s international obligations; and

(iv)

complies with New Zealand law, including, without limitation, the Civil Aviation Act 1990, any regulations and rules made under that Act, and all health and safety and environmental legislation; and

(f)

comply with any conditions prescribed by regulations relating to the launch and operation of a launch vehicle; and

(g)

comply with any other conditions imposed by the Minister including, without limitation, any conditions that the Minister considers necessary or desirable in order to—

(i)

give effect to New Zealand’s international obligations; or

(ii)

protect national security or other national interests; or

(iii)

protect national interests; or

(iv)

ensure public safety; or

(v)

avoid potentially harmful interference with the activities of others in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space; or

(vi)

minimise the risk of contamination of outer space or adverse changes in the earth’s environment; or

(vii)

manage New Zealand’s potential liability under international law (including under the Liability Convention and the Outer Space Treaty).

(2)

A launch licence must also contain conditions specifying (including in any manner prescribed by regulations) the type and amount of insurance that the licensee must hold.

(3)

The Minister may require a licensee, as a condition of the licence, to indemnify the Crown in whole or in part against—

(a)

any claim brought against the Crown under the Liability Convention or the Outer Space Treaty; or

(b)

any other claim brought against the Crown under international law in relation to an act or omission of the licensee under this Act.

11 Duration of launch licence

(1)

A launch licence must specify the date on which it comes into force and the expiry date.

(2)

The expiry date must not be later than 5 years after the date on which the launch licence comes into force.

(3)

A launch licence expires on the expiry date unless it is—

(a)

renewed in accordance with section 12; or

(b)

revoked or suspended earlier under section 14.

12 Renewal of launch licence

(1)

The Minister may renew a launch licence for a further period of up to 5 years if the Minister continues to be satisfied of the matters in section 9.

(2)

The Minister may impose further conditions of a kind described in section 10 when renewing the licence.

13 Continuing obligations of licensee

The obligations of a licensee under a launch licence (including, without limitation, any obligations under an indemnity required under section 10(3)) survive the expiry or revocation of the launch licence and continue until all matters connected to the launch or launches under the launch licence have been completed.

14 Minister may vary, revoke, or suspend launch licence

(1)

The Minister may, at any time, vary a launch licence on any conditions that the Minister thinks fit, or suspend or revoke a launch licence,—

(a)

with the prior written consent of the licensee; or

(b)

on the written application of the licensee; or

(c)

if the Minister believes on reasonable grounds that—

(i)

the licensee has breached the Act, the regulations, or a condition of the licence; or

(ii)

the revocation, variation, or suspension is necessary in the interests of national security, public safety, or compliance with any of New Zealand’s international obligations, or other national interests; or

(iii)

a licence, permit, or other authorisation granted to the licensee in a country other than New Zealand that the Minister took into account treated as satisfying any criteria under section 52 has changed, expired, or been revoked and the Minister considers that the change, expiry, or revocation affects interests of national security, public safety, or New Zealand’s compliance with any of New Zealand’s international obligations, or other national interests; or

(d)

for any other reason specified in the licence.

(2)

Before varying, suspending, or revoking a launch licence, the Minister must consult the security Ministers in accordance with section 56.

(3)

The Minister must suspend or revoke a licence if a certificate is issued under section 56.

Subpart 2—Payload permits

15 Launch or operation of payload from New Zealand requires payload permit

(1)

A person must not, from a launch facility in New Zealand, launch a payload that is intended to reach outer space unless either that person or another person has a payload permit for the launch of the payload from the launch facility and the operation of the payload in outer space.

(2)

A person must not, from a launch facility in New Zealand, procure the launch of a payload that is intended to reach outer space unless that person has a payload permit for the launch of the payload from the launch facility and the operation of the payload in outer space.

(1)

This section applies to the launch of a payload from

(a)

a launch facility in New Zealand; or

(b)

a launch vehicle that was launched from a launch facility in New Zealand or a vehicle in the air that was launched from New Zealand.

(2)

A person must not procure the launch of a payload unless the person has a payload permit for the launch of the payload and the operation of the payload in outer space.

(2A)

A person must not launch a payload unless the person, or a person procuring the launch of the payload, has a payload permit for the launch of the payload and the operation of the payload in outer space.

(2B)

Nothing in subsection (2) or (2A) prevents a person entering into a contract for the launch of a payload or taking any other step prior to the launch provided a person has a payload permit for the launch of the payload at the time of the launch.

(3)

Despite subsection (2) subsections (2A) and (2B), only 1 permit is needed in respect of a payload.

16 Application for payload permit

(1)

A person or persons may apply to the Minister for a payload permit for the launch and operation of 1 or more payloads of a particular type from a particular launch facility.

(2)

The application must be made in accordance with prescribed requirements.

17 When payload permit may be granted

(1)

The Minister may grant a payload permit only if the Minister is satisfied that—

(a)

the applicant has taken, and will continue to take, all reasonable steps to safely manage the operation of the payload; and

(aa)

the applicant has an orbital debris mitigation plan that meets any prescribed requirements; and

(b)

the proposed operation of the payload or payloads under the permit is consistent with New Zealand’s international obligations; and

(c)

the applicant and the proposed operation of the payload or payloads under the permit meet any other prescribed requirements.

(2)

The Minister may, despite the Minister being satisfied of all the matters in subsection (1), decline to grant a payload permit if the Minister considers is not satisfied that the proposed operation of a payload under the permit would not be is in the national interest.

(2A)

In considering the national interest for the purposes of subsection (2), the Minister may have regard to

(a)

economic or other benefits to New Zealand of the proposed operation:

(b)

any risks to national security, public safety, international relations, or other national interests:

(c)

the extent to which the risks can be mitigated by licence or permit conditions:

(d)

any other matters that the Minister considers relevant.

(3)

Before granting a payload permit, the Minister must consult the security Ministers in accordance with section 56.

(4)

The Minister must not grant a payload permit if a certificate is issued under section 56 in relation to the payload.

18 Conditions, indemnity, and insurance relating to payload permit

(1)

A payload permit is subject to the following conditions: permit holder must

(a)

a condition that the permit holder must provide to the Minister, in accordance with any prescribed requirements, any prescribed information and any information requested by the Minister under section 51, which may include

(i)

the date and location of each proposed launch of a payload under the permit; and

(ii)

details of the intended and actual basic orbital parameters (including the nodal period, inclination, apogee, and perigee) of the payload that reaches or is intended to reach outer space; and

(iii)

details of the ground station or ground stations that will be used to track or communicate with the payload; and

(iii)

any prescribed information relating to each payload; and

(aa)

comply with any request by the Minister under section 51; and

(b)

a condition that the permit holder must notify the Minister, in accordance with any prescribed requirements, of if any of the following occurrences occurs:

(i)

any changes relating to the licence that mean any information provided to the Minister in relation to the permit is no longer accurate; or

(ii)

in a case where the Minister has advised the permit holder that the Minister took into account, under section 52, treated a licence, permit, or other authorisation granted to the permit holder in a country other than New Zealand as satisfying any criteria under section 52, that licence, permit, or other authorisation changes, expires, or is revoked; or

(iii)

the a payload under the permit that reaches outer space is no longer in earth orbit (unless the permit holder does not know, and could not reasonably know, that the payload is no longer in earth orbit); and

(c)

a condition that the permit holder must comply with the International Radio Regulations; and

(d)

a condition that the permit holder must conduct operations of each payload in a manner that—

(i)

minimises the risk of contamination of outer space or adverse changes in the earth’s environment; and

(ii)

takes into account the activities of others in the use of outer space; and

(iii)

is consistent with New Zealand’s international obligations; and

(iv)

avoids harmful interference with outer space and terrestrial radiocommunications; and

(e)

comply with any conditions prescribed by regulations relating to a payload; and

(f)

comply with any other conditions that the Minister considers necessary or desirable in order to—

(i)

give effect to New Zealand’s international obligations; or

(ii)

protect national security or other national interests; or

(iii)

protect national interests; or

(iv)

ensure public safety; or

(v)

avoid potentially harmful interference with the activities of others in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space; or

(vi)

minimise the risk of contamination of outer space or adverse changes in the earth’s environment; or

(vii)

manage New Zealand’s potential liability under international law (including under the Liability Convention and the Outer Space Treaty).

(2)

The Minister may require, as a condition of the permit, a permit holder to—

(a)

indemnify the Crown in whole or in part against—

(i)

any claim brought against the Crown under the Liability Convention or the Outer Space Treaty; or

(ii)

any other claim brought against the Crown under international law in relation to an act or omission of the permit holder under this Act; and

(b)

hold insurance of a type and an amount (including a type and an amount calculated in a manner prescribed in regulations), and containing any provisions, specified by the Minister.

19 Duration of payload permit

(1)

A payload permit must specify—

(a)

the date on which it comes into force; and

(b)

either—

(i)

the date on which the payload permit expires; or

(ii)

that the payload permit expires on the occurrence of a particular event (rather than at a specified time).

(2)

A payload permit expires in the manner specified in the payload permit unless revoked or suspended earlier under section 21.

20 Continuing obligations of permit holder

The obligations of a permit holder under a payload permit (including, without limitation, any obligations under an indemnity required under section 18(2)(a)) survive the expiry or revocation of the payload permit and continue until all matters connected to the operation of the payload or payloads under the payload permit have been completed.

21 Minister may vary, revoke, or suspend payload permit

(1)

The Minister may, at any time, vary a payload permit on any conditions that the Minister thinks fit, or suspend or revoke a payload permit,—

(a)

with the prior written consent of the permit holder; or

(b)

on the written application of the permit holder; or

(c)

if the Minister believes on reasonable grounds that—

(i)

the permit holder has breached the Act, the regulations, or a condition of the payload permit; or

(ii)

the revocation, variation, or suspension is necessary in the interests of national security, public safety, or compliance with any of New Zealand’s international obligations, or other national interests; or

(iii)

a licence, permit, or other authorisation granted to the permit holder in a country other than New Zealand that the Minister took into account treated as satisfying any criteria under section 52 has changed, expired, or been revoked and the Minister considers that the change, expiry, or revocation affects interests of national security, public safety, other national interests, or New Zealand’s compliance with any of New Zealand’s international obligations; or

(d)

for any other reason specified in the permit.

(2)

Before varying, suspending, or revoking a payload permit, the Minister must consult the security Ministers in accordance with section 56.

(3)

The Minister must, if a certificate is issued under section 56 in relation to a payload or payloads under a payload permit, do 1 or both of the following:

(a)

suspend or revoke the payload permit:

(b)

vary the payload permit to prohibit the launch of the relevant payload or payloads.

22 Radiocommunications Act 1989 presumption does not apply to payloads under payload permit

The presumption in section 114(1) of the Radiocommunications Act 1989 does not apply if—

(a)

a payload is, or contains, a radio transmitter (as defined in section 2(1) of that Act); and

(b)

a person—

(i)

has a payload permit for the payload; or

(ii)

has applied for a payload permit under section 16 in respect of the payload and the Minister has not yet decided whether to grant or decline to grant the permit under section 17.

Subpart 3—Licence for launch of launch vehicle overseas

23 Overseas launch of launch vehicle requires overseas launch licence

A New Zealand national must not launch a launch vehicle, from a launch facility outside New Zealand, or from a vehicle in the air that was launched from outside New Zealand, launch a launch vehicle that is intended to reach outer space or to carry or support the launch of a payload that is intended to reach outer space unless the New Zealand national has an overseas launch licence for the launch of the launch vehicle from the launch facility.

24 Application for overseas launch licence

(1)

A person or persons may apply to the Minister for an overseas launch licence for the launch of 1 or more launch vehicles of a particular type from a particular launch facility outside New Zealand.

(2)

The application must be made in accordance with prescribed requirements.

25 When overseas launch licence may be granted

(1)

The Minister may grant an overseas launch licence only if the Minister is satisfied that—

(a)

the applicant or a person who is to conduct the launch on the applicant’s behalf is technically capable of conducting a safe launch; and

(b)

the applicant and any person who is to have or is likely to have control over the exercise of the rights under the licence

(i)

are fit and proper persons to hold a licence or have control over the exercise of rights under the licence; and

(ii)

meet any other prescribed requirements; and

(c)

the applicant has taken, and will continue to take, all reasonable steps to manage risks to public safety; and

(ca)

the applicant has an orbital debris mitigation plan that meets any prescribed requirements; and

(d)

the proposed launch or launches under the licence are consistent with New Zealand’s international obligations; and

(i)

are consistent with New Zealand’s international obligations; and

(ii)

meet any other prescribed requirements.

(e)

the applicant and the proposed launch or launches under the licence meet any other prescribed requirements.

(2)

The Minister may, despite being satisfied of all the matters in subsection (1), decline to grant an overseas launch licence if the Minister considers that a proposed launch under the licence would not be in the national interest. is not satisfied that

(a)

a proposed launch under the licence is in the national interest; or

(b)

the applicant is a fit and proper person to hold a licence (see section 53); or

(c)

a person who is to have or is likely to have control over the exercise of the rights under the licence is a fit and proper person to have control over the exercise of rights under the licence (see section 53).

(2A)

In considering the national interest for the purposes of subsection (2)(a), the Minister may have regard to

(a)

economic or other benefits to New Zealand of the proposed launch:

(b)

any risks to national security, public safety, international relations, or other national interests:

(c)

the extent to which the risks can be mitigated by licence or permit conditions:

(d)

any other matters that the Minister considers relevant.

(3)

Before granting an overseas launch licence, the Minister must consult the security Ministers in accordance with section 56.

(4)

The Minister must not grant an overseas launch licence if a certificate is issued under section 56 in relation to the proposed launch or launches under the licence.

26 Conditions, indemnity, and insurance relating to overseas launch licence

(1)

An overseas launch licence is subject to the following conditions:A licensee must

(a)

a condition that the licensee must provide to the Minister, in accordance with any prescribed requirements, any prescribed information and any information requested by the Minister under section 51, which may include

(i)

the date, location, and intended trajectory of each proposed launch under the licence; and

(ii)

details of the intended and actual basic orbital parameters (including the nodal period, inclination, apogee, and perigee) of any part of a overseas launch vehicle that reaches or is intended to reach outer space; and

(iii)

any prescribed information relating to each launch; and

(aa)

comply with any request by the Minister under section 51; and

(b)

a condition that the licensee must notify the Minister, in accordance with any prescribed requirements, if any of the following occurs:

(i)

any changes relating to the licence that mean any information provided to the Minister in relation to the licence is no longer accurate; or

(ii)

in a case where the Minister has advised the licensee that the Minister took into account, under section 52, treated a licence, permit, or other authorisation granted to the licensee in a country other than New Zealand as satisfying any criteria under section 52, that licence, permit, or other authorisation changes, expires, or is revoked; or

(iii)

any part of a launch vehicle that reaches outer space is no longer in earth orbit (unless the licensee does not know, and could not reasonably know, that the part is no longer in earth orbit); and

(c)

comply with any other conditions prescribed by regulations relating to the launch and operation of a launch vehicle; and

(d)

comply with any other conditions imposed by the Minister including, without limitation, any conditions that the Minister considers necessary or desirable in order to—

(i)

give effect to New Zealand’s international obligations; or

(ii)

protect national security or other national interests; or

(iii)

protect national interests; or

(iv)

ensure public safety; or

(v)

avoid potentially harmful interference with the activities of others in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space; or

(vi)

minimise the risk of contamination of outer space or adverse changes in the earth’s environment; or

(vii)

manage New Zealand’s potential liability under international law (including under the Liability Convention and the Outer Space Treaty).

(2)

An overseas launch licence must also contain conditions specifying (including in any manner prescribed by regulations) the type and amount of insurance that the licensee must hold.

(3)

The Minister may require a licensee, as a condition of the licence, to indemnify the Crown in whole or in part against—

(a)

any claim brought against the Crown under the Liability Convention or the Outer Space Treaty; or

(b)

any other claim brought against the Crown under international law in relation to an act or omission of the licensee under this Act.

27 Duration of overseas launch licence

(1)

An overseas launch licence must specify the date on which it comes into force and the expiry date.

(2)

The expiry date must not be later than 5 years after the date on which the overseas launch licence is granted comes into force.

(3)

An overseas launch licence expires on the expiry date unless it is—

(a)

renewed in accordance with section 28; or

(b)

revoked or suspended earlier under section 30.

28 Renewal of overseas launch licence

(1)

The Minister may renew an overseas launch licence for a further period of up to 5 years if the Minister continues to be satisfied of the matters in section 25(1).

(2)

The Minister may impose further conditions of a kind described in section 26 when renewing the licence.

29 Continuing obligations of licensee

The obligations of a licensee under an overseas launch licence (including, without limitation, any obligations under an indemnity required under section 26(3)) survive the expiry or revocation of the licence and continue until all matters connected to the launch or launches under the licence have been completed.

30 Minister may vary, revoke, or suspend overseas launch licence

(1)

The Minister may, at any time, vary an overseas launch licence on any conditions that the Minister thinks fit, or suspend or revoke an overseas launch licence,—

(a)

with the prior written consent of the licensee; or

(b)

on the written application of the licensee; or

(c)

if the Minister believes on reasonable grounds that—

(i)

the licensee has breached the Act, the regulations, or a condition of the licence; or

(ii)

the revocation, variation, or suspension is necessary in the interests of national security, public safety, or compliance with any of New Zealand’s international obligations, or other national interests; or

(iii)

a licence, permit, or other authorisation granted to the licensee in a country other than New Zealand that the Minister took into account treated as satisfying any criteria under section 52 has changed, expired, or been revoked and the Minister considers that the change, expiry, or revocation affects interests of national security, public safety, or New Zealand’s compliance with any of New Zealand’s international obligations, or other national interests; or

(d)

for any other reason specified in the licence.

(2)

Before varying, suspending, or revoking an overseas launch licence, the Minister must consult the security Ministers in accordance with section 56.

(3)

The Minister must suspend or revoke an overseas launch licence if a certificate is issued under section 56 in relation to the licence.

Subpart 4—Permit for launch of payload overseas

31 Overseas launch of payload requires overseas payload permit

(1)

A person must not, from a launch facility outside New Zealand, launch a payload that is intended to reach outer space unless either that person or another person has an overseas payload permit for the launch of the payload from the launch facility and the operation of the payload in outer space.

(2)

A person must not, from a launch facility outside New Zealand, procure the launch of a payload that is intended to reach outer space unless that person has an overseas payload permit for the launch of the payload from the launch facility and the operation of the payload in outer space.

(1)

This section applies to the launch of a payload from

(a)

a launch facility outside New Zealand; or

(b)

a launch vehicle that was launched from a launch facility outside New Zealand or a vehicle in the air that was launched from outside New Zealand.

(2)

A New Zealand national must not procure the launch of a payload unless the New Zealand national has an overseas payload permit for the launch of the payload and the operation of the payload in outer space.

(2A)

A New Zealand national must not launch a payload unless the New Zealand national, or a New Zealand national procuring the launch of the payload, has an overseas payload permit for the launch of the payload and the operation of the payload in outer space.

(2B)

Nothing in subsection (2) or (2A) prevents a New Zealand national entering into a contract for the launch of a payload or taking any other step prior to the launch of a payload provided a New Zealand national has a payload permit for the launch of the payload at the time of the launch.

(3)

Despite subsection (2) subsections (2A) and (2B), only 1 overseas payload permit is needed in respect of a payload.

32 Application for overseas payload permit

(1)

A person or persons may apply to the Minister for an overseas payload permit for the launch or operation of 1 or more payloads of a particular type from a particular launch facility.

(2)

The application must be made in accordance with prescribed requirements.

33 When overseas payload permit may be granted

(1)

The Minister may grant an overseas payload permit only if the Minister is satisfied that—

(a)

the applicant has taken, and will continue to take, all reasonable steps to safely manage risks to public safety arising from the operation of the payload; and

(aa)

the applicant has an orbital debris mitigation plan that meets any prescribed requirements; and

(b)

the proposed operation of the payload or payloads under the permit is consistent with New Zealand’s international obligations; and

(c)

the applicant and the proposed operation of the payload or payloads under the permit meet any other prescribed requirements.

(2)

The Minister may, despite the Minister being satisfied of all the matters in subsection (1), decline to grant an overseas payload permit if the Minister considers is not satisfied that the proposed operation of a payload under the permit would not be is in the national interest.

(2A)

In considering the national interest for the purposes of subsection (2), the Minister may have regard to

(a)

economic or other benefits to New Zealand of the proposed operation:

(b)

any risks to national security, public safety, international relations, or other national interests:

(c)

the extent to which the risks can be mitigated by licence or permit conditions:

(d)

any other matters that the Minister considers relevant.

(3)

Before granting an overseas payload permit, the Minister must consult the security Ministers in accordance with section 56.

(4)

The Minister must not grant an overseas payload permit if a certificate is issued under section 56 in relation to the payload.

34 Conditions, indemnity, and insurance relating to overseas payload permit

(1)

An overseas payload permit is subject to the following conditions:A permit holder must

(a)

a condition that the permit holder must provide to the Minister, in accordance with any prescribed requirements, any prescribed information and any information requested by the Minister under section 51, which may include

(i)

the date and location of each proposed operation of a payload under the permit; and

(ii)

details of the intended and actual basic orbital parameters (including the nodal period, inclination, apogee, and perigee) of the payload that reaches or is intended to reach outer space; and

(iii)

any prescribed information relating to each payload; and

(aa)

comply with any request by the Minister under section 51; and

(b)

a condition that the permit holder must notify the Minister, in accordance with any prescribed requirements, if any of the following occurs:

(i)

any changes relating to the permit that mean any information provided to the Minister in relation to the permit is no longer accurate; or

(ii)

in a case where the Minister has advised the permit holder that the Minister took into account, under section 52, treated a licence, permit, or other authorisation granted to the permit holder in a country other than New Zealand and as satisfying any criteria under section 52, that licence, permit, or other authorisation changes, expires, or is revoked; or

(iii)

the payload is no longer in earth orbit (unless the permit holder does not know, and could not reasonably know, that the payload is no longer in earth orbit); and

(c)

comply with any other conditions prescribed by regulations relating to a payload; and

(d)

comply with any other conditions that the Minister considers necessary or desirable in order to—

(i)

give effect to New Zealand’s international obligations; or

(ii)

protect national security or other national interests; or

(iii)

protect national interests; or

(iv)

ensure public safety; or

(v)

avoid potentially harmful interference with the activities of others in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space; or

(vi)

minimise the risk of contamination of outer space or adverse changes in the earth’s environment; or

(vii)

manage New Zealand’s potential liability under international law (including under the Liability Convention and the Outer Space Treaty).

(2)

The Minister may require a permit holder, as a condition of the permit, to—

(a)

indemnify the Crown in whole or in part against—

(i)

any claim brought against the Crown under the Liability Convention or the Outer Space Treaty; or

(ii)

any other claim brought against the Crown under international law in relation to an act or omission of the permit holder under this Act; and

(b)

hold insurance of a type and an amount (including a type and an amount calculated in a manner prescribed in regulations), and containing any provisions, specified by the Minister.

35 Duration of overseas payload permit

(1)

An overseas payload permit must specify—

(a)

the date on which it comes into force; and

(b)

either—

(i)

the date on which the overseas payload permit expires; or

(ii)

that the overseas payload permit expires on the occurrence of a particular event (rather than at a specified time).

(2)

An overseas payload permit expires in the manner specified in the overseas payload permit unless revoked or suspended earlier under section 37.

36 Continuing obligations of permit holder

The obligations of a permit holder under an overseas payload permit (including, without limitation, any obligations under an indemnity required under section 34(2)(a)) survive the expiry or revocation of the overseas payload permit and continue until all matters connected to the operation of the payload or payloads under the overseas payload permit have been completed.

37 Minister may vary, revoke, or suspend overseas payload permit

(1)

The Minister may, at any time, vary an overseas payload permit on any conditions that the Minister thinks fit, or suspend or revoke an overseas payload permit,—

(a)

with the prior written consent of the permit holder; or

(b)

on the written application of the permit holder; or

(c)

if the Minister believes on reasonable grounds that—

(i)

the permit holder has breached the Act, the regulations, or a condition of the overseas payload permit; or

(ii)

the revocation, variation, or suspension is necessary in the interests of national security, public safety, or compliance with any of New Zealand’s international obligations, or other national interests; or

(iii)

a licence, permit, or other authorisation granted to the permit holder in a country other than New Zealand that the Minister took into account treated as satisfying any criteria under section 52 has changed, expired, or been revoked and the Minister considers that the change, expiry, or revocation affects interests of national security, public safety, or New Zealand’s compliance with any of New Zealand’s international obligations, or other national interests; or

(d)

for any other reason specified in the permit.

(2)

Before varying, suspending, or revoking an overseas payload permit, the Minister must consult the security Ministers in accordance with section 56.

(3)

The Minister must, if a certificate is issued under section 56 in relation to a payload or payloads under an overseas payload permit, do 1 or both of the following:

(a)

suspend or revoke the overseas payload permit:

(b)

vary the overseas payload permit to prohibit the launch of the relevant payload or payloads.

Subpart 5—Facility licences

38 Requirement for facility licence

A person must not operate a launch facility in New Zealand unless the person has a facility licence for the launch facility.

39 Application for facility licence

(1)

A person or persons may apply to the Minister for a facility licence.

(2)

The application must be in accordance with prescribed requirements.

40 When facility licence may be granted

(1)

The Minister may grant a facility licence only if the Minister is satisfied that—

(a)

the applicant or a person who is to operate the facility on the applicant’s behalf is technically capable of operating a launch facility safely; and

(b)

the applicant and any person who is to have or is likely to have control over the exercise of the rights under the licence

(i)

are fit and proper persons to hold a licence or have control over the exercise of rights under the licence; and

(ii)

meet any other prescribed requirements; and

(c)

the applicant has taken, and will continue to take, all reasonable steps to manage risks to public safety; and

(d)

the proposed operation of the launch facility is consistent with New Zealand’s international obligations; and

(i)

is consistent with New Zealand’s international obligations; and

(ii)

meets any other prescribed requirements.

(e)

the applicant and the proposed operation of the launch facility meet any other prescribed requirements relating to the launch facility.

(2)

The Minister may, despite being satisfied of all the matters in subsection (1), decline to grant a facility licence if the Minister considers that the operation of the launch facility under the licence would not be in the national interest. is not satisfied that

(a)

the operation of the launch facility under the licence is in the national interest; or

(b)

the applicant is a fit and proper person to hold a licence (see section 53); or

(c)

a person who is to have or is likely to have control over the exercise of the rights under the licence is a fit and proper person to have control over the exercise of rights under the licence (see section 53).

(2A)

In considering the national interest for the purposes of subsection (2)(a), the Minister may have regard to

(a)

economic or other benefits to New Zealand of the proposed operation:

(b)

any risks to national security, public safety, international relations, or other national interests:

(c)

the extent to which the risks can be mitigated by licence or permit conditions:

(d)

any other matters that the Minister considers relevant.

(3)

Before granting a facility licence, the Minister must consult the security Ministers in accordance with section 56.

(4)

The Minister must not grant a facility licence if a certificate is issued under section 56 in relation to the proposed operation of the launch facility.

41 Conditions and indemnity relating to facility licence

(1)

The Minister may impose any conditions in a facility licence that the Minister considers necessary or desirable in order to

(a)

give effect to New Zealand’s international obligations; or

(b)

protect national security; or

(c)

protect national interests; or

(d)

ensure public safety.

(1)

A licensee must

(aa)

notify the Minister, in a case where the Minister has advised the licensee that the Minister treated a licence, permit, or other authorisation granted in a country other than New Zealand as satisfying any criteria under section 52, if that licence, permit, or other authorisation changes, expires, or is revoked; and

(a)

comply with any prescribed conditions relating to a launch facility; and

(b)

comply with any other conditions imposed by the Minister, including, without limitation, any conditions that the Minister considers necessary or desirable in order to

(i)

give effect to New Zealand’s international obligations; or

(ii)

protect national security or other national interests; or

(iii)

ensure public safety.

(2)

The Minister may require a licensee, as a condition of the licence, to indemnify the Crown in whole or in part against—

(a)

any claim brought against the Crown under the Liability Convention or the Outer Space Treaty; or

(b)

any other claim brought against the Crown under international law in relation to an act or omission of the licensee under this Act.

42 Duration of facility licence

(1)

A facility licence must specify the date on which it comes into force and the expiry date.

(2)

The expiry date must not be later than 5 years after the date on which the launch licence is granted facility licence comes into force.

(3)

A facility licence expires on the expiry date unless it is—

(a)

renewed in accordance with section 43; or

(b)

revoked or suspended earlier under section 44.

43 Renewal of facility licence

(1)

The Minister may renew a facility licence for a further period of up to 5 years if the Minister continues to be satisfied of the matters in section 40(1).

(2)

The Minister may impose further conditions of a kind specified in section 41 when renewing the licence.

44 Minister may vary, revoke, or suspend facility licence

(1)

The Minister may, at any time, vary a facility licence on any conditions that the Minister thinks fit, or suspend or revoke a facility licence,—

(a)

with the prior written consent of the licensee; or

(b)

on the written application of the licensee; or

(c)

if the Minister believes on reasonable grounds that—

(i)

the licensee has breached the Act, the regulations, or a condition of the licence; or

(ii)

the revocation, variation, or suspension is necessary in the interests of national security, public safety, or compliance with any of New Zealand’s international obligations, or other national interests; or

(iii)

a licence, permit, or other authorisation that the Minister treated as satisfying any criteria under section 52 has changed, expired, or been revoked and the Minister considers that the change, expiry, or revocation affects interests of national security, public safety, or New Zealand’s compliance with any of New Zealand’s international obligations, or other national interests; or

(d)

for any other reason specified in the licence.

(2)

Before varying, suspending, or revoking a facility licence, the Minister must consult the security Ministers in accordance with section 56.

(3)

The Minister must suspend or revoke a licence if a certificate is issued under section 56 in relation to the operation of the facility.

Subpart 6—High-altitude licences

45 Meaning of launch

For the purposes of this subpart, unless the context otherwise requires, launch includes any departure from land or sea in New Zealand (including from a runway).

46 Requirement for high-altitude licence

(1)

A person must not launch a high-altitude vehicle from New Zealand that is capable of travelling or intended to travel above controlled airspace, or from a vehicle in the air that was launched from New Zealand, unless the person has a high-altitude licence for the launch.

(2)

A high-altitude licence is not required in respect of a particular activity described in subsection (1) if the activity is conducted under a launch licence issued under subpart 1.

47 Application for high-altitude licence

(1)

A person or persons may apply to the Minister for a licence for 1 or more launches from New Zealand of 1 or more high-altitude vehicles.

(2)

The application must be made in accordance with prescribed requirements.

48 When high-altitude licence may be granted

(1)

The Minister may grant a high-altitude licence only if —

(a)

the Minister is satisfied that—

(i)

the applicant or a person who is to conduct the launch on the applicant’s behalf is technically capable of conducting a safe launch; and

(ii)

the applicant and any person who is to have or is likely to have control over the exercise of the rights under the licence

(A)

are fit and proper persons to hold a high-altitude licence or have control over the exercise of rights under the licence; and

(B)

meet any other prescribed requirements; and

(iii)

in relation to each high-altitude vehicle that is proposed to be launched under the licence (other than any high-altitude vehicle that is an aircraft), the applicant has taken, and will continue to take, all reasonable steps to manage risks to public safety; and

(iv)

the proposed launch or launches under the licence are consistent with New Zealand’s international obligations; and

(A)

are consistent with New Zealand’s international obligations; and

(B)

meet any other prescribed requirements; and

(v)

the applicant and the proposed launch or launches meet any prescribed requirements; and

(b)

in relation to each high-altitude vehicle proposed to be launched under the licence that is an aircraft, the Minister has received advice from the Director of Civil Aviation that

(i)

has received confirmation from the Director of Civil Aviation that the aircraft or (where relevant) the operator of the aircraft has the appropriate permits, certificates, or other documents under the Civil Aviation Act 1990 (if any) or, in the case of a foreign aircraft, that the aircraft is recognised under New Zealand law; and

(ii)

the operation of the aircraft is safe provided that the operator complies with the Civil Aviation Act 1990 and rules made under that Act.

(ii)

has taken into account any advice or information provided by the Director of Civil Aviation in relation to the safety of the operation of the aircraft at high altitude.

(2)

The Minister may, despite being satisfied of all the matters in subsection (1)(a) and, if relevant, having received the advice in subsection (1)(b), decline to grant a high-altitude licence if the Minister considers that the proposed operation of a high-altitude vehicle or high-altitude vehicles under the licence would not be in the national interest. is not satisfied that

(a)

the proposed launch of a high-altitude vehicle or high-altitude vehicles under the licence is in the national interest; or

(b)

the applicant is a fit and proper person to hold a launch licence (see section 53); or

(c)

a person who is to have or is likely to have control over the exercise of the rights under the licence is a fit and proper person to have control over the exercise of rights under the licence (see section 53).

(2A)

In considering the national interest for the purposes of subsection (2)(a), the Minister may have regard to

(a)

economic or other benefits to New Zealand of the proposed launch:

(b)

any risks to national security, public safety, international relations, or other national interests:

(c)

the extent to which the risks can be mitigated by licence or permit conditions:

(d)

any other matters that the Minister considers relevant.

(3)

Before granting a high-altitude licence, the Minister must consult the security Ministers in accordance with section 56.

(4)

The Minister must not grant a high-altitude licence if a certificate is issued under section 56 in relation to a proposed launch or launches under the licence.

49 Conditions and insurance relating to high-altitude licence

(1)

A high-altitude licence is subject to the following conditions:A licensee must

(a)

a condition that the licensee must provide to the Minister, in accordance with any prescribed requirements, any prescribed information and any information requested by the Minister under section 51, which may include

(i)

the date, nature, location, purpose, intended duration, and intended range of altitudes of each proposed launch and operation; and

(ii)

information about any high-altitude payload to be carried by a high-altitude vehicle under the licence (including the purpose of carrying the high-altitude payload, the intended frequencies of the high-altitude payload, and who intends to communicate with the high-altitude payload); and

(iii)

any prescribed information relating to each launch; and

(aa)

comply with any request by the Minister under section 51; and

(b)

a condition that the licensee must notify the Minister, in accordance with any prescribed requirements, if either of the following occurs: the high-altitude vehicle deviates from operational parameters; and

(i)

any changes relating to the licence that mean any information provided to the Minister in relation to the licence is no longer accurate; or

(ii)

the high-altitude vehicle deviates from operational parameters; and

(c)

a condition that a licensee must obtain advance approval from the Minister for any intended deviation from operational parameters; and

(d)

a condition that the licensee must conduct the launch and operation in a manner that complies with the Civil Aviation Act 1990 and any regulations and rules made under that Act; and

(e)

comply with any other conditions prescribed by regulations relating to the launch and operation of a high-altitude vehicle; and

(f)

comply with any other conditions imposed by the Minister including, without limitation, any conditions that the Minister considers necessary or desirable in order to—

(i)

regulate any high-altitude payload carried by the high-altitude vehicle; or

(ii)

protect national security or other national interests; or.

(iii)

protect national interests.

(2)

The Minister may require a licensee, as a condition of the licence, to hold insurance of a type and an amount (including a type and an amount calculated in a manner prescribed in regulations) specified by the Minister.

50 Minister may revoke, vary, or suspend high-altitude licence

(1)

The Minister may, at any time, vary a high-altitude licence on any conditions that the Minister thinks fit, or suspend or revoke a high-altitude licence,—

(a)

with the prior written consent of the licensee; or

(b)

on the written application of the licensee; or

(c)

if the Minister believes on reasonable grounds that—

(i)

the licensee has breached the Act, the regulations, or a condition of the licence; or

(ii)

the revocation, variation, or suspension is necessary in the interests of national security, public safety, or compliance with any of New Zealand’s international obligations, or other national interests; or

(d)

for any other reason specified in the licence.

(2)

Before varying, suspending, or revoking a high-altitude licence, the Minister must consult the security Ministers in accordance with section 56.

(3)

The Minister must, if a certificate is issued under section 56 in relation to a high-altitude vehicle, do 1 or both of the following:

(a)

suspend or revoke the licence:

(b)

vary the licence to prohibit the launch from New Zealand of the relevant high-altitude vehicle.

Subpart 7—General provisions relating to licences and permits under this Part

51 Request for information

(1)

The Minister may, by written notice, ask an applicant for, or the holder of, any licence or permit to give the Minister, within the period, and in the manner, specified in the notice, any information that the Minister requires for the purposes of performing functions or exercising powers under this Act in relation to the licence or permit.

(2)

Where the request for information relates to the consideration by the Minister of an application for a licence or permit, the Minister may refuse to grant the licence or permit if—

(a)

the applicant does not provide the information requested within a reasonable time after the requirement; or

(b)

the Minister is unable to verify any information provided.

52 Minister may take into account authorisation granted in country other than New Zealand

(1)

The Minister may take into account that an applicant holds treat a licence, permit, or other authorisation that concerns a matter relevant to the Minister’s decision and that was granted, or is likely to be granted, to an applicant or other person in a country other than New Zealand as satisfying some or all of the criteria for granting a launch licence under section 9, a payload permit under section 17, an overseas launch licence under section 25, or an overseas payload permit under section 33, or a facility licence under section 40.

(2)

A licence or permit granted in reliance in whole or in part on subsection (1) may only come into force after the overseas licence, permit, or other authorisation is granted.

53 Criteria for fit and proper person test

(1)

For the purpose of determining considering whether a person is a fit and proper person for any purpose under this Act, the Minister may take into account—

(a)

the person’s regulatory compliance history; and

(b)

the person’s related experience (if any) within the aviation or aerospace industry; and

(c)

the person’s knowledge of the applicable regulatory requirements; and

(d)

any history of mental health problems or serious behavioural problems; and

(e)

any conviction for any offence and the nature of any such offence, whether or not—

(i)

the conviction was in a New Zealand court; or

(ii)

the offence was committed before the commencement of this Act; and

(f)

any other information and evidence as may be relevant.

(2)

The Minister may, for the purposes of subsection (1),—

(a)

seek and receive any information (including medical reports) as the Minister thinks fit; and

(b)

consider information obtained from any source.

(3)

Subsection (1) applies to a body corporate with the following modifications:

(a)

subsection (1)(a), (b), (c), (e), and (f) must be read as if it refers to the body corporate and its officers:

(b)

subsection (1)(d) must be read as if it refers only to the officers of the body corporate.

54 Change of licensee or permit holder requires approval of Minister

(1)

A licensee or permit holder must not, without the prior approval of the Minister,—

(a)

transfer an interest in a licence or permit; or

(b)

if the licensee or permit holder is a body corporate, undergo a change of control.

(2)

A licensee or permit holder may apply to the Minister for approval of a transfer or change of control.

(3)

The application must be made in accordance with prescribed requirements.

(4)

When considering an application of a licensee or permit holder to undergo a change of control or to transfer an interest in a licence or permit, the Minister—

(a)

must consult the security Ministers in accordance with section 56; and

(b)

must take into account,—

(i)

in the case of a launch licence, all the matters in section 9 as if the application were an application for a new launch licence; and

(ii)

in the case of a payload permit, all the matters in section 17 as if the application were an application for a new payload permit; and

(iii)

in the case of an overseas launch licence, all the matters in section 25 as if the application were an application for a new overseas launch licence; and

(iv)

in the case of an overseas payload permit, all the matters in section 33 as if the application were an application for a new overseas payload permit; and

(v)

in the case of a facility licence, all the matters in section 40 as if the application were an application for a new facility licence; and

(vi)

in the case of a high-altitude licence, all the matters in section 48 as if the application were an application for a new high-altitude licence; and

(c)

must be satisfied that the transferee the licensee or permit holder following the transfer or change of control is likely to be able to comply with the conditions of, and give proper effect to, the licence or permit; and

(d)

may ask an applicant to supply any further information or documentation in support of the application.

(5)

The Minister must not consent to a transfer or change of control if a certificate is issued under section 56 in relation to the proposed transfer or change of control.

(6)

For the purposes of this section, a body corporate undergoes a change of control if—

(a)

a person obtains the power (whether directly or indirectly) to exercise, or control the exercise of, 50% or more of the voting rights in the corporate body; or

(b)

a person (person A) obtains, together with 1 or more specified persons, the power (whether directly or indirectly) to exercise, or control the exercise of, 50% or more of the voting rights in the corporate body.

(7)

In subsection (6)(b), a specified person, in relation to person A, means—

(a)

a person who is acting, or will act, jointly or in concert with person A in respect of exercising, or controlling the exercise of, the voting rights of the licensee or permit holder; or

(b)

a person who acts, or is accustomed to acting, in accordance with the wishes of person A.

55 Minister may impose further conditions on transfer or change of control

(1)

The Minister may grant consent to a transfer or change of control under section 54 subject to any further conditions of a kind described in section 10, 18, 26, 34, 41, or 49 as the Minister thinks fit.

(2)

All conditions of the Minister’s consent are, for the purposes of this Act, to be treated as conditions of the relevant licence or permit.

(3)

If, as a result of the transfer of an interest in a licence or permit in accordance with section 54, a person ceases to have an interest in the licence or the permit, that person ceases to have any rights or obligations under the licence or permit except in respect of any contravention of the conditions of the licence or permit that occurred before the date of the transfer of the interest.

(4)

Subsection (3) is subject to—

(a)

the conditions of the licence or permit; and

(b)

the conditions of the Minister’s consent to the transfer of the interest.

56 Minister must consult security Ministers about national security

(1)

The purpose of the consultation with the security Ministers required by any provision of this Act is to enable the following to be taken into account by the Minister in making the relevant decision:

(a)

any risks to national security of the activity or proposed activity under the relevant licence or permit; and

(b)

the extent to which the risks can be mitigated by licence or permit conditions.

(2)

The Minister must, if either the Minister or a security Minister thinks it appropriate for national security reasons, refer the application or other matter to the Prime Minister for National Security and Intelligence.

(3)

The Prime Minister for National Security and Intelligence may, after consultation with the responsible Ministers as he or she thinks fit and taking into account the advice of the intelligence and security agencies, issue a certificate that the activity or proposed activity poses a significant risk to national security.

(3A)

The Prime Minister must inform the applicant of

(a)

the reasons for the decision (except to the extent that the Prime Minister considers that providing reasons would involve a disclosure of information that would be likely to prejudice the security or defence of New Zealand or the international relations of the Government of New Zealand); and

(b)

the review procedure available in relation to the certificate under section 57.

(4)

A certificate issued under subsection (3) is (subject only to section 57) conclusive evidence of the matters stated in it, and the advice given by an intelligence and security agency to the Minister, a security Minister, or the Prime Minister for National Security and Intelligence must not be challenged, reviewed, or called in into question in any court.

(5)

For the purposes of this section, the responsible Ministers are—

(a)

the Minister; and

(b)

the security Ministers; and

(c)

the Minister responsible for the administration of the Defence Act 1990; and

(d)

the Minister of Foreign Affairs; and

(e)

any other Minister that the Prime Minister for National Security and Intelligence thinks fit.

57 Review procedure in relation to certificate of risk to national security

(1)

If the Prime Minister for National Security and Intelligence issues a certificate under section 56, the applicant may, in accordance with sections 11 and 16 of the Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security Act 1996, lodge a complaint with sections 158(1)(e) and 171 of the Intelligence and Security Act 2017, make a complaint to the Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security in relation to any advice given by an intelligence and security agency to—

(a)

the Minister or a security Minister; or

(b)

the Prime Minister for National Security and Intelligence.

(2)

If the Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security forwards a written report sends a report to 1 or both security Ministers in accordance with section 25 of the Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security Act 1996 section 185 of the Intelligence and Security Act 2017, the Prime Minister for National Security and Intelligence may withdraw or confirm the certificate.

(3)

For the purposes of this section, Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security means the person holding office under section 5 of the Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security Act 1996 section 157 of the Intelligence and Security Act 2017.

Part 3 Enforcement, accidents, and other matters

Subpart 1—Enforcement officers and enforcement powers

Enforcement officers

58 Appointment of enforcement officers

(1)

The chief executive may appoint such suitably qualified and trained enforcement officers as the chief executive thinks necessary for the purposes of this Act.

(2)

An enforcement officer—

(a)

is appointed for a term not exceeding 3 years, but may be reappointed:

(b)

may be removed from office by the chief executive, by written notice, for inability to perform the functions of the office, legal incapacity, neglect of duty, or misconduct, proved to the satisfaction of the chief executive:

(c)

may at any time resign office by written notice to the chief executive.

(3)

The chief executive must issue a written warrant to an enforcement officer appointed under this section.

(4)

An enforcement officer must, on the termination of the enforcement officer’s appointment, surrender his or her warrant to the chief executive.

(5)

An enforcement officer appointed under subsection (1) is not to be regarded as employed in the service of the Crown for the purposes of the Government Superannuation Fund Act 1956 or the State Sector Act 1988 just because the person is an enforcement officer.

59 Enforcement officers must produce evidence of appointment

An enforcement officer appointed under section 58 must produce his or her warrant of appointment under this Act whenever requested to do so in the course of the enforcement officer’s duties.

60 Functions of enforcement officers

The functions of an enforcement officer are to—

(a)

investigate compliance with this Act, regulations made under this Act, and the conditions of licences and permits issued under this Act; and

(b)

take all reasonable steps to ensure that this Act, regulations made under this Act, and the conditions of licences and permits issued under this Act are complied with; and

(c)

promote compliance with the requirements of this Act, regulations made under this Act, and the conditions of licences and permits issued under this Act by providing information, education, and advice about those requirements.

Powers of enforcement officers

61 Powers of enforcement officers

(1)

For the purpose of exercising any of his or her functions under section 60(a) and (b), an enforcement officer may—

(a)

enter a launch facility or any other premises or place where any launch vehicle, payload, high-altitude vehicle, high-altitude payload, related equipment, or technical data is held and inspect the site or other premises or any other place and any launch vehicle, payload, high-altitude vehicle, high-altitude payload, related equipment, or technical data:

(b)

seize and detain any launch vehicle, payload, high-altitude vehicle, high-altitude payload, related equipment, or technical data:

(c)

require any licensee or permit holder, employee of a licensee or permit holder, or other person to produce any document within that person’s possession or control relating to a launch or payload, payload, or high altitude payload and make copies of that document:

(d)

question any licensee or permit holder, employee of a licensee or permit holder, or other person about a launch or the operation of any launch vehicle, payload, or high-altitude vehicle, or high-altitude payload:

(e)

question any licensee or permit holder, or employee of a licensee or permit holder, about compliance with this Act, regulations made under this Act, or the conditions of any licence or permit issued under this Act:

(f)

test, or require testing of, at the expense of a licensee or permit holder, any launch vehicle, payload, high-altitude vehicle, high-altitude payload, or related equipment.

(2)

The provisions of subparts 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10 of Part 4 of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (except sections 118 and 119) apply.

62 Provisions relating to entry to dwellinghouse or marae

(1)

Nothing in section 61(1)(a) confers on any person the power to enter any dwellinghouse, or any marae or building associated with a marae, unless the entry is authorised by a warrant given by an issuing officer on application in the manner provided for an application for a search warrant in subpart 3 of Part 4 of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012, which must not be granted unless the issuing officer is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds to believe that the entry is essential to enable the inspection to be carried out.

(2)

Subject to subsection (3), subparts 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, and 10 of Part 4 of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 apply in relation to the issue of a warrant under subsection (1) and its execution.

(3)

Sections 118 and 119 of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 apply only in respect of a warrant issued to a named constable or to every constable.

63 Constable may exercise enforcement powers

For the purpose of investigating compliance with this Act, regulations made under this Act, or the conditions of licences and permits issued under this Act, a constable may exercise any of the powers of an enforcement officer under section 61(1)(a) to (f), and sections 61(2) and 62 apply.

Subpart 2Secure areas

64 Security areas and security enhanced areas

(1)

The Minister may declare, by a sign or signs affixed at the perimeter of an area or by other appropriate notification, that the area is a security area if

(a)

any launch vehicle, payload, related equipment, or technical data is or may be held there; and

(b)

the items specified in paragraph (a) relate to the launching of vehicles or payloads that are intended to reach outer space.

(2)

The Minister may declare, by appropriate notification, that an area within a security area is a security enhanced area.

(3)

The Minister may declare private land to be, or to be included within, a security area or security enhanced area only with the consent of the owner.

(4)

Only the following persons may enter or remain in any security area or security enhanced area:

(a)

an enforcement officer on official duties:

(b)

a person wearing an identity card issued or recognised by the chief executive:

(c)

a person accompanied by a person described in paragraph (b).

(5)

Every person in a security area or security enhanced area must, on the request of an enforcement officer or a person having control of the area,

(a)

state his or her name and address, the purpose of his or her presence in the security area or security enhanced area, and his or her authority to enter it; and

(b)

produce satisfactory evidence of the correctness of his or her stated name and address.

(6)

An enforcement officer or person having control of a security area or security enhanced area may order a person to leave the area if the person

(a)

fails or refuses to provide the enforcement officer or person having control of the area with satisfactory evidence of his or her name and address when requested under subsection (5); or

(b)

fails to satisfy the enforcement officer or person in charge of the area that he or she is authorised to be there.

(7)

An enforcement officer, and any person whom he or she calls to his or her assistance, may use such force as may be reasonably necessary to remove from any security area or security enhanced area any person who fails or refuses to leave the security area or security enhanced area immediately after having been ordered to do so under subsection (6).

(8)

Any person who refuses to comply with subsection (5) or (6) and, after having been warned that he or she commits an offence, persists in its commission may be detained by an enforcement officer and, in that case, if the enforcement officer is not a constable, must as soon as practicable be delivered to a constable.

Subpart 3Accidents

65 Minister may declare debris recovery area

(1)

The Minister may declare, by a sign or signs affixed at the perimeter of an area or by other appropriate notification, that the area is a debris recovery area if the Minister is satisfied that it is

(a)

a site where an accident involving a space object has occurred; or

(b)

a site on which there is an impact point caused by a space object that has been involved in an accident; or

(c)

a site on which there is a space object that has been involved in an accident.

(2)

Section 64(4) to (8) applies, with the necessary modifications, to an area declared to be a debris recovery site under this section as if it were a security area.

Subpart 2Protection of sensitive space technology

64 Segregated areas and areas set aside

(1)

For the purpose of the Technology Safeguards Agreement, the Minister may declare, by a sign or signs affixed at the perimeter of an area or by other appropriate notification, that the area is

(a)

a segregated area; or

(b)

an area specially set aside exclusively for work with US launch vehicles, US spacecraft, or equipment that is related equipment in relation to those vehicles and spacecraft.

(2)

The Minister may declare private land to be, or to be included within, a segregated area or an area specially set aside only with the consent of the owner or occupier of the land.

(3)

Only the following persons may enter or remain in a segregated area or an area specially set aside:

(a)

if authorised by the US participants,

(i)

an enforcement officer on official duties:

(ii)

a person wearing his or her identity card issued or recognised by the chief executive:

(iii)

a person accompanied by a person described in subparagraph (ii):

(b)

a constable, a person exercising a statutory function, or a person acting for or on behalf of fire or ambulance services.

(4)

Every person in a segregated area or an area specially set aside must, on the request of an enforcement officer or a person having control of the area,

(a)

state his or her name and address, the purpose of his or her presence in the area, and his or her authority to enter it; and

(b)

produce satisfactory evidence of the correctness of his or her stated name and address.

(5)

An enforcement officer or a person having control of a segregated area or an area specially set aside may order a person to leave the area if the person

(a)

fails or refuses to provide the enforcement officer or person having control of the area with satisfactory evidence of his or her name and address when requested under subsection (4); or

(b)

fails to satisfy the enforcement officer or person having control of the area that he or she is authorised to be there.

(6)

An enforcement officer or a constable, and any person whom he or she calls to his or her assistance, may use such force as may be reasonably necessary to remove from any segregated area or area specially set aside any person who fails or refuses to leave the area immediately after having been ordered to do so under subsection (5).

(7)

Any person who refuses to comply with subsection (4) or an order under subsection (5) and, after having been warned that he or she commits an offence under section 74(1), persists in its commission may be detained by an enforcement officer or a constable.

(8)

If a person is detained by an enforcement officer under subsection (7), the person must as soon as practicable be delivered to a constable.

(9)

In this section,

Technology Safeguards Agreement means the Agreement between the Government of New Zealand and the Government of the United States of America on Technology Safeguards Associated with United States Participation in Space Launches from New Zealand dated 16 June 2016, and includes the Arrangement between the Government of New Zealand and the Government of the United States of America dated 16 June 2016 relating to that agreement

NZ representatives, US launch vehicle, US participants, and US spacecraft have the meanings given to them in the Technology Safeguards Agreement.

65 Minister may declare debris protection area

(1)

The Minister may exercise the power in this section only if the Minister is satisfied that it is necessary to do so in order to comply with any international agreement relating to the protection of sensitive space technology.

(2)

The Minister may declare, by a sign or signs affixed at the perimeter of an area or by other appropriate notification, that the area is a debris protection area if the Minister is satisfied that it is

(a)

a site where a launch termination or an accident involving a launch vehicle has occurred; or

(b)

a site on which there is a space object that has been involved in a launch termination or an accident involving a launch vehicle.

(3)

No person may, without the permission of an enforcement officer or other authorised person,

(a)

take any photograph, make any sketch, plan, model, or note, or otherwise record any image of, or study, any launch vehicle, payload, component of a launch vehicle or payload, related equipment, or other debris that the person knows or ought to know is in a debris protection area; or

(b)

take a sample of any thing referred to in paragraph (a) from an area that the person knows or ought to know is a debris protection area.

(4)

Nothing in subsection (3) applies to any person who, in the exercise of a statutory function, is conducting an investigation into an accident involving a launch vehicle.

(5)

An enforcement officer may order a person to leave a debris protection area if the enforcement officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the person is contravening subsection (3).

(6)

An enforcement officer, and any person whom he or she calls to his or her assistance, may use such force as may be reasonably necessary to remove from any debris protection area any person who fails or refuses to leave the debris protection area immediately after having been ordered to do so under subsection (5).

(7)

Any person who refuses to comply with an order under subsection (5) and, after having been warned that he or she commits an offence under section 76(2), persists in its commission may be detained by an enforcement officer or a constable.

(8)

If a person is detained by an enforcement officer under subsection (7), the person must as soon as practicable be delivered to a constable.

Subpart 4—Offences

Offences relating to licences and permits

66 Launching without launch licence or overseas launch licence

(1)

A person commits an offence if the person—

(a)

launches a launch vehicle without a launch licence contrary to section 7; and

(b)

knows or ought to know that a launch licence is required.

(2)

A person commits an offence if the person—

(a)

launches a launch vehicle without an overseas launch licence contrary to section 23; and

(b)

knows or ought to know that an overseas launch licence is required.

(3)

A person who commits an offence against subsection (1) or (2) is liable on conviction,—

(a)

in the case of an individual, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year or a fine not exceeding $50,000, or both; or

(b)

in the case of a body corporate, to a fine not exceeding $250,000.

67 Launching or procuring launch of payload without payload permit or overseas payload permit

(1)

A person commits an offence if the person—

(a)

launches or procures the launch of a payload without a payload permit contrary to section 15; and

(b)

knows or ought to know that a payload permit is required.

(2)

A person commits an offence if the person—

(a)

launches or procures the launch of a payload without an overseas payload permit contrary to section 31; and

(b)

knows or ought to know that an overseas payload permit is required.

(3)

A person who commits an offence against subsection (1) or (2) is liable on conviction,—

(a)

in the case of an individual, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year or a fine not exceeding $50,000, or both; or

(b)

in the case of a body corporate, to a fine not exceeding $250,000.

68 Operating launch facility without facility licence

(1)

A person commits an offence if the person—

(a)

operates a launch facility without a facility licence contrary to section 38; and

(b)

knows or ought to know that a facility licence is required.

(2)

A person who commits an offence against subsection (1) is liable on conviction,—

(a)

in the case of an individual, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year or a fine not exceeding $50,000, or both; or

(b)

in the case of a body corporate, to a fine not exceeding $250,000.

69 Launching high-altitude vehicle without high-altitude licence

(1)

A person commits an offence if the person—

(a)

launches a high-altitude vehicle without a high-altitude licence contrary to section 46; and

(b)

knows or ought to know that a high-altitude licence is required.

(2)

A person who commits an offence against subsection (1) is liable on conviction,—

(a)

in the case of an individual, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year or a fine not exceeding $50,000, or both; or

(b)

in the case of a body corporate, to a fine not exceeding $250,000.

70 False or misleading information in application for grant or renewal of licence or permit

(1)

A person commits an offence if the person, for the purposes of any application for a licence or permit, or the renewal of a licence or permit, under this Act, supplies any information that the person knows or ought to know is materially false or misleading.

(2)

A person who commits an offence against subsection (1) is liable on conviction,—

(a)

in the case of an individual, to a fine not exceeding $10,000; or

(b)

in the case of a body corporate, to a fine not exceeding $50,000.

71 Offence to fail to comply with condition of licence or permit

(1)

A person commits an offence if the person, being the holder of one of the following licences or permits, knowingly or without reasonable excuse fails to comply with any condition of that licence or permit:

(a)

a launch licence or overseas launch licence:

(b)

a payload permit or overseas payload permit:

(c)

a facility licence.

(2)

A person commits an offence who, being the holder of a high-altitude licence, knowingly or without reasonable excuse fails to comply with any condition of that licence.

(3)

A person who commits an offence against subsection (1) or (2) is liable on conviction,—

(a)

in the case of an individual, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year or a fine not exceeding $50,000, or both; or

(b)

in the case of a body corporate, to a fine not exceeding $250,000.

Providing false or misleading information to enforcement officer

72 Providing false or misleading information to enforcement officer

(1)

A person commits an offence if the person provides to an enforcement officer information that the person knows, or ought to know, is false or misleading in any material respect.

(1)

A person commits an offence if the person

(a)

fails or refuses to comply with a request or requirement made or imposed by an enforcement officer or constable under section 61; or

(b)

provides to an enforcement officer or constable information that the person knows, or ought to know, is false or misleading in any material respect.

(2)

A person who commits an offence against subsection (1) is liable on conviction,—

(a)

in the case of an individual, to a fine not exceeding $10,000; or

(b)

in the case of a body corporate, to a fine not exceeding $50,000.

Other offences

73 Interfering with launch vehicle or payload

(1)

A person commits an offence if the person, without lawful excuse,

(a)

takes, removes, uses, or interferes with a launch vehicle, a payload, related equipment, or technical data; or

(b)

receives a launch vehicle, a payload, related equipment, or technical data that is taken or removed contrary to paragraph (a).

(1)

A person commits an offence if the person, without lawful excuse,

(a)

takes, removes, uses, or interferes with

(i)

a launch vehicle, a payload, related equipment, or technical data; or

(ii)

debris of a launch vehicle, a payload, or related equipment; or

(b)

receives a launch vehicle, a payload, related equipment, debris, or technical data that is taken or removed contrary to paragraph (a).

(2)

In any prosecution for an offence against subsection (1), it is not necessary to prove that the defendant intended to commit the offence.

(3)

A person commits an offence if the person, with the intention of using or disposing of it for an industrial or commercial purpose, intentionally and without lawful excuse,

(a)

takes, removes, uses, or interferes with a launch vehicle, payload, related equipment, or technical data; or

(b)

receives a launch vehicle, payload, related equipment, or technical data that is taken or removed contrary to paragraph (a).

(3)

A person commits an offence if the person, with the intention of using or disposing of it for an industrial or commercial purpose, intentionally and without lawful excuse,

(a)

takes, removes, uses, or interferes with

(i)

a launch vehicle, a payload, related equipment, or technical data; or

(ii)

debris of a launch vehicle, a payload, or related equipment; or

(b)

receives a launch vehicle, a payload, related equipment, debris, or technical data that is taken or removed contrary to paragraph (a).

(4)

A person who commits an offence against subsection (1) is liable on conviction,—

(a)

in the case of an individual, to a fine not exceeding $1,000; or

(b)

in the case of a body corporate, to a fine not exceeding $10,000.

(5)

A person who commits an offence against subsection (3) is liable on conviction,—

(a)

in the case of an individual, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years or a fine not exceeding $100,000, or both; or

(b)

in the case of a body corporate, to a fine not exceeding $500,000.

74 Security area and security enhanced area offences Offences relating to segregated areas and areas set aside

(1)

A person commits an offence if the person, being in a security area or security enhanced area segregated area or an area specially set aside under section 64,—

(a)

fails or refuses to comply with a request under section 64(5) 64(4); or

(b)

fails or refuses to leave the security area or security enhanced area segregated area or an area specially set aside immediately after having been ordered to do so under section 64(6) 64(5).

(2)

A person who commits an offence against subsection (1) is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 months or to a fine not exceeding $2,000, or both.

75 Person in control of security area or security enhanced area segregated area or area specially set aside to ensure identity cards displayed

(1)

A person in control of a security area or security enhanced area segregated area or an area specially set aside under section 64 must take all practicable steps to have in place at all times a system for ensuring that persons in that area display identity cards.

(2)

A person who fails to comply with subsection (1) commits an offence and is liable on conviction,—

(a)

in the case of an individual, to a fine not exceeding $50,000; or

(b)

in the case of a body corporate, to a fine not exceeding $100,000.

76 Taking photographs, etc, or samples from debris recovery area

(1)

A person commits an offence if the person, without the permission of an enforcement officer or other authorised person,

(a)

takes any photograph, makes any sketch, plan, model, or note, or otherwise records any image of any thing that the person knows or ought to know is in a debris recovery area; or

(b)

takes a sample of any thing from an area that the person knows or ought to know is a debris recovery area.

(2)

A person who commits an offence against subsection (1) is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 months or to a fine not exceeding $2,000, or both.

76 Offences in relation to debris protection area

(1)

A person commits an offence if the person contravenes section 65(3).

(2)

A person commits an offence if the person, being in a debris protection area, fails or refuses to leave the area immediately after having been ordered to do so under section 65(5).

(3)

A person who commits an offence against subsection (1) or (2) is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 months or to a fine not exceeding $2,000, or both.

Additional penalty for certain offences

77 Additional penalty for offences involving commercial gain or liability of the Crown under Outer Space Treaty or Liability Convention

(1)

This section applies to an offence against

(a)

section 66, 67, or 68 :

(b)

section 70 or 72, if the offence relates to a launch licence, overseas launch licence, payload permit, overseas payload permit, or facility licence.

(1)

This section applies to an offence against any of sections 66 to 72.

(2)

In addition to any penalty the court may impose for an offence referred to in subsection (1), the court may, on convicting any person of the offence,—

(a)

order that person to pay an amount not exceeding 3 times the value of any commercial gain resulting from the commission of that offence if the court is satisfied that the offence was committed in the course of producing a commercial gain; or

(b)

in respect of an offence against section 66, 67, or 68, order that person to pay an amount to the Crown to indemnify the Crown for any liability the Crown has incurred or may incur in respect of the launch vehicle or payload under the Outer Space Treaty or the Liability Convention or in relation to any other claim brought against the Crown under international law.

Infringement offences

78 Failing to display identity card

(1)

A person commits an infringement offence who if the person, being in a security area or security enhanced area segregated area or an area specially set aside under section 64, fails without reasonable excuse to display an his or her identity card issued or recognised by the chief executive.

(2)

A person who commits an offence against subsection (1) is liable on conviction to an infringement fee of $1,000.

(2)

A person who commits an offence against subsection (1) is liable to

(a)

an infringement fee of $1,000; or

(b)

a fine imposed by a court not exceeding $2,000.

79 Providing false information to enforcement officer

(1)

A person commits an infringement offence who provides information to an enforcement officer that is false or misleading in any material respect.

(2)

In prosecuting an offence against subsection (1), it is not necessary to prove that the defendant intentionally or recklessly committed the offence.

(3)

A person who commits an offence against subsection (1) is liable on conviction to an infringement fee of $1,000.

(3)

A person who commits an offence against subsection (1) is liable to

(a)

an infringement fee of $1,000; or

(b)

a fine imposed by a court not exceeding $2,000.

Certain offences deemed to be included in extradition treaties

80 Offences deemed to be included in extradition treaties

(1)

For the purposes of the Extradition Act 1999 and any Order in Council in force under section 15, 40, or 104 of that Act, each offence described in sections 66, 67, 71(1), and 73(3) of this Act is deemed to be an offence described in any extradition treaty concluded before the commencement of this section and for the time being in force between New Zealand and any country that is a party to the Liability Convention.

(2)

Despite subsection (1), no person is liable to be surrendered under the Extradition Act 1999 in respect of an act or omission that amounts to an offence to which that subsection applies if that act or omission occurred before the date on which the offence was deemed by that subsection to be an offence described in the relevant extradition treaty.

Provisions concerning infringement offences

81 Interpretation

In this Act,—

infringement fee, in relation to an infringement offence, means the infringement fee for the offence prescribed in this Act

infringement offence means an offence against section 78 or 79.

82 Proceedings for infringement offence

(1)

A person who is alleged to have committed an infringement offence may either—

(a)

be proceeded against by the filing of a charging document under section 14 of the Criminal Procedure Act 2011; or

(b)

be served with an infringement notice under section 83.

(2)

Proceedings commenced in the way described in subsection (1)(a) do not require the leave of a District Court Judge or Registrar under section 21(1)(a) of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957.

83 Infringement notices

(1)

An enforcement officer may issue an infringement notice to a person if the enforcement officer believes on reasonable grounds that the person is committing, or has committed, an infringement offence.

(2)

The enforcement officer may deliver the infringement notice (or a copy of it) in person to the person alleged to have committed an infringement offence or send the notice by post addressed to that person’s last known place of residence or business.

(3)

An infringement notice (or a copy of it) sent by post to a person under subsection (2) is to be treated as having been served on that person when it was posted.

(4)

An infringement notice must be in the prescribed form and must contain the following particulars:

(a)

details of the alleged infringement offence that are sufficient fairly to inform a person of the time, place, and nature of the alleged offence; and

(b)

the amount of the infringement fee; and

(c)

the address of the place at which the infringement fee may be paid; and

(d)

the time within which the infringement fee must be paid; and

(e)

a summary of the provisions of section 21(10) of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957; and

(f)

a statement that the person served with the notice has a right to request a hearing; and

(g)

a statement of what will happen if the person served with the notice neither pays the infringement fee nor requests a hearing; and

(h)

any other particulars that may be prescribed.

(5)

If an infringement notice has been issued under this section, the procedure under section 21 of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957 may be used in respect of the offence to which the infringement notice relates and, in that case, the provisions of that section apply with all necessary modifications.

84 Payment of infringement fees

All infringement fees paid in respect of infringement offences must be paid into a Crown Bank Account.

Subpart 5—General provisions

Requirement to notify Minister of intention to develop or acquire missile technology

85 Requirement to notify Minister of intention to develop or acquire missile technology

(1)

Any person in New Zealand who intends to develop or acquire a category 1 rocket system within the meaning of the Missile Technology Control Regime must notify the Minister.

(2)

In this section, the Missile Technology Control Regime means the voluntary regime by that name established in 1987 by Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America.

Information sharing

85A Sharing of information with agencies

(1)

Subject to any enactment,

(a)

the Minister may provide an agency referred to in subsection (2) with any information, or a copy of any document, that the Minister

(i)

holds in relation to the performance or exercise of the Minister’s functions, duties, or powers under this Act; and

(ii)

considers may assist the agency in the performance or exercise of the regulatory agency’s functions, duties, or powers under any enactment; and

(b)

an agency referred to in subsection (2) may provide the Minister with any information, or a copy of any document, that it

(i)

holds in relation to the performance or exercise of its functions, duties, or powers under or in relation to any enactment; and

(ii)

considers may assist the Minister in the performance or exercise of its functions, duties, or powers under this Act.

(2)

The agencies for the purpose of subsection (1) are

(a)

the Civil Aviation Authority:

(b)

Airways Corporation of New Zealand Limited:

(c)

Maritime New Zealand:

(d)

the Transport Accident Investigation Commission:

(e)

the Environmental Protection Authority:

(f)

WorkSafe New Zealand:

(g)

the New Zealand Police:

(h)

the New Zealand Customs Service:

(i)

any other agency in New Zealand or outside New Zealand that holds information that relates to activities to which this Act applies.

(3)

If subsection (1)(a) or (b) applies, the Minister or agency (as the case may be) may impose conditions that he or she or it thinks fit relating to the provision of the information or document, including conditions relating to

(a)

the storage and use of, or access to, anything provided:

(b)

the copying, returning, or disposing of copies of any documents provided.

(4)

Nothing in this section limits access to information under the Privacy Act 1993.

(5)

This section applies despite anything to the contrary in any contract, deed, or document.

Review of this Act

86 Review of Act

(1)

The Minister must, as soon as practicable after the expiry of 3 years from the commencement of this Act,—

(a)

commence a review of the operation and effectiveness of the Act; and

(b)

prepare a report on that review.

(2)

The Minister must present the report to the House of Representatives as soon as practicable after it has been completed.

Notices

87 Giving of notices

(1)

A notice required or permitted by this Act to be given by any person (the sender) to another person (the recipient) may be given by—

(a)

delivering it to the recipient; or

(b)

delivering it to the recipient’s usual home or business address; or

(c)

posting it to the recipient’s usual home or business address; or

(d)

if the recipient has given the sender an email address for the purpose of receiving notices by email, emailing it to that address; or

(e)

any other prescribed method.

(2)

In relation to a notice that is required or permitted by this Act to be given to a company, section 388 of the Companies Act 1993 applies.

Regulations

88 Regulations

(1)

The Governor-General may, from time to time, by Order in Council made on the recommendation of the Minister, make regulations for all or any of the following purposes:

Licences and permits

(1)

prescribing the information to be given in, or in connection with, applications for licences and permits, which may include, without limitation, requirements for a safety case, an environmental impact assessment, and requirements for an orbital debris mitigation plan:

(2)

prescribing the form or manner of making applications, including, without limitation, permitting a person to make applications together for more than 1 type of licence or permit:

(3)

providing for the procedure to be followed in relation to any application, including prescribing the time within which any thing must be done, or providing for the granting of extensions of time for any thing to be done:

(4)

providing for the procedure to be followed if a person makes applications together for more than 1 type of licence or permit, including permitting the Minister to grant the applications, or grant one or some only of the applications, or decline to grant any of the applications:

(5)

prescribing conditions for licences and permits, which may be different for different types of licence, permit, launch vehicle, payload, launch facility, or high-altitude vehicle, or on any other basis:

(5)

prescribing conditions for licences and permits, which may, without limitation, include providing, or providing for the imposition of, requirements for

(a)

safety systems or practices:

(b)

security, including physical and information security:

(c)

the reporting of accidents and incidents:

(d)

obtaining advice, clearance, or any other matter or authority in relation to the re-entry of space objects from outer space or for the avoidance of collisions of space objects in outer space:

(e)

the collection and dissemination of data obtained by remote sensing:

(f)

the provision of information about ground stations to be used:

(6)

prescribing a method or methods by which the requirements as to the type and amount of insurance to be held by a licensee or permit holder may be calculated:

(7)

specifying, for the purposes of section 19(1)(b)(ii) and 35(1)(b)(ii), how to determine when events of a particular kind occur:

(8)

prescribing information that a licensee or permit holder must give to the Minister, at any time during the period that the licence or permit is in force, including the intervals at which the information must be given, the manner in which it may, or must, be provided, and when information given must be updated or corrected:

(9)

prescribing technical requirements relating to the manner in which a licensee or permit holder must give information to the Minister under this Act:

(10)

prescribing the form of licences and permits, or the information that licences and permits must contain:

Meaning of launch vehicle, payload, and space object space object, high-altitude vehicle, and high-altitude payload

(11)

prescribing that any thing, or class of thing, is, or is not, a launch vehicle, payload, or space object—

(a)

for all purposes of this Act or for the purpose of any specified provisions of this Act; or

(b)

in specified circumstances:

(12)

prescribing that any thing, or class of thing, is, or is not, a launch facility or ground station—

(a)

for all purposes of this Act or for the purpose of any specified provisions of this Act; or

(b)

in specified circumstances:

(13)

prescribing that any thing, or class of thing, is, or is not, a high-altitude vehicle or high-altitude payload

(a)

for all purposes of this Act or for the purpose of any specified provisions of this Act; or

(b)

in specified circumstances:

Registration of space objects

(14)

prescribing the space objects that must be registered, who must register those objects, and the manner of registration:

(15)

providing for the keeping of the register, including processes for amending the register:

(16)

providing who may access the register and the fees for accessing the register:

(17)

prescribing any other matters that are necessary or desirable to implement the provisions of the Registration Convention:

Levy, fees, and charges

(18)

imposing a levy on holders of licences and permits under this Act for the purpose of recovering all or part of the reasonable direct and indirect costs of administering this Act:

(19)

specifying the licensees and permit holders, or classes of licensees or permit holders, who are liable to pay the levy:

(20)

providing for different levies for different classes of licensees or permit holders or on any other differential basis:

(21)

providing for the exemption from fees, in whole or in part (including, without limitation, if a person makes applications together for more than 1 type of licence or permit):

(22)

specifying the levy, or how the levy or rates of levy are calculated:

(23)

specifying when and how the levy is to be paid:

(24)

prescribing fees and charges payable in respect of any matter under this Act or the manner in which fees and charges may be calculated:

(25)

consistent with the purposes of the Act, providing for exemptions from, or waivers or refunds of, any fee, levy, or charge payable under the regulations, in whole or in part, in any class of case:

General

(26)

prescribing any measure consistent with the purpose of this Act that, in relation to activities or proposed activities of licensees and permit holders under this Act, is necessary or desirable to—

(a)

protect public safety, protect the environment, preserve national security, avoid interference with space or terrestrial telecommunications; or

(b)

comply with New Zealand’s international obligations:

(27)

prescribing technical requirements for launch facilities, launch vehicles, high-altitude vehicles, and payloads:

(28)

prescribing the form of infringement notices and infringement offence reminder notices:

(29)

prescribing the requirements for giving notices under this Act or the regulations:

(30)

prescribing the manner in which any thing must be done for the purposes of this Act:

(31)

providing transitional and savings provisions concerning the coming into force of this Act that may be in addition to, or in place of, the transitional and savings provisions in Schedule 1:

(32)

providing for any matters contemplated by this Act, necessary for its administration, or necessary for giving it full effect.

(1A)

Regulations made under this section may provide differently for different types of licence, permit, launch vehicle, payload, launch facility, high-altitude vehicle, or high-altitude payload, or on any other differential basis.

(2)

Before making a recommendation relating to regulations to be made under subsection (1), (5),(11), (12), or (13), or (26), the Minister must—

(a)

consult any persons (or representatives of those persons) that appear to the Minister likely to be substantially affected by any regulations made in accordance with the recommendation; and

(b)

have regard to the purposes of the Act.

(3)

If the Minister makes a recommendation relating to regulations to be made under subsection (1)(11), (12), or (13), or (25), the Minister’s reasons for making the recommendation (including why the regulations are appropriate) must be published together with the regulations.

(4)

No regulations made under subsection (1)(31) may be made, or continue in force, later than 3 years after the commencement of this section.

(5)

Regulations made under this Act are not invalid merely because they confer any discretion on, or allow any matter to be determined or approved by, any person.

88A Incorporation by reference

(1)

The following, whether in written or electronic form, may be incorporated by reference in regulations made by the Governor-General:

(a)

any standards, requirements, or recommended practices of international organisations:

(b)

any standards, requirements, or rules

(i)

prescribed under law by any other member State of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space:

(ii)

of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space:

(c)

any other material or document that, in the opinion of the Minister, is too large or impractical to be printed as part of the regulations.

(2)

Material may be incorporated by reference in regulations

(a)

in whole or in part; and

(b)

with modifications, additions, or variations specified in the regulations.

(3)

A copy of any material incorporated by reference in regulations, including any amendment to, or replacement of, the material, must be

(a)

certified as a correct copy of the material by the Minister; and

(b)

retained by the Minister.

(4)

Any material incorporated in regulations by reference under subsection (1) is to be treated for all purposes as forming part of the regulations, and, unless otherwise provided in the regulations, every amendment to any material incorporated by reference under subsection (1) that is made by the person or organisation originating the material is, subject to subsections (5) and (6), to be treated as being a part of the regulations.

(5)

The Minister must give notice in the Gazette stating

(a)

that the material is incorporated in the regulations and the date on which the regulations were made; and

(b)

that the material is available for inspection during working hours, free of charge; and

(c)

the place where the material can be inspected; and

(d)

that copies of the material can be purchased; and

(e)

if copies of the material are available in other ways, the details of where or how the material can be accessed or obtained.

(6)

All material incorporated by reference under subsection (1) or (2) must be made available at the Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment for inspection by the public free of charge.

(7)

Part 2 of the Legislation Act 2012 does not apply to material incorporated by reference in a rule or to an amendment to, or a replacement of, that material.

(8)

Nothing in section 41 of the Legislation Act 2012 requires material that is incorporated by reference in a rule to be presented to the House of Representatives.

(9)

Subsections (1) to (8) do not affect the application of sections 29 to 32 of the Standards and Accreditation Act 2015.

Amendment to Search and Surveillance Act 2012

89 Amendment to Search and Surveillance Act 2012

(1)

This section amends the Search and Surveillance Act 2012.

(2)

In the Schedule, insert in its appropriate alphabetical order the item set out in Schedule 2 of this Act.

Amendment to Summary Proceedings Act 1957

90 Amendment to Summary Proceedings Act 1957

(1)

This section amends the Summary Proceedings Act 1957.

(2)

In section 2(1), definition of infringement notice, after the second paragraph (jb), insert:

(jc)

section 83 of the Outer Space and High-altitude Activities Act 2016; or

Amendment to Health and Safety at Work Act 2015

91 Amendment to Health and Safety at Work Act 2015

(1)

This section amends the Health and Safety at Work Act 2015.

(2)

In section 16, definition of relevant health and safety legislation, after paragraph (b)(iii), insert:

(iiia)

Outer Space and High-altitude Activities Act 2016:

Amendment to Privacy Act 1993

92 Amendment to Privacy Act 1993

(1)

This section amends the Privacy Act 1993.

(2)

In Schedule 5, under the heading Police records, item relating to details of overseas hearings, third column, after the item relating to the Serious Fraud Office, insert:

Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment (access is limited to obtaining information for the purposes of section 53 of the Outer Space and High-altitude Activities Act 2016)

(3)

In Schedule 5, under the heading Police records, item relating to offender identity, third column, after the item relating to the Ministry of Justice, insert:

Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment (access is limited to obtaining information for the purposes of section 53 of the Outer Space and High-altitude Activities Act 2016)

(4)

In Schedule 5, under the heading Police records, item relating to wanted persons, third column, after the item relating to the Ministry of Justice, insert:

Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment (access is limited to obtaining information for the purposes of section 53 of the Outer Space and High-altitude Activities Act 2016)

Schedule 1 Transitional, savings, and related provisions

s 5

Part 1 Provisions relating to Act as enacted

1 Interpretation

In this schedule, unless the context otherwise requires,—

6-month transition period means the period beginning on the commencement date and ending on the date that is 6 months after the commencement date.

commencement date means the date on which the this Act comes into force.

Rocket Lab agreement means the agreement dated 16 September 2016 between Her Majesty the Queen in right of New Zealand acting by and through the Minister for Economic Development and Rocket Lab NZ and Rocket Lab USA

Rocket Lab NZ means Rocket Lab Limited (company number 1835428) incorporated in New Zealand under the Companies Act 1993

Rocket Lab USA means Rocket Lab USA, a corporation incorporated in the United States of America.

2 Rocket Lab agreement treated as launch licence

(1)

The Rocket Lab agreement is to be treated as a launch licence issued under this Act.

(2)

The launch licence referred to in subclause (1) expires,—

(a)

if Rocket Lab NZ or Rocket Lab USA makes an application for a launch licence under section 8 before the expiry of the 6-month transition period, on the date on which the Minister grants or declines to grant a licence under section 9; or

(b)

on the expiry of the 6-month transition period.

3 Transitional period for payloads launched under Rocket Lab agreement

Nothing in this Act applies to a person who, whether before or after the expiry of the 6-month transition period, launches, or procures the launch of, a payload that is intended to reach outer space if—

(a)

the Rocket Lab agreement applies to the payload; and

(b)

confirmation has been given, within 6 months after the commencement date, that no determination will be made in respect of the payload under clause 3.4 of the Rocket Lab agreement.

4 Rocket Lab agreement treated as facility licence

(1)

The Rocket Lab agreement is to be treated as a facility licence issued under this Act.

(2)

The facility licence referred to in subclause (1) expires,—

(a)

if Rocket Lab NZ or Rocket Lab USA makes an application for a facility licence under section 39 before the expiry of the 6-month transition period, on the date on which the Minister grants or declines to grant a licence under section 40; or

(b)

on the expiry of the 6-month transition period.

5 Segregated areas to be treated as security areas

(1)

This clause applies to any area that was, immediately before this clause came into force, a segregated area within the meaning of the Rocket Lab agreement.

(2)

On and after the date on which this clause comes into force, and until revoked by the Minister, the segregated area is to be treated as if it were a security segregated area declared by the Minister under this Act.

5A Recognition of pre-commencement actions and processes in relation to high-altitude vehicle licences

Any action or process undertaken before the commencement date by the Minister or any other person may be taken into account by the Minister in issuing a high-altitude licence on or after the commencement date if the action or process substantially complies with the provisions of the Act.

6 Pre-commencement consultation relating to regulations

Section 88(2)(a) is satisfied in relation to any regulations if action of the kind described in that provision was taken before the commencement of section 88 for the purpose of facilitating the making of the regulations.

Schedule 2 Amendment to Search and Surveillance Act 2012

s 89

Outer Space and High-altitude Activities Act 201661Powers of enforcement officersSubparts 1, 4, 6, 7, 9, and 10 (except for sections 118 and 119)
62Provisions relating to entry to dwellinghouse or maraeSubparts 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, and 10 (except that sections 118 and 119 apply only in respect of warrant issued to a named constable or to every constable)
Legislative history

19 September 2016

Introduction (Bill 179–1)

18 October 2016

First reading and referral to Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Committee

1 Flight level 600 is the vertical altitude, at standard pressure, of 60,000 feet. This is set by the Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand.