Te Pire Haeata ki Parihaka
Parihaka Reconciliation Bill

Te Pire Haeata ki Parihaka

Parihaka Reconciliation Bill

Pire Kāwanatanga/Government Bill

298—1

He Kōrero Whakamārama Explanatory note

Tauāki Kaupapa Here Whānui

Ko tā Te Pire Haeata Ki Parihaka he whakapūmau i ētahi āhuatanga o Te Kawenata ō Rongo, arā, ko te whakaaetanga hohou rongo i waitohua i te 9 o Pipiri 2017, i whakaaetia ai e te Karauna, e Parihaka hoki, te hohou rongo i waenga i a rāua.

Ka whakamaua ki te Pire ko aua āhuatanga anake o Te Kawenata ka whakaaetia e te Karauna, e Parihaka hoki, kia whakapūmautia i roto i te ture kia mārama ake ai te hītori o Parihaka, hei whakaū i te mana o te hapori, hei whakatairanga ake hoki i tōna tikanga tuku iho, hei whakarangatira hoki i te ū o te Karauna, o Parihaka hoki ki tētahi hononga hou.

He kōrero whakamāhuki

He kāinga iti a Parihaka kei te rohe o Taranaki ki te Tonga. Kei roto a Parihaka i te rohe o Taranaki Iwi. Heoi anō, ka whai pānga ngā iwi katoa o Taranaki, otirā ngā iwi maha hoki huri noa i Niu Tireni (Tauiwi mai hoki) ki Parihaka.

Ko Parihaka te pūtahitanga o te ātetetanga riri-kore e pā ana ki te raupatu nūnui i ngā whenua i roto i Taranaki i te ngāhuru tau o 1860, ā, e mōhiotia ana mō te tikanga tuku iho o te maungārongo nā ōna rangatira, a Tohu Kākahi rāua ko Te Whiti o Rongomai. Ko tā te Karauna i whai ai he turaki i te kāinga o Parihaka me āna mahi, tae atu ki—

  • te mauheretanga o ngā tāngata e noho ana i Parihaka, me te pupuri tonu kia mauheretia me te whakawā kore:

  • te pāhuatanga o Parihaka i te marama o Whiringa-ā-rangi i te tau 1881, te turakanga o ngā whare noho, o ngā whare tapu hoki, me te anea i ngā ngākinga, te patunga o ngā kararehe hoki:

  • te hopu, te mauhere hoki i a Tohu Kākahi rāua ko Te Whiti o Rongomai me te whakawā kore.

Nā te Karauna ēnei mahi i i tutuki ai i raro i ngā ture e rārangi ana ki te wehenga 3 o te Pire, otirā, e whakaaturia ana ki reira me ngā taitara reo Māori i mana ai i te whakamāoritanga o aua Ture.

I ngā rā i whai muri mai i te pāhuatanga i pāwheratia ngā wahine e ngā hōia o te Karauna, he mamae kino ka mau tonu i ngā wāhine, i Parihaka kāinga hoki.

Te whakapāha a te Karauna me te kete hohou rongo

I roto i tōna whakataunga kerēme ki te iwi o Taranaki kua whakapāha te Karauna mō āna i mahi ai i mua rā anō i Parihaka. Heoi anō, nā te mana motuhake o Parihaka i roto i Taranaki, i Niu Tireni anō hoki, e ū ana te Karauna kia hohou i te rongo ki tōna aronga ki Parihaka kāinga. Kua whakaritea tētahi kete hohou rongo mā te kāinga o Parihaka, i waho atu i te tukanga whakataunga kerēme. Mā te kete hohou rongo e āwhina a Parihaka ki te whakakaha ake i tōna hanganga paparahi, ki te whakatutuki hoki i ētahi atu whāinga whakawhanake.

Ko tā te Kawenata ō Rongo he āta whakatakoto, katoa mai, ko te kete hohou rongo kua whakaaetia e te Karauna, e te Parihaka Papakāinga Trust hoki. I waitohua te Kawenata i He Puanga Haeata, arā, ko te hui hohou i te rongo i Parihaka i tū ai i te 9 o Pipiri i te tau 2017. I taua huihuinga i hāngai pū te whakapāha a te Karauna mō āna i mahi ai i mua rā anō ki ngā tāngata o Parihaka, o mua, o nāianei hoki.

General policy statement

The Parihaka Reconciliation Bill records elements of Te Kawenata ō Rongo, the deed of reconciliation signed on 9 June 2017 in which the Crown and Parihaka agree to reconcile their relationship.

The Bill includes only those elements of Te Kawenata that the Crown and Parihaka agree should be recorded in legislation in order to improve understanding of Parihaka’s history, recognise the mana of the community and promote its legacy, and enshrine the Crown’s and Parihaka’s commitment to a new relationship.

Background

Parihaka is a small settlement in South Taranaki. It is located within the rohe of Taranaki Iwi however, all iwi of Taranaki as well as many iwi throughout New Zealand (and many non-Māori) have connections to Parihaka.

Parihaka was the centre of non-violent protest against the large-scale land confiscations that took place in Taranaki in the mid-1860s and is known for the peaceful legacy of its leaders Tohu Kākahi and Te Whiti o Rongomai. The Crown sought to destroy the Parihaka community and its actions included—

  • imprisonment of Parihaka residents and their detention without trial:

  • invasion of Parihaka in November 1881 and destruction of homes, sacred buildings, cultivations, and livestock:

  • arrest and detention of Tohu Kākahi and Te Whiti o Rongomai without trial.

The Crown took these actions under the legislation listed in clause 3 of the Bill, shown in the te reo Māori version of the Bill with the Māori language titles adopted when the Acts were translated.

Further, in the aftermath of the invasion, rapes were committed by Crown troops, causing enduring harm to the women of Parihaka and the community.

Crown apology and reconciliation package

The Crown has apologised for its historical actions at Parihaka in its Treaty of Waitangi settlements with the iwi of Taranaki. However, because of the special place Parihaka occupies in Taranaki and New Zealand, the Crown has committed to reconciling its relationship directly with the Parihaka community. A reconciliation package has been developed for the Parihaka community outside of the Treaty settlement process. The reconciliation package will assist Parihaka to strengthen its infrastructure and achieve other development aspirations.

Te Kawenata ō Rongo sets out in full the reconciliation package that has been agreed by the Crown and the Parihaka Papakāinga Trust. Te Kawenata was signed at He Puanga Haeata, the reconciliation ceremony held at Parihaka on 9 June 2017. At the ceremony, the Crown also apologised directly to the people of Parihaka, past and present, for its historical actions.

Tauākī Whākinga Tari

Me whakarite e Te Tāhū o te Ture tētahi tauākī whākinga hei āwhina i te whakatātaretanga o tēnei Pire. Ka whakatakoto huarahi te tauākī whākinga e whiwhi pārongo ai mō te whakawhanaketanga kaupapa here o te Pire, ā, ka tautohu i ngā āhuatanga ā-ture o te Pire, e noho whakahirahira ana, e noho rerekē ana rānei.

Departmental disclosure statement

The Ministry of Justice is required to prepare a disclosure statement to assist with the scrutiny of this Bill. The disclosure statement provides access to information about the policy development of the Bill and identifies any significant or unusual legislative features of the Bill.

Te tātaritanga o ia wehenga

He Pire reorua tēnei Pire, ka tuhia ki te reo Pākehā ka whakawhitia ki te reo Māori.

Ka whakatakotoria ngā wehenga 1 ki te 6 ki te whakaputanga reo Māori, ka whai mai ko aua wehenga ki te whakaputanga reo Pākehā. Kei ngā āpitihanga te Whakapāha me te Tauākī Tikanga Tuku Iho ki te whakaputanga reo Māori, ki te whakaputanga reo Pākehā hoki, e whakaritea ana ki ngā pou whakarara.

Ka whakatakoto te wehenga 1 i te Taitara o te Pire.

Ka whakatau te wehenga 2 i te tīmatanga o te Pire hei te rā whai muri i te rangi ka whakaaetia te Pire e te Upoko Ariki o Niu Tireni.

Ka whakapuaki te wehenga 3 i te aronga o te Pire, ā, ka whakatakoto i ētahi kōrero whakamāhuki mōna, tae atu ki ngā taitara o ngā Ture e 7 i pāhingia e te Pāremata o Niu Tireni i waenga i ngā tau 1879 ki te 1882 (kua whakakorehia katoatia), ā, nā ērā i pā kino atu ai ki ngā tāngata o Parihaka.

Ka whakatau te wehenga 4 ka whakatakotoria te Whakapāha a te Karauna i roto i te Āpitihanga 1 o te Pire.

Ka whakatau te wehenga 5 mā te Pire te Karauna e here, hei te wā ka whakaturetia.

Ka whakatau te wehenga 6 ka whakatakotoria te Tauākī Tikanga Tuku Iho i roto i te Āpitihanga 2 o te Pire.

Kei te Āpitihanga 1 ko te Whakapāha a te Karauna ki te whakaputanga reo Māori, ki te whakaputanga reo Pākehā hoki.

Kei te Āpitihanga 2 ko te Tauākī Tikanga Tuku Iho ki te whakaputanga reo Māori, ki te whakaputanga reo Pākehā hoki.

Clause by clause analysis

This Bill is a dual-language Bill, drafted in English and translated into te reo Māori. The Māori version of clauses 1 to 6 is followed by the English version of those clauses. The schedules contain the Māori and English versions of the Apology and Legacy Statement, set out in parallel columns.

Clause 1 sets out the Title of the Bill.

Clause 2 provides for the commencement of the Bill on the day after it receives the Royal assent.

Clause 3 expresses the purpose of the Bill and sets out some background to it, including the titles of 7 Acts that were passed by the New Zealand Parliament between 1879 and 1882 (all repealed) and that all affected the people of Parihaka detrimentally.

Clause 4 provides that the Apology of the Crown to Parihaka is set out in Schedule 1 of the Bill.

Clause 5 provides that the Bill will, when enacted, bind the Crown.

Clause 6 provides that the Legacy Statement is set out in Schedule 2 of the Bill.

Schedule 1 contains the Māori and English versions of the Apology of the Crown.

Schedule 2 contains the Māori and English versions of the Legacy Statement.

1 Te taitara/Title

Ko tēnei ture, ko Te Ture Haeata ki Parihaka 2017.

This Act is the Parihaka Reconciliation Act 2017.

2 Te tīmatanga/Commencement

Ka mana tēnei Ture hei te rā ka whai i muri atu i te rangi ka whakaaetia te Ture nei e te Upoko Ariki o Niu Tireni.

This Act comes into force on the day after the date on which it receives the Royal assent.

3 Te aronga me te kōrero whakamāhuki/Purpose and background

(1)

Ko te aronga o tēnei Ture he whakaū i ngā herenga i whakapuakina e te Karauna me ngā tāngata o Parihaka i He Puanga Haeata, arā, ko te hui hohou i te rongo, pērā ki tērā i whakapūmautia i roto i Te Kawenata ō Rongo / ko te Whakaaetanga Hohou Rongo i whakaūngia i te rā 9 o Pipiri 2017.

(2)

Hei whakatutuki i tērā, mā tēnei Ture e whakapūmau ngā take e whai ake nei:

(a)

ko te Whakapāha i tukuna e te Karauna i He Puanga Haeata ki ngā tāngata o Parihaka o mua, o nāianei hoki, mō ngā mahi a te Karauna i mua rā anō:

(b)

ko te Tauākī Tikanga Tuku Iho hoki i pānuitia atu i He Puanga Haeata, e whakarāpopoto ana i ngā takenga o te hapori me ōna mātāpono, e whakamārama ana hoki i tōna hītori, e whakatakoto ana hoki i ōna wawata haere ake nei.

(3)

Ka whakapūmautia hoki ki tēnei wehenga aua Ture Pāremata nā reira i ngana ai te Karauna ki te urupatu i tā Parihaka ātetetanga mō te ngaronga o ō rātou whenua tipu, i kaiātia ai mai i ngā whakatipuranga tangata i Parihaka. Nā aua Ture i whakatārewa ai te Karauna i te rere noa o te ture, i takahi ai hoki i ngā mātāpono o te tika me te pono, i whakamarumaru i ngā tāngata he inati rawa te mahi i tā te ture i tohu ai, i whakaeo rānei i ngā tika tangata waiwai o ngā tāngata o Parihaka. Ko aua Ture ko te—

(a)

Maori Prisoners’ Trial Act 1879 (Te Ture Whakawā i ngā Herehere Māori) (i whakakorengia i te tau 1891), i whakamanatia ai te Kāwana kia whakarite, kia panoni rānei i te rā, i te wāhi rānei ka whakawāngia te hunga i herea mō ngā hara takahi i te waikanaetanga whānui mehemea “ahakoa te take, he huanga ka puta”:

(b)

Confiscated Lands Inquiry and Maori Prisoners’ Trials Act 1879 (Te Ture Whakawā i ngā Whenua Raupatu, me ngā Herehere Māori) (i whakakorengia i te tau 1891), i whakakaha ake ai i te mana o te Kāwana kia panoni i te rā, i te wāhi rānei ka whakawāngia ngā mauhere Māori i whakatauria i roto i te Maori Prisoners’ Trials Act 1879:

(c)

Maori Prisoners Act 1880 (Te Ture mō ngā Herehere Māori) (i whakakorengia i te tau 1891), i whakapuaki ai ko te hunga ka herea, e tatari ana hoki kia whakawāngia, ka mauheretia tonutia rānei, ānō nei i whakarautia e ai ki te ture, i roto hoki i te mauheretanga ā-ture, kia noho tonu hoki ki taua mauheretanga ā-ture tonu me te whakawā kore:

(d)

Maori Prisoners’ Detention Act 1880 (Te Ture Pupuri i ngā Herehere Māori) (i whakakorengia i te tau 1891), i whakahāngai ai i te Maori Prisoners Act 1880 ki ngā tāngata Māori i mauheretia tonutia nō muri i te whakaturetanga o taua Ture:

(e)

West Coast Settlement (North Island) Act 1880 (Te Ture Whakatau mō te Tai Hauauru (Aotearoa) (i whakakorengia i te tau 1902), e tika ana, e pai ana rānei kia mau tonu te waikanaetanga whānui, mā te—

(i)

whakapuaki he hara ngā mahi pērā i te tango tīrau rūri, i te parau whenua, i te whakatū taiapa rānei, e 2 tau te roa o te mauheretanga hei whiunga (me te whakarīrā, te whakarīrā kore rānei);

(ii)

āhei hoki kia mauhere, me te wārati kore, i ngā tāngata ka mahi hara pērā, i reira i te wā ka mahia ngā hara pērā, i whakapaetia noatia rānei tērā pea e mahi ai i ngā hara pērā:

(f)

West Coast Peace Preservation Act 1882 (Te Ture Whakapūmau i te Rangimarire o te Tai Hauauru) (i whakakorengia i te tau 1891), i whakatau ai kāore a Tohu Kākahi rāua ko Te Whiti o Rongomai e whakawāngia mō te hara i hāmenetia ai rāua, kia āhei tā te Kāwana mauhere tonu i a rāua ki tētahi wāhi e pai ana ki a ia, kia tuku i a rāua, ā, kia mauhere anō i a rāua:

(g)

Indemnity Act 1882 (i whakakorengia i te tau 1902) i whakamarumaru ai i ia tangata i mahi i ētahi mahi motuhake i raro i te mana o te Kāwanatanga o Niu Tireni, pērā ki ērā “he inati rawa te mahi i tā te ture i tohu ai”, tae atu ki te ātetetanga, ki te hopu rānei, ki te mauhere tonu rānei, ki te hamaruru rānei, ki te mauhere rānei ki rō whare herehere i te hunga mautohe Māori, ā, ka whakamanatia te Kāwana ki te whakapuaki i ngā mahi, ahakoa he aha, ka taka ki raro i ngā whakataunga o taua Ture.

(1)

The purpose of this Act is to confirm the commitments made by the Crown and the people of Parihaka at He Puanga Haeata, the ceremony of reconciliation, as recorded in Te Kawenata ō Rongo/the Deed of Reconciliation entered into on the 9th day of June 2017.

(2)

To that end, this Act records the following matters:

(a)

the Apology given at He Puanga Haeata by the Crown to the people of Parihaka, past and present, for the historical actions of the Crown; and

(b)

the Legacy Statement proclaimed at He Puanga Haeata summarising the origins of the community and its principles, describing its history, and setting out its aspirations for the future.

(3)

This section also records those Acts of Parliament under which the Crown attempted to destroy Parihaka’s resistance to the loss of their traditional lands, dispossessing generations of people at Parihaka. The Crown, empowered by those Acts, at various times suspended the ordinary course of law, breached natural justice, indemnified people for actions taken in excess of legal powers, or deprived the people of Parihaka of basic human rights. Those Acts were—

(a)

the Maori Prisoners’ Trials Act 1879 (repealed 1891), which empowered the Governor to set or change the date or place of the trials of those committed for offences against the public order if “for any reason it is expedient”:

(b)

the Confiscated Lands Inquiry and Maori Prisoners’ Trials Act 1879 (repealed 1891), which extended the Governor’s power to change the date or place of the trials of the Māori prisoners provided for in the Maori Prisoners’ Trials Act 1879:

(c)

the Maori Prisoners Act 1880 (repealed 1891), which declared that those committed and awaiting trial or detained in custody were deemed to have been lawfully arrested and in lawful custody and could continue to be lawfully detained without trial:

(d)

the Maori Prisoners’ Detention Act 1880 (repealed 1891), which applied the Maori Prisoners Act 1880 to Māori detained after that Act was passed:

(e)

the West Coast Settlement (North Island) Act 1880 (repealed 1902), which, as necessary or fit to preserve the public peace,—

(i)

declared activities such as the removal of survey pegs, ploughing, or erecting fences to be offences punishable by up to 2 years’ imprisonment (with or without hard labour); and

(ii)

enabled the arrest without warrant of persons who committed such offences, were present when such offences were committed, or were reasonably suspected of being about to commit such offences:

(f)

the West Coast Peace Preservation Act 1882 (repealed 1891), which provided that neither Tohu Kākahi nor Te Whiti o Rongomai would be tried for the offence they had been charged with, enabled the Governor to keep them in custody at any place he saw fit, to release them, and re-arrest them:

(g)

the Indemnity Act 1882 (repealed 1902) indemnified every person who had carried out certain measures under the authority of the Government of New Zealand, some of which “may have been in excess of legal powers”, including resisting, apprehending, detaining, confining, or imprisoning Māori protestors, and empowered the Governor to declare any action to come within the provisions of that Act.

4 Te Whakapāha a te Karauna ki a Parihaka/Apology of the Crown to Parihaka

Ko te Whakapāha a te Karauna i tukuna ki a Parihaka ka whakapūmautia ki te Āpitihanga 1.

The Apology given by the Crown to Parihaka is recorded in Schedule 1.

5 Ka herea te Karauna e te Ture/Act binds the Crown

Ka herea te Karauna e tēnei Ture.

This Act binds the Crown.

Nō mua, ināianei, āmua hoki
Past, present, and future

6 Tauākī Tikanga Tuku Iho/Legacy Statement

Ko te Tauākī Tikanga Tuku Iho o Parihaka ka whakapūmautia ki te Āpitihanga 2.

The Legacy Statement of Parihaka is recorded in Schedule 2.

Te Āpitihanga 1 He whakapāha nā te Karauna ki a Parihaka Schedule 1 Apology of the Crown to Parihaka

s 4

He whakapāha nā te Karauna ki a Parihaka

I ngā tau i muri tata mai i te kī taurangi ki te Māori, e kore nei e whakararurarungia tana pupuri ki ngā whenua i pīrangitia ai e ia, ka tīmata tā te Karauna āta pāhua i te tangata whenua o Taranaki. Nā te kirimana hoko, nā te riri ā-patu, nā te muru me te ture hoki i riro ai i te Karauna ngā whenua mōmona o Taranaki, me te aha, noho ai tana iwi i roto i te rawakore, i te ngākau-kore, i roto hoki i te whakahariharitaetanga. Ka whakaū te Karauna i ana whakapāha ki te iwi o Taranaki mō te nui o ana korenga i hāpai i ngā mātāpono o te mahi tahi me te mahi pono e whakatinanatia nei e te Tiriti o Waitangi, mō te nui whakaharahara hoki o te kino i hua ake i aua mahi rā ki ngā whakatipuranga Māori o roto o Taranaki.

Apology of the Crown

A few short years after guaranteeing to Māori the undisturbed possession of any lands they wished to retain, the Crown began to systematically dispossess the tangata whenua of their Taranaki lands. By purchase deed, force of arms, confiscation and statute, the Crown took the rich lands of Taranaki and left its people impoverished, demoralised, and vilified. The Crown reiterates the apologies it has made to iwi of Taranaki for its many failures to uphold the principles of partnership and good faith that the Treaty of Waitangi embodies, and for the immense harm those actions have caused to generations of Māori in Taranaki.

I tēnei wā, e tāpae ana te Karauna i te whakapāha e whai ake nei ki te iwi o Parihaka o mua, o nāianei hoki.

The Crown now offers the following apology to the people of Parihaka, past and present.

I te tau 1866, kua whakatūria te pā o Parihaka hei punanga whakamutunga mō ngā hapū o Taranaki, i rite tonu rā te ukuukua o ō rātou nei kāinga me ā rātou nei māra e ngā hōia o te Karauna, ka mutu, nō nā tata tonu rā rātou i pāngia kinotia ai e te muru kurī noa ihotanga o ngā papa kāinga nā reira i ora ai rātou me ō rātou tūpuna mō te hia whakatipuranga, i noho rā hoki hei tūāpapa ukiuki mō tō rātou tuakiri.

In 1866, the settlement of Parihaka was established as a final refuge for Taranaki hapū whose homes and cultivations had been repeatedly destroyed by Crown troops, and who had recently suffered the indiscriminate confiscation of traditional lands that had sustained them and their tūpuna for generations, and which formed the very bedrock of their identity.

I te pāhuatanga kāore anō i kitea i mua, i te rere tonutanga hoki o te tūkino a te Karauna, ka whakatau te iwi o Parihaka ki te whakatū i tō rātou kāinga hou i raro i ngā mātāpono o te aroha, o te tauritenga, o te kotahitanga me te tino rangatiratanga. I raro i te ārahitanga a Tohu Kākahi rāua ko Te Whiti o Rongomai, ka whakaū te iwi o Parihaka i tō rātou mana ki te whenua, i tō rātou mana motuhake hoki mā te tohe whai tikanga i a rātou e whakatairanga ana i te rangimārie ki waenga i te Māori me te Pākehā. Ka noho a Parihaka hei punanga, hei whakahihiritanga hoki i te tini tāngata puta noa i Taranaki, otirā, i Aotearoa whānui tonu.

At a time of unprecedented loss and continuing Crown violence, the people of Parihaka chose to establish their new community under principles of compassion, equality, unity, and self-sufficiency. Under the leadership of Tohu Kākahi and Te Whiti o Rongomai, the community at Parihaka asserted their customary rights to land and political autonomy through symbolic acts of protest while promoting peaceful engagement between Māori and Pākehā. Parihaka became a place of refuge and a source of inspiration for thousands of people from across Taranaki and from elsewhere in Aotearoa.

E whakaae ana te Karauna i tino kore rawa atu nei ia i whakaae, i whakamana rānei i te whakakitenga o te tino rangatiratanga me te noho tahi i whakatauiratia rā e Parihaka. Ko tā te Karauna urupare ki te rangimārie ko te ngarengare, ki te kotahitanga ko te whakawehewehe, ki te mana motuhake ko te tāmitanga.

The Crown acknowledges that it utterly failed to recognise or respect the vision of self-determination and partnership that Parihaka represented. The Crown responded to peace with tyranny, to unity with division, and to autonomy with oppression.

Nō reira, e tāpaetia nei e te Karauna tana whakapāha nui whakaharahara ki te iwi o Parihaka i ōna hapa katoa, otirā, i ēnei mahi e whai ake nei:

The Crown therefore offers its deepest apologies to the people of Parihaka for all its failures, and in particular for the following actions:

(a)

I te mauheretanga o ngā tāngata o Parihaka mō tā rātou whai wāhi ki ngā mahi parau me te whakatū taiapa o te tau 1879 me te tau 1880, i te hāpai ture hoki e takahi ana i te tika me te pono mā te tuku kia mauheretia aua tāngata ki ngā whare herehere o Te Waipounamu me te kore i whakawāngia mō ōna wā e kīia ai tērā he mauheretanga whakawā-kore;

(a)

For imprisoning Parihaka residents for their participation in the ploughing and fencing campaigns of 1879 and 1880, and for promoting laws that breached natural justice by enabling those protestors to be held in South Island jails without trial for periods that assumed the character of indefinite detention;

(b)

I te korenga o te mana tangata o aua mauhere ā-tōrangapū i manaakitia, i te whiunga take-koretanga nei hoki o rātou tahi ko ērā o ō rātou whānau me ō rātou hapū, i mahue iho rā ki te ukauka i te pā o Parihaka i tō rātou tamōtanga, ki te whakawiritanga;

(b)

For depriving those political prisoners of their basic human rights, and for inflicting unwarranted hardships both on them and on members of their whānau and hapū who remained behind and sustained Parihaka in their absence;

(c)

I te pāhuatanga o Parihaka i te marama o Noema, i te tau 1881, e peia rā te tokomaha i āta haere ai ki reira ki te kimi āhurutanga, e turakina ai, e hāparutia ai hoki ō rātou kāinga me ō rātou whare tapu, e tāhaetia ai ngā kura tongarewa, e āta ukuukua ai ā rātou ngakinga me ngā kararehe;

(c)

For invading Parihaka in November 1881, forcibly evicting many people who had sought refuge there, dismantling and desecrating their homes and sacred buildings, stealing heirlooms, and systematically destroying their cultivations and livestock;

(d)

I ngā pāwheratanga a ngā hōia o te Karauna i muri mai i te pāhuatanga, me te taumaha hārukiruki, me te roa o te mamae o tēnei tūāhuatanga i pā atu ki ngā wāhine o Parihaka, ki ō rātou whānau me ō rātou uri ā mohoa nei;

(d)

For the rapes committed by Crown troops in the aftermath of the invasion, and for the immeasurable and enduring harm that this caused to the women of Parihaka, their families, and their descendants until the present day;

(e)

I te hopunga me te mauheretanga o Tohu Kākahi rāua ko Te Whiti o Rongomai i Te Waipounamu mō te tekau mā ono marama, me te korenga i whakawāngia;

(e)

For the arrest and detention of Tohu Kākahi and Te Whiti o Rongomai for sixteen months without trial in the South Island;

(f)

I tāna whakature i tētahi pūnaha whakauru e whakarite ana i te urunga ki Parihaka, e whakakore ana i tā ngā tāngata whenua haereere noa, e aukati ana hoki i tā te hunga tautoko tuku i ngā ō ki Parihaka i muri mai i te pāhuatanga;

(f)

For its imposition of a pass system which regulated entry into Parihaka, denied residents the freedom of movement, and prevented supporters from providing Parihaka with supplies following the invasion;

(g)

I tana whakahē kē atu i ēnei takahitanga o te ture mā te whakahoki whenua i raro i tētahi kaupapa nā reira i kore ai i noho ki ngā tāngata whenua te mana whakahaere, otirā, te rangatiratanga o te maha o ngā whenua rāhui o Parihaka, e mau tonu nei i tēnei rā.

(g)

For compounding these injustices by returning land under a regime that deprived owners of control and ultimately the ownership of much of the Parihaka reserves, and which remains in place to this day.

Nā te Karauna i takahi te mana o Parihaka ki te whakawhanake, ki te ukauka hoki i a ia anō i runga i tāna i pai ai, ka mutu, kāore hoki i tika te whakatauria o ngā whakamau i hua mai ai mō te hia tau nei. Inā te ngoto o te whakapāha a te Karauna i ēnei mahi kua whakataumaha nei i te iwi o Parihaka ki te whakamau me te takaonge tuku iho mō te hia whakatipuranga, kua here nei hoki i te Karauna ki te whakamā tuku iho.

The Crown denied Parihaka the right to develop and sustain itself on its own terms, and then failed for many years to address the resulting grievances in an appropriate way. The Crown profoundly regrets these actions, which have burdened the people of Parihaka with an intergenerational legacy of grievance and deprivation, and which have burdened the Crown with a legacy of shame.

I te 7 o ngā rā o Noema, i ia tau, karapinepine ai ngā whānau o Parihaka ki te maumahara ki ngā tūpuna nā rātou nei i tāpae atu te waiata me te koha kai ki ngā hōia o te Karauna, i te tau 1881, ā, nā rātou nei hoki i whakahei tā rātou ū ki te maungārongo i te wā tonu e ukuukutia ana ō rātou kāinga, ā rātou ngakinga, i te wā anō hoki e mauheretia ana ō rātou rangatira.

On the 7th day of November every year, the whānau of Parihaka come together to remember those tūpuna who, in 1881, met the Crown’s soldiers with songs and gifts of food, and who honoured their commitment to peace while their homes and gardens were destroyed and leaders imprisoned.

I tēnei wā, e tū ana te Karauna i te taha o Parihaka ki te mihi ki ngā tāne, ki ngā wāhine, ki ngā tamariki hoki i utu rā i tō te Karauna ngarengare ki te tū rangatira, ki te whakawhenuatanga me te māia whakaharahara. Ko te tino tūmanako o te Karauna, mā tēnei whakapāha e wātea ai a Parihaka me te Karauna ki te whai whakaaro ki tō rāua ao o mua, e anga whakamua ai, e tīmata ai hoki tā rāua mahi tahi ki te whakatinana i te tūrua pō mō te rangimārie o te noho tahitanga i kōrerotia rā e Tohu rāua ko Te Whiti.

The Crown now joins Parihaka in paying tribute to the men, women, and children who responded to the Crown’s tyranny with dignity, discipline and immense courage. It is the Crown’s sincerest hope that through this apology, Parihaka and the Crown can now acknowledge their shared past, move beyond it, and begin to work together to fulfil the vision of peaceful coexistence that Tohu and Te Whiti described.

Te Āpitihanga 2 Te Tikanga Tuku Iho Schedule 2 Legacy statement

s 6

Pae 1—Te HuripokiPhase 1—The upheaval

Te pae o te riri Huripoki 1813–1840

Violent upheaval 1813–1840

Te kūreitanga o Taranaki, maru ana i te kai, kōpā ana i te kāinga, pōkia ana e te tāngata. Tūpono noa te kurukurutanga o te uru i te taiwhakararo, ripiripia e te mumu, haehaea e te āwhā. Ka pakū te ngutu parera, ka horo te pā, ka kāwhakina te kāhui whakarau ki tawhiti. Riro ana te puia taro uri ki Kāpiti, whakarērea mai te puia tautau māhei. Puea mai he rongomau, houhia e Pōtatau rāua ko Matakātea ki Ōrangituapeka, whakaeaea mai he manawa nui, he manawa roa. Kāinga tahi ka mate, kāinga rua ka ora, he pā whakaruru mō Rongo, Rongo-marae-roa. He reanga i whanaua iho ai ki te māra o Tū, ka puta he poropititanga i tua i te rangi tāwhangawhanga, he putanga ariki, he putanga tauira, Huripokina te ao, taupokina te pō, ka ao, ka ao-ātea.

The Taranaki region, rich in resources, densely populated and thick with human existence. Then the region’s desolation from northern bounds, lives torn apart within the tempest, ripped to shreds in the storm. The concussive force of the musket resounded, fortifications fell, their inhabitants made captive and taken afar. The vulnerable removed themselves to Kāpiti, the primary root left behind resisted. The potential of peace was conceived, bound by Pōtatau and Matakātea at Ōrangituapeka pā, giving rise to new hope and fortitude. Settlements of the past faded and new forms of community arose, they were sanctuaries of collective prosperity. This was a generation born in the depths of war that gave rise to prophets of inspired vision, breaking from their constraints with concepts of empowerment and transformation. Through this upheaval, despair was eased and light shone once more.

Pae 2—Te RongomauPhase 2—The foundation

Te pae o rongo 1840–1860

Reshaping peace 1840–1860

Tuputupu rautāpatu te kawa ora ki runga o Taranaki. Ka paiaka te Pākehā ki Taranaki, he whenua te take. Te rongopai a Waitere, te kauhau a Minarapa, tatū te kāhui hipi a Rīmene e tataki nei i te rangimārie o Te Atua, ki tā te kupu Paipera, ko te whakapono, te tūmanako me te aroha. Maunu mai te iwi whakarau i te koanga, kitakita nei te tarakihi i te raumati. He huanga nui nā Rongo-mā-tāne, i te hiringa ā-nuku, i te hiringa ā-rangi, ka hua ko Tū te ngana-hau. E pari ana te tai o makiri, he kiritea, he tai horonuku, he horo whenua, taukiri e. Ka pupū te rau ki te Ruru-mā-heke, ko te puia taro uri ka hoki, e rarau. Huripoki te whenua, parapara te whenua ki te ūkaipō. Ka ara, ko Te Kurupū, ko Pātūtūtahi, ko Kumea-mai-te-Waka, ko Taiporohēnui ki Manawapou, “ka herea te whenua, ka herea te tangata”, “tangata tōmua, whenua tōmuri”. Taranaki whenua poapoa ki te hoko, poapoa ki te Kāwana.

This wave of prosperity swept the region. Settlers made their home in Taranaki, land their intent. The good word conveyed by Whiteley, the sermons of Minarapa, the established flock of Riemenschneider, carrying the peace of God and the Bible’s text espousing faith, hope and love. Those enslaved were liberated in the promise of spring, those in hiding had freedom in the warmth of summer. Flourishing with the rewards of cultivation, of collective action, inspiration and resilience. The king-tides carried waves of settlers, eroding the earth, consuming the land, and deep concern builds. Numbers swelled with return migrations of the once vulnerable who resettled, tilling and fertilising the soil, gardens of occupation. Statements of assertion defined boundaries for land to be retained, commitments were made, bound by oaths, people would be lost before their lands. The value of Taranaki land enticed buyers, and enticed the Government.

Pae 3—Te NguhaPhase 3—The war

Te pae o tū kā riri 1860–1865

The impact of conflict 1860–1865

Ka hikahika, he ngutuahi ki te ngutuawa Waitara, ka korakora a Pekapeka te pū o te riri, ka tutū te ngārahu ki Te Kōhia, ka kātoro te ahi ki te motu. He mate i a tuanuku, he haehae i a papawhenua. Te hinganga o Kaipōpō, ko Te Hanataua, ko Kukutai, ko Paratene, papanga iho he kāhui kāhika. Whakangaro Warea, rukea e te manuao. Mumura ana te ahikā, kīhai i tineia, murua rawatia te whenua. Tou te kai, tou te tangata, he kāinga putuputu, ka turakina, ka tūngia ki te ahi. Me he raupō piko i te hau, ka ara. Tērā Tamarura ka heke i te pae o Rori Wētere, ka puta te Atua ki Taranaki, ka iri a Riri, ka iri a Ririkore ki Kaitake, ki Te Iringaniu. Ka haramai ngā tahua a te kōrero Atua, ka ara ngā manu e rua, warakī i te atatū, ko Mumuhau, ko Takereto ki runga o Repanga.

Friction to inflame hostility at the mouth of Waitara, sparking tension in Pekapeka the seat of conflict, embers stoked in Te Kōhia, a wildfire razing the country in deep desire for land, covetous of land. With Kaipōpō so too did Te Hanataua, Kukutai and Paratene fall, a loss of respected leadership. Occupation rights were fanned alight, never extinguished but all confiscated. Food was sowed while people were buried, in a succession of settlements, destroyed and torched. Like reeds rising when wind abates. Tamarura revealed with the incident of Lord Worsley, spiritual guidance revealed to Taranaki, violence contrasted with non-violence at Kaitake and elevated on Te Iringaniu. The potential for peace revealed in Christian tenets. So rose the two birds, calling at dawn, Mumuhau and Takereto landing at Repanga.

Pae 4—Te HaeataPhase 4—The building

Te pae o te haeata 1865–1878

A new dawn 1865–1878

Ka ruku aurere rā ki Waikoukou, whakaeaea aumihi ki uta o Waitotoroa. Ka puea Parihaka ki te haeata. Ka kuhuna te patu kia kore e kitea. Ka puru te toto, ka tū te tikanga, ka topa te toroa, ka puta, ka ora. Rāngai mai ana te tekau mā rua a Tāwhiao, rauhī mai te kāhui i ōna hēpara ki te Atua i runga rawa. Ka hanga whakahere hei whakakakara ki tō rāua Atua. He tau pai te tau, he tau ariki te tau, he tau āhuru te tau, nō te rēme te tau. Kua tukua te punga whakawhenua o Ihowa ki te whenua. Huhua mai i mārakiraki, i mātongatonga me te marangai, marara i te muru, tītaria e te ture. Ahu te rau, ohu te mano. Te haupū ā-rongo ki te whenua, he maunga ā-rongo. Hua te kai, hua te kōrero mō te whakaaro pai ki te tangata, kia utua te kino ki te pai. Kei te pakanga kē te matamata o taku arero nei hei taonga mō ngā whakatupuranga. Ko rātou hei kainoho i te rangatiratanga mō ake tonu atu.

Submerged in the pain of Waikoukou, surfacing again with relief in the upper reaches of Waitotoroa. Parihaka emerging in the glimmer of a new dawn on the horizon. Weapons were sheathed, far from sight. The flow of blood staunched, principled practice realised, an albatross takes flight, a way of life. The twelve of Tāwhiao sent out, the shepherds gather their flock with guidance of Christian beliefs. A commitment with their God was made firm, this would be a time of good, a time of great consequence, a time of solace, a time for the most vulnerable. Amassed from the north, south and east, scattered by confiscation. The hundreds gather in teams, working as a collective. Cooperative cultivation of the land ensues. The essence of peace. Food is produced, words are spoken, goodwill to all people, responding to hatred with kindness. This battle is one fought with the tip of my tongue, fought for future generations. For they are the basis of self-determination far into times ahead.

Pae 5—Te Tohe TūkauPhase 5—The resistance

Te pae o te tohe 1878–1886

An uprising of resistance 1878–1886

Ka torona ki te parau ka riro taku tīkapa, riro i te herehere, riro i te ture. Parau kau, tū kau, he ranga kahawai, he taiepa tiketike i te tūpuhi. Ka kōpenu te ihu o te toa, ka tū te pono o te kōrero teka. Ka torona te whenua, ka torona te tangata, ka hau te whenua, ka hau te rongo, he manawanui, he manawaroa nō Tāwhiri-mātea. I whiua au i runga i Te Tikanga, i whiua ki te piu o te ture, ki ngā ngaru whakapuke o Raukawa, wāhia ki te rīpeka mahi nui i Otākou, i Rīpapa ki Whakaraupō, i Hokitika ki Te Ika a Ngahue. Ko Hīroki, ko Pōtiki-roroa te ika, i tahia i Waitōtara ki te hōpua, te maru nui o Tohu, o Whiti. Te hōkai a te hōia ki te hōkai a te tātarakihi. Te hāpai a te hōiho mā i a Te Paraihe ki te hāpai nui a te whaene, he tahua kai. Kua hari, kua koa. Ka puni a Pungarehu ki Te Pūrepo, whakaweriweri, whakawehiwehi, kīhai i wehewehe. E runga, e raro nukunuku mai. E uta e tai nukunuku mai. Te mahi a te kurī, kua hari, kua koa ki te pāhua tuatahi. Opehia taewatia te tangata. Opea noatia te kōpae hēki ki raro i te kātua, kāore he kai pīpipi, kāore he kai kōkoko, ka herea te kaha me te uaua ki te rangimārie. Kūpapa e te iwi. Utaina Hinemoa, e tū tamawahine i te wā o te kore. Kei te kairuru, kei te kaikaha. He pae kawau hoki i a Tiki whakakōtata. Te hau whakamōmotu nei i te weherua o te pō.

The plough goes forth, my people are taken, taken captive, taken by law. Ploughing with non-violence, moving in unison, fencing out hostility. Noses of the brave are broken, and untruths are made real. As the region was reclaimed, people were reclaimed, land was ploughed, and the news travelled, of determination, of resilience, reminiscent of Tāwhiri-mātea. I am condemned on account of my Tikanga, punished with the lash of law, put upon high seas between islands, separated with hard labour in Dunedin, on Rīpapa in Lyttelton, in Hokitika on the Westcoast. Hīroki, like Pōtiki-roroa, made the target, a fish corralled to shallow water, the shelter of Tohu and Te Whiti. Soldiers marched upon children’s play. A white horse bearing Bryce’s hostility pushing through the hospitality of mothers. They are resolute and assured. The camp of Pungarehu relocated to Te Pūrepo, with intimidation and havoc, together Parihaka remained. The act of a dog resolute and assured in the first plunder. People bundled as potatoes, yet without food. The hen pulling her brood under her protection, there is no food for them out there, rage and thoughts of retaliation constrained in peace. Subordinated for higher ideals. What Hinemoa’s cargo has taken, women must carry. Left in hunger and yet found strength. Womanhood brutalised by the basest of human character. This destructive wind borne at midnight.

Pae 6—Te ArangaPhase 6—The revival

Te pae o te aranga 1886–1907

The drive for revival 1886–1907

Heke i te kaipuke, heke a te kaikamo. E ngata tō puku e te kaiwhakawhiu, mōku te kino, mōu te pai. Te maunutanga i te herehere, rorea rā ki te tūmatakuru o Kāwana. E karapoti nei te mounga i te rori, i te taiepa kōpiko. Taranaki tītōhea a runga, tītōhea a raro. E rere e te kīrehe o te rangi ki runga ki ngā puna wai koropupū, koropupū mai. Te aranga i te hae o te mate, te kaihari i te oranga. Te rongo o te poi ki Toroanui, te piu o te arero ki Paraahuka. Ngātata kau ana te riu i te taukume, he pou atua, he pou whenua. Ara mai Rangikāpuia, ara mai Te Raukura. Kumea e nuku, kumea e rangi, tū kē wehe kē, te hōkari o te wae, te whākana o te waha. Kīhai i wetekina te ioka. He kahu taratara, he rāpaki. Rangahia mai ngā hanga o te ao, ka hika, ka hiko, ka puta, ka ora. Tūtakina rawatia ngā tatau rino o te whare Kāwana. He mangumangu taepō nei hoki tātou.

They have disembarked from ships, moved by sorrow. The hunger of the punisher for now appeased, the worst for me, the best for you. Prisoners have bindings removed, yet strict constraints remain in place. The mountain encircled by road and angled fences of occupation. Taranaki is again desolate. Small birds of the sky flock to the source of strength, a spring flowing high up on the slopes. This revival from near death, makes life more precious. The poi’s beat and tongue’s sway on Toroanui and Paraahuka. There is a rending of the waka with debate, spiritual leadership and community leadership. Rangikāpuia rise tall, Te Raukura rise tall. Pulled upward and drawn downward, each standing apart, the pounding of feet, the commotion of voices. Yet the yoke remained tethered. These are coarse clothes of mourning, hitched high for work. The innovations of the world installed to vibrate and spark anew to the world. And still the Crown’s iron doors remain firmly shut. We are but demons conjured in the shadows.

Pae 7—Te WhenumiPhase 7—The forgetting of Parihaka

Te pae o whēnuminumi 1907–1975

The ebbing tides 1907–1975

E tō e te rā, te rukuhanga a Tamanui, a Tamaroa, a Tama i te ao mārama. Te ruruku ki wehe o tupua, te wehe o Tangaroa, te ao huna ki te uru, te Uru tonu o Tonganui. E rongo rānei te tohe a Pōtoru, kīhai i haere numinumi. Ka rau matomato te tupu, ka tiritiria, ka poupoua ki Te Parewanui, ki Te Maungaarongo, ki Rātana. Ka kāinga rua, kāinga i te pono, kāinga i te tika. Ka tō te rangapū ki ngā rori kirikiri ki roto o Pōneke, pūehuehu kau te mahuetanga mai. Hunā ururua, hunā mokoroa, hunā pakikoke, hunā kāho, hunā hāhani, hunā kōpiro. Te morehutanga iho te waha o te pere, he uri nō Hōhepa i te tina, i te tī, i te parakuikui.

The sun does set, he dives into night, his life-giving light lost to the world. The rituals sent you both beyond, lost into Tangaroa, hidden into the west, to the very gable of Tonganui. The deep dissensions of Pōtoru were paid no heed, and you did not recede from our memory. It continued to grow and flourish afar, nurtured afar, at Te Parewanui, at Te Maungaarongo, and at Rātana. Subsequent settlements of belief and sound moral values. The political paths on gravel roads led to Wellington, I am dust-covered in the wake. Engulfed in bramble, consumed by borer, wasted in deprivation, flushed with alcohol, embattled with abuse, silenced with scorn. The remaining few caretakers of the bell, the embodiment of Joseph, fed the people with the little they had.

Pae 8—Te Aranga TuaruaPhase 8—The recovery of Parihaka

Te pae o te aranga tuarua 1975

A second revival 1975–present day

Wherawhera mai a rauwhārangi, puakina mai tērā i te hāngū, ka rongo te turi keakea, ka mātaki te matapō. Ura te rā, ko Uenuku i te rangiānewanewa, taratara mai rā ngā hihi, e ngungu nei ngā aho ki koko whēuriuri, ki koko whēkerekere. Ka ao, ka ao-ātea, ka ao mārama. Tahia te marae, tahia te kōrero, tahia te kura. Te kura i huna, te kura i tiki mai i Hawaiki, he kura toroa, he piki raukura, he poi raupō. Hāmama ake rā ngā waha ki te rangi, tō rāua nei Atua kaha rawa, te rangatira o te maunga ā-rongo, kei kino, kei poke, kei whakanoa i tōna tapu. He aha rā te manu? Ko taku poi te manu. I whano ai ki reira, i whano ai ki ngā whakatupuranga. Koia kei Te Whakaputanga te wāhinga, mā Te Pāhua e kapi ai, he pāhua whakamutunga. E tū ai te hunga ririki i puehu ai i te kino ngaro, māna nei te mutunga.

Pages have laid bare that which silence has suppressed, that deafened have heard, that blinded have seen. First light reveals the spectrum of Uenuku, with piercing rays and refracted light the deepest and darkest of recesses will know colour. Dawn breaks and the sky has opened, the world is enlightened. Clear those marae long forsaken, reveal their lore, uncover their learnings. Bodies of knowledge yet unseen, drawn from our earliest beginnings, the quest for peace, a flight feather, a tradition of poi. Speak up and speak with resolve, the God almighty they received, the guiding light of lasting peace, to avoid hatred, to avoid moral debasement, to avoid a complete loss of dignity is his legacy. What is the bird? My poi is the bird. It has flown out to travel over the generations. Battles remembered on the day of the Declaration of Independence may be redeemed with peace in memory of the Pāhua, an eventual peace. The meek, demeaned and impoverished, will stand, they will succeed.

Pae 9—Te KawenataPhase 9—The aspirations of Parihaka

Te Kawenata ō Rongo, ināianei-āmua

The commitment to reconciliation present–future

Whakarongo ake, hei hinu koa ki runga ki hō koutou pane, he pakanga i waiho ake e ō koutou tīpuna. Ahakoa whakarumakina e te hoa, ka puea anō, e ngāngana mai rā i te puke, ka kite te iti me te rahi. Whakaeketia te moana waiwai, te moana tuatua, te moana oruoru, koi whakatupuria he kawa ora. Whakaterea te ara rau a Tangaroa, pakeke kau te ara tapokorau o nehe, unuhia te ara ruiti a Tāne. Tā te hae ka nawe, tā te pai ka tau, i te hari, i te koa. Me he pōpoko i te rua, me he tātara-moeone i te rua, whakaeaea ki te hau. Kīta, kīta i te wiwī, i te wawā, kei mou ki taihua, te ākinga ā-tai, te paringa ā-tai, i te taimaha, taikaha o te ao. Ko tōku kaha me tōku reo, hei reo whakahaere ki tēnei whakatupuranga, hei tangata whakaaraara koe mō ngā iwi e rua. E kore tōu reo e tāea te pēhi e ngā mounga nunui, e kore tōu māngai e tāea te kōpani e ngā mounga nunui, e ngā pukepuke o te motu nei. Ka haepapa i tōu reo, ka whakahaere tikanga koe mō te kino kia mate i te pai.

Listen, for you have a role to fulfil, it is a challenge left to you by your ancestors. Though you may be overwhelmed by your neighbour, success will come, a glow will be on the mountain skyline, to be seen by all. Go out on open seas, unsettled and surging seas to find new and bountiful existence. This commitment has set sail on Tangaroa of limitless paths, refraining from the arduous and boggy paths we once travelled, allowing them to pass from this world. Violence scars, while that shown care will be strong, self-assured and confident. As an ant in the burrow, as a juvenile cicada maturing in the earth, to emerge into the open. Be surrounded with the cacophony of confidence, lest you be confined to the shore, pulled by tides, swamped by waves of all that is heavy and harsh in this world. All my strength and my voice is guidance to this generation, that you be the empowerer of both peoples. Your voice cannot be smothered by the authorities, your voice cannot be silenced by the powerful, nor the turbulent events of this land. Should your voice be abolished, you will use tikanga to respond to the hatred, overcoming it with kindness.