Reprint as at 1 December 2015
National Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan Order 2005: revoked, on 1 December 2015, by clause 5 of the National Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan Order 2015 (LI 2015/140).
Silvia Cartwright, Governor-General
At Wellington this 14th day of November 2005
Present:Her Excellency the Governor-General in Council
Changes authorised by subpart 2 of Part 2 of the Legislation Act 2012 have been made in this official reprint.
Note 4 at the end of this reprint provides a list of the amendments incorporated.
This order is administered by the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management.
Pursuant to sections 39(1) and 45(b) of the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002, Her Excellency the Governor-General, acting on the recommendation of the Minister of Civil Defence and on the advice and with the consent of the Executive Council, makes the following order.
This order is the National Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan Order 2005.
This order comes into force on 1 July 2006.
The national civil defence emergency management plan (including its appendices) set out in the Schedule is made.
The period for which the national civil defence emergency management plan remains operative begins on 1 July 2006 and ends on the close of 30 June 2011.
To avoid doubt, nothing in this order prohibits the publication of the national civil defence emergency management plan, in whole or in part, in a style suitable for particular users of the plan, including, but not limited to, publication—
in a different format; or
with or without graphics; or
with or without additional material.
In this plan, unless the context otherwise requires,—
4 Rs means—
reduction (identifying and analysing long-term risks to human life and property from natural or non-natural hazards; taking steps to eliminate these risks if practicable, and, if not, reducing the magnitude of their impact and the likelihood of their occurring); and
readiness (developing operational systems and capabilities before a civil defence emergency happens, including self-help and response programmes for the general public, and specific programmes for emergency services, lifeline utilities, and other agencies); and
response (actions taken immediately before, during, or directly after a civil defence emergency to save lives and property, and to help communities recover); and
recovery (the co-ordinated efforts and processes used to bring about the immediate, medium-term, and long-term holistic regeneration of a community following a civil defence emergency)
Act means the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002
government agencies, including Public Service departments, non-public service departments, Crown entities, and Offices of Parliament; and
non-governmental organisations; and
CDEM Group or Civil Defence Emergency Management Group means a group established under section 12 of the Act
CIMS means the co-ordinated incident management system
civil defence emergency management has the same meaning as in section 4 of the Act
cluster means a group of agencies that interact to achieve common civil defence emergency management outcomes
CYF means the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services
DESC means the system of domestic and external security co-ordination used by the Government to manage all national crises
DHB means district health board, and includes hospital and health services (including ambulance services)
Director has the same meaning as in section 4 of the Act
DPMC means the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet
ECC means Emergency Co-ordination Centre
emergency has the same meaning as in section 4 of the Act
emergency services has the same meaning as in section 4 of the Act
EOC means Emergency Operations Centre and encompasses ECC
fire service includes the fire service units maintained by the New Zealand Fire Service, National Rural Fire Authority, rural fire authorities, airport rescue fire services, New Zealand Defence Force, industrial fire brigades registered under section 36 of the Fire Service Act 1975, and other fire service resources owned by private organisations
hazard has the same meaning as in section 4 of the Act
lifeline utility has the same meaning as in section 4 of the Act
MCDEM means the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management, which is the agency in central government that co-ordinates the civil defence emergency management necessary during states of national emergency or civil defence emergencies of national significance
Minister has the same meaning as in section 4 of the Act
National Controller has the same meaning as in section 4 of the Act
national significance has the same meaning as in section 4 of the Act
NCMC means the National Crisis Management Centre
NWRCG means the National Welfare Recovery Co-ordination Group
OCHA means the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, which is an office of the United Nations
ODESC means the Committee of Officials for Domestic and External Security Co-ordination
Recovery Co-ordinator has the same meaning as in section 4 of the Act
risk has the same meaning as in section 4 of the Act
state of emergency has the same meaning as in section 4 of the Act
state of local emergency has the same meaning as in section 4 of the Act
state of national emergency has the same meaning as in section 4 of the Act
supporting documentation includes detailed explanations, standard operating procedures, the Director’s guidelines, codes, and technical standards
The Guide means The Guide to the National Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan that is issued by the Director under section 9(3) of the Act
the strategy means the national civil defence emergency management strategy completed under section 31 of the Act
this plan means the national civil defence emergency management plan.
is made under sections 39(1) and 45(b) of the Act; and
replaces the national civil defence plan; and
has no transitional provisions; and
becomes operational on 1 July 2006; and
may be amended or replaced in accordance with the Act at any time; and
must, before the close of 30 June 2011, be—
renewed or replaced.
Section 40 of the Act allows incorporation by reference of material that is too large or otherwise impractical to be printed as part of this plan.
No documents are incorporated by reference under this plan; however other materials are mentioned.
The purpose of this plan is to—
state the hazards and risks to be managed at the national level; and
provide for the civil defence emergency management arrangements to meet those hazards and risks.
The first objective of this plan is to provide for effective management of states of national emergency or civil defence emergencies of national significance through a planned and co-ordinated whole-of-government response.
The second objective of this plan is to provide for effective recovery from states of national emergency and civil defence emergencies of national significance through a planned and co-ordinated whole-of-government response.
The third objective of this plan is to provide for effective management of national support in states of local emergency through a planned and co-ordinated whole-of-government response.
Section 31 of the Act requires the Minister to complete a national civil defence emergency management strategy.
The strategy was completed in March 2004.
The strategy includes—
the Crown’s goals in relation to civil defence emergency management in New Zealand; and
the objectives to be pursued to achieve those goals; and
the measurable targets to be met to achieve those objectives.
The goals of the strategy are—
goal 1: to increase community awareness, understanding, and participation in civil defence emergency management; and
goal 2: to reduce the risks from hazards to New Zealand; and
goal 3: to enhance New Zealand’s capability to manage emergencies; and
goal 4: to enhance New Zealand’s capability to recover from disasters.
Goal 1 is addressed in this plan by supporting objective B of the goal (improve community understanding and participation in civil defence emergency management). Goal 2 is addressed in this plan by supporting objective D of the goal (improve the co-ordination of the Government’s policy relevant to civil defence emergency management).
As this plan deals with the management of hazards and risks at the national level, this plan gives practical effect to the following goals and associated objectives of the strategy:
goal 3: enhancing New Zealand’s capability to manage civil defence emergencies, particularly objective E (enhancing the ability of government departments to prepare for and manage civil defence emergencies) and objective F (improving the ability of the Government to manage civil defence emergencies of national significance); and
goal 4: enhancing New Zealand’s capability to recover from civil defence emergencies, particularly objective A (implementing effective recovery planning and activities for the physical impacts of emergencies) and objective B (implementing effective recovery planning and activities for the social and economic impacts of civil defence emergencies).
This plan, the Act, the strategy, the CDEM Group plans, the sector plans, the agency plans, and The Guide collectively describe the civil defence emergency management necessary at the national level.
is a statement of—
the national civil defence emergency management arrangements that are in place or being developed on the date that this plan is made; and
the principles, arrangements, commitments, and frameworks that apply to the management of states of national emergencies and civil defence emergencies of national significance (the detail of how this is to be delivered is set out in The Guide); and
addresses emergencies where communities and agencies are overwhelmed and demand on resources may exceed those available at the local, regional, or national level; and
is written for agencies that have a role to play during either a state of national emergency or a civil defence emergency of national significance and will inform their planning, response, and co-ordination during such an emergency; and
explains how central government may support CDEM Groups in their management of states of local civil defence emergencies; and
becomes operative on 1 July 2006; and
is supported by The Guide, which—
augments this plan; and
includes additional material; and
is approved by the Government; and
is to come into force on 1 July 2006.
Nothing in this plan prevents the national support of local emergency management, and the co-ordination of that support, in local emergencies or other events.
New Zealand has finite capacity and capability for deployment in response to, or recovery from, a state of national emergency or a civil defence emergency of national significance.
Effective response and recovery may necessitate mobilisation of all available resources.
Mobilisation of appropriate capacity is achieved through—
the activation of government crisis management arrangements; and
MCDEM, as lead agency, co-ordinating, controlling, and directing in accordance with its responsibilities under the Act; and
agencies being ready to meet their obligations under the Act and this plan; and
agencies’ activation of commitments and obligations set out in this plan.
Planning for civil defence emergencies is an ongoing process and significant work programmes are being undertaken to address any issues that are identified.
is responsible for assessing resource requirements needed to manage civil defence emergencies at the national level; and
will monitor the capacity and capability of CDEM Groups; and
alert CDEM Groups, agencies, and the Government to any significant shortcomings in national civil defence emergency management capacity and capability.
This part states and provides for the hazards and risks to be managed at the national level and this plan identifies the civil defence emergency management necessary at the national level to manage them.
An emergency occurs when the safety of the public or property is endangered and a significant and co-ordinated response under the Act is required. The emergencies covered by this plan include those traditionally managed by civil defence arrangements and those indicated through the CDEM Group planning processes.
Examples of emergencies include—
natural disasters such as flood, storm, cyclone, snowstorm, earthquake, volcanic, geothermal incident, tsunami, landslide, and lahar; and
non-natural events such as lifeline utility failure.
An emergency may be local or national in its effect. National civil defence emergency management may be necessary to manage the consequences of hazards and risks if these result in either a state of national emergency or a civil defence emergency of national significance. The latter includes, without limitation, any case where the Minister considers that—
there is widespread public concern or interest; or
there is likely to be significant use of resources; or
it is likely that the area of more than 1 CDEM Group will be affected; or
it affects or is likely to affect or is relevant to New Zealand’s international obligations; or
it involves or is likely to involve technology, processes, or methods that are new to New Zealand; or
it results or is likely to result in or contribute to significant or irreversible changes to the environment (including the global environment).
The consequences of hazards and risks to be managed can include those relevant to human, economic, social, infrastructure, and geographic factors.
A range of agencies other than MCDEM may take the lead in an emergency. Indicative examples include the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (biosecurity), the Ministry of Health (pandemic), and the New Zealand Police (counter-terrorism). Aspects of such emergencies can be managed under the Act and using parts of this plan. In these cases, the responsibilities of the lead agency are in no way diminished even though a state of local or national emergency is declared under the Act to support that lead agency.
Civil defence emergency management arrangements may be activated to support lead agencies if these arrangements are included in those agencies’ plans.
Under section 66 of the Act, the Minister has the power to declare that a state of national emergency exists over the whole of New Zealand or any areas or districts.
The Minister can make the declaration only if it appears that the emergency is, or is likely to be, so severe that it is beyond the resources of the CDEM Group or CDEM Groups affected or likely to be affected.
In some circumstances, agencies may manage emergencies using this plan in combination with their own emergency management plans.
The arrangements set out in this plan may be used to support efforts to manage other emergencies (for example, an emergency managed by a lead agency other than MCDEM).
If the impacts on the community cannot be dealt with by emergency services, or otherwise require a significant or co-ordinated response, while other arrangements are in effect, a declaration may be made under the Act to formally invoke the powers of the Act and the provisions of this plan.
DESC is used by central government for the management of significant crises or security events where impacts of national significance warrant the co-ordination of national effort.
DESC operates at a strategic level to co-ordinate whole-of-government planning and prioritising.
DESC brings together information for Ministers, co-ordinates analysis and development of options, and assists decision making in Cabinet.
DESC is collective without affecting the existing responsibilities of Ministers or departments.
At the strategic level ODESC exercises policy oversight and advises the Prime Minister, Cabinet, and, when activated, the Cabinet Committee on Domestic and External Security Co-ordination chaired by the Prime Minister.
At the operational level a lead agency (which is MCDEM in the case of a civil defence emergency) monitors and assesses the situation, co-ordinates national support, reports to ODESC, and provides policy advice. In a national emergency, the lead agency directs and manages operational responses on the ground.
is a group of senior officials; and
is chaired by the DESC co-ordinator, normally the chief executive of DPMC; and
supports Ministers in developing high-level strategic direction, policy, and priorities, and in authorising additional resources to deal with crises; and
is the strategic mechanism for co-ordinating a whole-of-government response to events.
ODESC is supported by government public service departments, non-public service departments, and groups of officials drawn from those departments to provide a whole-of-government overview, to address particular issues, and to co-ordinate strategic level public communications.
MCDEM is the agency in central government that co-ordinates the civil defence emergency management necessary during states of national emergency or civil defence emergencies of national significance.
At the operational level for civil defence emergency management events, MCDEM—
monitors and assesses the impact at the site of the event; and
provides operational support for civil defence emergency management activities at the local level; and
co-ordinates the operational response of government and national resources during states of national emergency or civil defence emergencies of national significance.
When DESC is activated for civil defence emergency management events, MCDEM, as lead agency, provides advice to, and takes strategic direction from, ODESC.
In fulfilling these functions, MCDEM will—
use NCMC facilities and establish linkages with relevant CDEM Groups and agencies; and
co-ordinate clusters of agencies engaged in common areas of civil defence emergency management activity; and
provide national co-ordination for recovery activities.
Other agencies with civil defence emergency management operational roles will co-ordinate with MCDEM or through established clusters to provide integrated and co-ordinated inter-agency responses.
Each agency remains responsible for the management of its own response.
Particular agencies may be requested to be represented at the level of ODESC and report to ODESC on their respective area of responsibility and respond to strategic direction from ODESC.
The responsibilities of the Director are, in part, to—
co-ordinate, for the purposes of civil defence emergency management, the use of resources made available under this plan; and
during a state of national emergency,—
direct and control, for the purposes of civil defence emergency management, the use of resources made available under this plan; and
control the exercise and performance of the functions, duties, and powers of CDEM Groups and group controllers; and
ensure the Minister and ODESC are adequately briefed on the situation in a disaster area; and
inform the Minister and ODESC of assistance likely to be required for response and recovery operations; and
establish processes under this plan that will allow response and recovery to be effected for the emergency; and
recommend to Cabinet any special policies for implementation of civil defence emergency management support; and
exercise the powers under sections 8(2) and 9(2) of the Act.
The Director is a member of ODESC.
A National Controller can be—
appointed by the Director; and
delegated the Director’s functions and powers under sections 8(2)(h) and 9(2)(a) of the Act.
a National Controller,—
during the state of a national emergency, directs, controls, and co-ordinates, for the purposes of civil defence emergency management, the use of resources made available under this plan; and
during a civil defence emergency of national significance, co-ordinates national resources to support the local response; and
a National Controller co-ordinates international operational support with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
If a National Controller is not appointed the Director retains the powers under sections 8(2)(h) and 9(2)(a) of the Act.
The machinery of government must continue to run, even at a reduced level.
The Act puts responsibilities on specified agencies. These responsibilities include, at times of emergency, being able to—
function to the fullest possible extent even though this may be at a reduced level; and
respond to the emergency as required.
The Act requires all government agencies, local authorities, emergency services, and lifeline utilities to—
plan for functioning during and after an emergency; and
be capable of continuing to function to the fullest extent possible (albeit at a reduced level).
All agencies are expected to develop, review, and improve their emergency plans. Respective emergency-related roles may be detailed in The Guide.
Agencies may have obligations under their own legislation to deal with hazards and consequences. The Act and this plan do not affect these obligations.
Non-governmental organisations do not have specific responsibilities under the Act but this plan acknowledges their importance in a civil defence emergency. The principal mechanism for the national co-ordination of non-governmental organisations with other agencies in response and recovery is via the NWRCG or through other relevant clusters.
integrate and co-ordinate civil defence emergency management planning and activity; and
respond to and manage the adverse effects of emergencies in their areas; and
are controlled by the Director or the National Controller during a state of national emergency.
Each CDEM Group—
is a committee of elected representatives of local authorities in the region covered by the CDEM Group; and
is supported by chief executives, hazard plans, EOCs and staff, and the involvement of communities of interest at all levels; and
has established cross-boundary agreements with other CDEM Groups; and
can be viewed as a consortium of local authorities, emergency services, and others delivering civil defence emergency management in a co-ordinated manner according to their group plans and their community outcome process.
During a civil defence emergency, cross-boundary consultation may occur between group controllers, elected representatives, or group controllers and elected representatives. Another CDEM Group may declare a state of local emergency if it is necessary to do so to support another area where a state of local emergency is in force.
CDEM Groups may be asked by the National Controller to activate their civil defence emergency management arrangements in support of—
their own area, if they are not already active; or
another area; or
a national-level civil defence emergency, whether or not a declaration of a state of emergency has been made and irrespective of the type of emergency.
This part of this plan identifies the roles of emergency services in civil defence emergencies. Agencies responding to emergencies include the Police, fire service, and DHBs.
The New Zealand Police have developed the Police operations part of this plan.
The New Zealand Fire Service has co-ordinated and led the participation of fire organisations in the development of this plan and is referred to in this plan in that capacity.
The Ministry of Health has co-ordinated and led the participation of DHBs in the development of this plan and is referred to in this plan in that capacity.
The New Zealand Defence Force is not defined as an emergency service under the Act. It is a primary support agency in emergencies.
Requests for support from the New Zealand Defence Force beyond local levels of commitment should be made through the National Controller in accordance with the agreement between MCDEM and the New Zealand Defence Force.
At national level each chief executive or national commander of each emergency service appoints a senior officer to liaise with the National Controller or designated staff within NCMC (these liaison officers must have authority to co-ordinate the activities of their own services).
At regional levels a senior member of each emergency service is assigned to the co-ordinating executive group of each CDEM Group.
Emergency services should use CIMS structures and processes.
The responsibility of each service for its primary functions (law and order, fire suppression, and health services) is in no way transferred or modified by the declaration of a state of emergency (staff continue to work under their service’s command structures and established procedures).
When the nature or magnitude of an event is so great that it requires a significant or co-ordinated response, the emergency service or other response organisation liaises with the CDEM Group or National Controller.
When a senior member of an emergency service decides that an event has occurred or may occur that will or might require a significant or co-ordinated response, a declaration of a state of emergency for the affected area may be requested from a person authorised to declare one.
If liaison has been established for a significant or co-ordinated response or a declaration has been requested, the senior local officer of each emergency service is to notify the national manager of that service.
Emergency services are to plan for providing, and provide, welfare to their own staff who are affected by the emergency, including those operating during it.
A civil defence emergency can create complex problems for the maintenance of law and order and the performance of standard Police roles.
By virtue of their day-to-day role as co-ordinators of emergency situations and their 24-hour availability, the Police will frequently be required to accept the initial responsibility for co-ordination of an emergency.
Police emergency plans provide for the smooth transfer of this responsibility to the appropriate lead agency once the agency is ready.
The following principles apply to Police involvement:
the use of ordinary Police powers and special powers created by the declaration of a state of emergency is at the discretion of the Police member in charge, subject to any direction given by the operation commander; and
any measures taken by anyone other than a constable for the maintenance of law and order are to conform to any directions given by the Police; and
when a state of emergency is imminent or in force the Commissioner of Police through the Police national manager operations may arrange for reinforcements to be deployed from districts not directly affected (the Police national manager operations will co-ordinate inter-district movement of Police personnel in consultation with the National Controller); and
have powers of compulsion under the Act when a state of emergency is in force; and
may also authorise someone else to exercise any of these powers.
The powers of the Police, including those in the Act, are summarised in The Guide.
Schedule clause 22(4)(b): amended, on 1 October 2008, pursuant to section 116(a)(iv) of the Policing Act 2008 (2008 No 72).
Police roles related to civil defence emergency management are—
maintaining law and order; and
taking all measures within their power and authority to protect life and property and to assist the movement of rescue, medical, fire, and other essential services; and
assisting the coroner as required by the Coroners Act 2006; and
co-ordinating movement control over land, including communications and traffic control; and
conducting inland search and rescue.
To fulfil these roles, Police may do the following:
represent, as required, the Police at NCMC, and at CDEM Group EOCs, and (where resources permit) at other local civil defence organisations; and
assist with the dissemination of warning messages; and
control access to and within an affected area so as to assist rescue, medical, fire, and other essential services; and
protect property and provide security of evacuated areas, including the establishment of cordons; and
conduct any initial evacuations to ensure protection of life; and
prevent and suppress disorder; and
trace missing persons and notify their next of kin; and
support the coroner as required by the Coroners Act 2006, in close liaison with the Ministry of Justice and health authorities.
Schedule clause 23(1)(c): amended, on 1 July 2007, pursuant to section 143 of the Coroners Act 2006 (2006 No 38).
Schedule clause 23(2)(h): amended, on 1 July 2007, pursuant to section 143 of the Coroners Act 2006 (2006 No 38).
District commanders in each New Zealand Police district maintain business continuity plans to ensure Police functions can continue to be delivered during an emergency.
District commanders in each district maintain emergency plans that provide for Police action to cope with any emergency where an extensive co-ordinated response is necessary.
form the basis for Police action in a state of emergency; and
refer to and integrate with CDEM Group plans and may also recognise local plans.
Police emergency plans also provide for—
the achievement of early control of the scene, the co-ordination of the activities of essential services, and the facilitation of the preservation of life and the protection of property; and
the establishment of a New Zealand Police operations headquarters; and
the callout of sufficient personnel to meet Police requirements; and
basic procedures for dealing with the event, including alerting and liaising with other emergency services; and
liaison at the appropriate level with other elements of the response and co-ordination team.
To provide for inter-agency co-ordination, Police ensure that—
the Police national manager operations provides national co-ordination through Police channels on behalf of the Commissioner of Police and arranges for resource support when required; and
the Police district commander or nominee will be the adviser to the CDEM Group controller under CDEM Group arrangements; and
Police district commanders appoint advisers to local and group civil defence controllers as required; and
when appropriate, a Police liaison officer is appointed to attend EOCs on a continuous basis; and
Police communication centres exchange situation reports with EOCs.
Additionally, Police liaise with CDEM Groups through arrangements made in group plans.
For the purpose of tracing casualties, evacuees, and missing persons, the Police will record details of the person inquiring and the person inquired about on an emergency reconciliation form and promptly forward a copy of the completed form to the nearest public inquiry centre. In a large-scale civil defence emergency, the New Zealand Red Cross may establish a national inquiry centre to help with the processing of inquiries.
Under the Coroners Act 2006 Police are obliged to notify the coroner of any violent or unnatural death that has occurred. The coroner’s role is to determine the identity of the dead person and the time, place, cause, and circumstances of death. The coroner may also make recommendations or comments that may help to reduce the occurrence of other deaths in similar circumstances. In the course of this role, the coroner may authorise a post mortem. The coroner is also required to authorise the disposal of the body.
As a general rule the Police will accept overall responsibility for the recovery and identification of human remains in a state of emergency. Emergency mortuary facilities will be arranged as required. Police will liaise closely with the agencies and individuals involved because of the legal, moral, cultural, and health implications that can arise in the disposal of human remains. These agencies and individuals include the coroner, iwi authorities, health authorities, funeral directors, and the regional councils and territorial authorities that have power to undertake the emergency disposal of the dead under section 85(1)(g) of the Act.
Police civil defence emergency management operations are summarised in The Guide.
Schedule clause 24(8): amended, on 1 July 2007, pursuant to section 143 of the Coroners Act 2006 (2006 No 38).
The national commander of the New Zealand Fire Service, or the commander’s designated representative,—
is the fire service adviser to the National Controller; and
advises on fire service operations, priorities, and resources required to continue operations.
If a civil defence emergency is declared in a rural fire authority’s area in response to a rural fire, the relevant controller will initiate appropriate liaison with the principal rural fire officer.
The command of any brigade or brigades in a particular urban locality is vested in the chief fire officer of the fire district (including any protected area). Chief fire officers in charge of New Zealand Fire Service brigades will request reinforcements through their normal operational channels.
On the declaration of a civil defence emergency, no additional powers or authority are conferred on the fire services. Rather, they continue to operate under the relevant sections of their respective Acts. Section 28 of the Fire Service Act 1975 confers authority on the chief fire officer of the fire district, or, if absent, the deputy chief fire officer, or, in the absence of both, the person for the time being who is in charge of a fire incident or other emergency, to direct those under that officer’s control to do whatever is necessary, within reason, for the protection of life and property. Under section 36 of the Forest and Rural Fires Act 1977, principal fire officers of the rural fire authorities have power to control fires occurring in forest and vegetation within their districts. If a regional fire emergency exists under section 39 of the Forest and Rural Fires Act 1977, the national rural fire officer may in the public interest take charge or appoint a principal rural fire officer or other appropriate fire officer to take charge for the duration of the emergency.
In a state of national emergency, the national commander of the New Zealand Fire Service, or the national commander’s designated representative, is responsible (subject to memorandums of understanding between the fire service parties) to the Director for the mobilisation, co-ordination, and control of fire services. The national commander, or the national commander’s designated representative, must be located, if required, in NCMC. He or she should maintain communications with the national fire control centre, inform the Director of significant events, advise on subsequent actions taken or to be taken, and liaise with the national rural fire officer.
The New Zealand Fire Service maintains business continuity plans to ensure fire service functions can continue to be delivered during an emergency.
The fire service also works closely with CDEM Groups both in the preparation of group plans and in support of local operations.
The principal roles of the fire service in a civil defence emergency are as follows:
firefighting: to control, contain, and extinguish fires; and
containment of releases and spillages of hazardous substances; and
urban search and rescue (USAR): the New Zealand Fire Service is formally recognised as having the resources for the operational co-ordination of urban search and rescue within New Zealand; the capability to carry out urban search and rescue includes the national support team, USAR task forces (consisting of technicians, medical staff, engineers, and search dogs), and those registered response teams with light USAR capabilities; and
limitation of damage: salvage of essential material from endangered locations; and
redistribution of water for specific needs: preservation of health and hygiene in stricken areas.
To support these roles, the fire service can—
temporarily re-establish piped water through use of its pumps and hoses; and
provide Internet-based mapping tools and operational data; and
supply equipment to NCMC so that the computer-aided dispatch systems of the fire service can be used; and
act to prevent fires and protect vital services and supplies; and
advise emergency management offices on matters within fire service expertise.
The fire service will co-ordinate the release of information about its operations with other agencies. Fire service liaison officers will work in conjunction with appointees of local, group, and national controllers to ensure that messages released to the public are timely, complete, and accurate.
Fire service personnel have instructions to co-operate with media inquiries, but also to restrict their comments to the scope of their own roles and responsibilities. To this end fire service liaison officers will closely monitor media coverage of fire service field operations to verify the accuracy and appropriateness of reports.
A civil defence emergency may combine a sharp rise and variations in demand for health services with the disruption of facilities and infrastructure. There may be pressure on hospitals and other health services and facilities. Communities may experience public health problems while those who have suffered loss and disruption may require psychological support. Hospitals, medical equipment, ambulances, and the like may be damaged.
Even where the hazard does not directly affect health or health infrastructure, disruption to other services like roads, power, or water can have serious consequences. If staff cannot get to work or utilities fail, facilities and services may have to be reduced or relocated, or stopped altogether. This can endanger community health and safety.
The health sector has specific functions in civil defence emergencies, among them—
co-ordinating a national, regional, and local health service response to emergencies; and
disseminating health warning messages; and
supporting Police in their obligations relating to the dead; and
supporting welfare activity; and
supporting CDEM Groups.
Without limiting their overall responsibilities, health providers must, as appropriate,—
identify risks and hazards; and
ensure that all obligations for response capability and actual response are met; and
monitor staff awareness, staff training, and readiness of resources; and
ensure that there is an efficient system for rapidly notifying or calling up staff in an emergency; and
ensure that in an emergency there is access to essential supplies; and
participate in co-ordinated planning, training, exercising, and response arrangements with complementary or neighbouring providers and other lead agencies; and
participate in an alternative communications network that links principal healthcare facilities with civil defence organisations; and
liaise with the appropriate controllers and co-ordinators in an emergency; and
report to their funders on request about readiness for or response to an emergency; and
maintain current business continuity plans.
The Director-General of Health, on behalf of the Minister of Health, has overall responsibility for health matters in all phases of emergency management. The health sector (including ambulance services) will plan to meet the purpose of the Act by—
reducing the consequences of emergencies on facilities, services, and supplies; and
continuing the care of existing patients and providing normal services to the fullest possible extent; and
mobilising or reassigning resources to reflect fluctuations and variations in demand; and
planning for health service delivery from alternative facilities and the use of alternative sources of supply; and
giving training in emergency roles and responsibilities to the providers of health services; and
providing for the care and welfare of providers of health services during and after an emergency; and
co-operating with other agencies during an emergency, through the use of alternative methods of communication if necessary; and
supporting national and CDEM Group responses, including representing, as required, health matters at NCMC, and at CDEM Group EOCs and (where resources permit) at other local civil defence organisations.
The arrangements may include plans, contracts, or agreements that outline the conditions governing the use of staff or equipment to meet an urgent need.
The responsibilities of the Ministry of Health include policy development and national planning. These include planning for a health-related emergency through the National Health Emergency Plan.
The Ministry of Health—
is responsible for initiating and co-ordinating any national emergency response from the health sector; and
monitors various functions relating to health and disability including emergency planning and response (monitoring will be done by various means, including the district annual planning process and certification audits carried out by designated audit agencies); and
develops memoranda of understanding and other agreements or guidelines with various government agencies (these include interventions in a national health-related emergency); and
is charged with ensuring that New Zealand meets its international obligations and complies with international health regulations.
The Director-General of Health will co-ordinate the preparation or provision of emergency health services that require integration at the national level. Without limiting his or her overall responsibilities, the Director-General will—
through funding and monitoring arrangements, ensure that all funding parties, including DHBs, are aware of and comply with their responsibilities in all phases of emergency management; and
negotiate limits to the financial risks faced by funders and health providers; and
prepare or update national guidelines on specialised health matters as he or she deems appropriate; and
identify national and international health resources and establish a means of rapid contact with and mobilisation of those resources when required; and
prepare a business continuity plan for the Ministry of Health.
For public health services, the Director-General will ensure that—
the scope of, nature of, and responses to public health risks in emergencies are analysed at the national level; and
advice is given to help the analysis of risks; and
specifications and guidelines for emergencies are pre-pared as required and complied with.
Every DHB is required to develop and maintain a plan for significant incidents and emergencies.
The DHB plans identify how services will be delivered in a civil defence or related emergency, and acknowledge the role of DHBs as both funders and providers of health services.
ensure that all their plans provide adequately for—
public, primary, secondary, tertiary, mental, and disability health services; and
an integrated regional and national response; and
co-ordination with plans of other agencies (for example, ambulance, civil defence, fire services, and Police); and
use of the CIMS; and
contribute to the development, implementation, and revision of regional plans for health emergencies; and
contribute to the development, implementation, and revision of Ministry of Health national plans; and
respond to a regional or national health emergency, or to the threat of one; and
when necessary, liaise with the CDEM Group or local EOC in a significant emergency; and
ensure that new service agreements contain contractual commitments from providers for an appropriate plan in relation to the services they provide; and
require health providers to have plans and resources in place to ensure they can respond to emergencies in an integrated and effective manner; and
ensure that hospitals and health services are ready to function to the fullest possible extent during and after an emergency by ensuring—
the provision of continuity of care for existing patients, the management of increased demand for services, and assistance with the recovery of services; and
the preparation of an incident and emergency management plan that is integrated locally and regionally, and is aligned with the plans of the other emergency services and the regional group plan; and
their own planning and responses are integrated with public health planning and responses.
Public health units of DHBs and of the Ministry of Health have a responsibility to—
develop plans specific to public health emergencies, such as a pandemic; and
integrate public health planning and responses with DHB planning and responses; and
advise local agencies and lifeline utilities about public health aspects of their business continuity planning; and
respond to emergencies involving risk to public health; and
liaise with the CDEM Group or local EOC during a significant emergency.
Ambulance providers are required to—
continue their services and manage any increased demand; and
prepare an incident and emergency plan that is integrated with that of the DHB regional group; and
be represented on DHB regional groups and CDEM Groups as required; and
contribute to emergency planning led by the Director-General of Health.
Lifeline utilities represent significant aspects of the national infrastructure and have obligations under section 60 of the Act.
Co-ordination of lifeline utilities is necessary in both the response and recovery phases of a civil defence emergency.
CDEM Groups are primarily responsible for the co-ordination of local lifeline utilities across affected regions.
Lifeline utilities are expected to co-ordinate at the national level as necessary to provide appropriate capacity during a state of national emergency or a civil defence emergency of national significance using established lifeline utility sector mechanisms.
MCDEM has responsibility for co-ordinating across lifeline utility sectors at the national level.
In view of the likely needs at CDEM Group EOCs and at NCMC, a pool of trained lifeline utility co-ordinators will be established by MCDEM.
This pool of co-ordinators would be capable of—
leading the lifeline utility co-ordination operation in their own emergency operations or recovery centres; and
assisting lifeline utility co-ordination at any EOC; and
assisting lifeline utility co-ordination at NCMC; and
acting as a link between lifeline utility co-ordination at any emergency operation or recovery centres and NCMC.
This pool of co-ordinators may comprise the designated life-line utility co-ordinators from the main centres and others who have undertaken the required training.
are expected to operate in a co-ordinated multi-agency environment; and
are flexible, with the national agencies involved joining, exiting from, or merging with clusters as circumstances dictate, while allowing the overlap of functions or membership where appropriate; and
determine their own membership; and
organise themselves, including establishing their internal management structures, co-ordinators, and communication plans; and
are expected to develop and exercise liaison with NCMC and MCDEM via the National Controller or the duty officer of MCDEM.
An agency’s membership in a cluster does not limit any of the agency’s statutory obligations under the Act or any other enactment.
Clusters reflecting the national level clusters may be established at CDEM Group or local levels.
Local clusters may—
involve regional representatives of national agencies; and
be regional representations of national clusters; and
deal with relevant civil defence emergency management matters of local importance; and
continue to act throughout the 4 Rs.
are already formed and are active (see The Guide); or
Examples of formed or proposed clusters include—
emergency services; and
lifeline utilities; and
welfare providers; and
health service providers; and
transport providers; and
public information and education providers; and
agricultural and rural services; and
research and science providers; and
socio-economic development agencies; and
business communities; and
international and cross-border service providers.
Many clusters, including those proposed, already have effective arrangements that will contribute to civil defence emergency management.
All clusters should have member agencies acting as a co-ordinator and a secretariat.
The co-ordinator brings together the civil defence emergency planning for the cluster.
The secretariat gives administrative support, distributes information, and works as a clearing house.
Welfare begins with readiness and extends through response to recovery.
Emergencies affect the physical, emotional, and psychological well-being of large numbers of people who may suffer trauma as a result of bereavement, physical injury, or separation from families.
People may also experience losses of clothing, homes, other property, employment, and income along with social and community isolation.
Welfare includes supporting people in their homes and workplaces.
The emergency may necessitate the care of those who have been evacuated.
Provision of shelter, accommodation, food, clothing, financial assistance, personal support, and advice may be required by people in or threatened by an emergency.
The following are the principles for providing welfare:
all welfare agencies work together in readiness, response, and recovery to ensure services provided are integrated to achieve the best outcomes for communities; and
welfare being co-ordinated or provided nationally by NWRCG (operating as a cluster) must take into account local needs and processes; and
welfare provision succeeds when it supports local arrangements and networks, restoring self-reliance as the foundation for individual and community recovery; and
welfare agencies have pre-event continuity planning to ensure they can deliver services; and
during and following an emergency, agencies support their own staff and their co-ordinator liaises with the appropriate-level controller for their operation (local, group, or national).
In readiness for a civil defence emergency, welfare services aim to—
clarify roles and responsibilities at the national and local levels; and
identify a lead agency co-ordinator, a secretariat, any support agencies, and their responsibilities for undertaking functions at the national level.
In the response and recovery phase of an emergency, relevant agencies may combine in a centralised and publicly accessible recovery centre (one-stop shop).
Agencies may combine to provide mobile welfare services to those who cannot access recovery centres.
Representatives from other agencies may be involved in providing welfare services, depending on the emergency and the community’s needs.
National-level assistance with welfare will be required when a CDEM Group cannot meet demand for welfare assistance and requires help from either the responsible national agency, NWRCG, or National Controller.
The level of assistance required will depend on the resources of the affected areas and the consequences that have to be managed.
the welfare sector; and
the following agencies that contribute to welfare recovery:
the Ministry of Social Development; and
Housing New Zealand Corporation; and
CDEM Groups; and
the Accident Compensation Corporation; and
the Inland Revenue; and
the Ministry of Education; and
the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry; and
the Ministry of Health; and
Te Puni Kōkiri; and
the Department of Internal Affairs; and
the Salvation Army; and
the New Zealand Red Cross; and
Victim Support; and
St John; and
the Royal New Zealand Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
Several of these support agencies perform lead roles for certain functions.
The Ministry of Social Development is—
mandated, as chair and lead agency for NWRCG, to undertake national welfare co-ordination; and
responsible for planning for the delivery of national welfare when assistance or support is required to be co-ordinated at a national level.
In undertaking national welfare co-ordination, the Ministry of Social Development is to—
provide a national-level welfare response for individuals and communities affected by an emergency (that is, co-ordinating the response of all welfare agencies at a national level); and
co-ordinate recovery centres for national welfare and related agencies in affected areas; and
provide staffing at, and the lead agency role in, recovery centres where required; and
co-ordinate government information helplines for those affected by an emergency; and
provide social policy advice to the Government as requested.
The Ministry of Social Development—
will convene the NWRCG; and
must ensure that a NWRCG liaison officer is appointed to NCMC; and
must co-ordinate the activities of the NWRCG with the National Controller.
The role of the NWRCG is to—
liaise with all agencies providing welfare and ensure their logistical and other needs are met; and
monitor welfare provision against arising needs, identify gaps, and monitor support agencies to ensure needs are met; and
provide information (in summary form) on welfare issues and activities during an emergency; and
report on welfare provision; and
develop, or support the development of, social and community components of recovery programmes; and
financial assistance; and
inquiry and identity; and
domestic animal welfare; and
Work and Income (a service of the Ministry of Social Development) is the agency primarily responsible for delivering financial support and information to affected individuals.
A range of different support services is provided by the following agencies:
the Inland Revenue Department; and
the Insurance Council of New Zealand; and
the Earthquake Commission; and
Financial assistance consists of—
national co-ordination of benefits; and
payments to meet the immediate and continuing needs of people in an affected area through benefits, pensions, and supplementary assistance; and
non-means-tested payments to meet the immediate needs of evacuees from an area affected by a civil defence emergency (temporary accommodation, food, and clothing); and
reimbursement of costs for accommodation and food incurred by people hosting evacuees in private homes, marae, or community centres; and
other financial assistance approved by Cabinet or Ministers to cover specific situations; and
co-ordination of information relating to financial questions, tax, insurance, Accident Compensation Corporation payments, and banking; and
staffing welfare or reception centres or other services, for—
taking applications; and
giving advice and assistance (for example, giving payments); and
payments to persons for response and recovery work.
As lead agency for accommodation, Housing New Zealand Corporation maintains plans for the national co-ordination of accommodation.
Support agencies for this function are—
the Department of Building and Housing; and
Te Puni Kōkiri.
Immediate emergency accommodation is the prime responsibility of CDEM Groups with Housing New Zealand Corporation support.
Subsequent temporary accommodation is the prime responsibility of Housing New Zealand Corporation with CDEM Group support.
The aim is to identify and provide temporary and longer-term accommodation for people who have been displaced from their normal dwellings.
Liaison between Housing New Zealand Corporation, other welfare providers, and health services, to ensure the health of those in temporary accommodation, is part of normal arrangements.
For large-scale events of national significance, MCDEM is responsible for inquiry and identification of people affected by the emergency when this function has to be co-ordinated at a national level.
Support agencies are—
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade; and
the New Zealand Police.
ensure there is capability for a national inquiry centre; and
ensure that CDEM Groups will provide the centre with access to local registry information; and
facilitate information sharing about affected people among those welfare agencies helping with response to and recovery from an event; and
co-ordinate information in relation to identity (for example, lost documents).
MCDEM maintains an agreement with the New Zealand Red Cross that provides that the New Zealand Red Cross will operate a national inquiry centre.
While the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry maintains the Government’s reporting capability on adverse events and natural disasters affecting agriculture, forestry, and horticulture, and for administering any approved government programmes, it is recognised that territorial authorities provide this function locally, and that this may also extend to domesticated animals in urban environments.
Local authorities may be assisted by the Royal New Zealand Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and from the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in both urban and rural environments.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry encourages farmers and vulnerable industries to develop their own contingency response plans for both natural disasters and biosecurity hazards.
The Ministry of Social Development is the lead agency responsible for planning for the delivery of psychosocial support when assistance or support is required to be co-ordinated at a national level.
Psychosocial support following an incident involves social support and psychological support.
iwi and Māori providers; and
voluntary service organisations; and
The following agencies work in a co-ordinated way within the welfare sector to deliver welfare services:
CYF, whose welfare role includes provision of—
care services to those children and young persons who have been identified (after registration) as separated from their parents or normal guardians by the emergency; and
trained staff at welfare centres or elsewhere to identify and provide the services required; and
the Inland Revenue Department, which—
has responsibility for the provision of advice and the payment of family support and child support payments to the public (the Inland Revenue Department’s responsibilities include staffing welfare or reception centres where appropriate to help in matters relating to taxation, and in the collection and distribution of family and child support payments); and
will, during large-scale emergencies, maintain services for the forecasting and collection of Crown revenue and provide an assessment of the effect of the event on Crown revenue collection; and
the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC), which may defer its levy collection following a civil defence emergency, and will, to the extent possible, ensure that—
people can continue to lodge claims (either directly with ACC or through a centralised emergency registration centre); and
claimants receive quality health and rehabilitation services in a timely manner; and
claimants who are unable to work because of their injury receive, or continue to receive, weekly compensation payments (in lieu of their salary); and
ACC’s more vulnerable claimants (for example, those with tetraplaegia) are as well-supported and well-cared for as possible; and
health service providers are paid for the services that they provide to injured individuals; and
the Ministry of Education, which supplies information to NWRCG about affected education facilities, and works with—
CYF to look after children in school during an emergency who are separated from their caregivers; and
Housing New Zealand Corporation to identify any available houses that could be used for short-term accommodation); and
Te Puni Kōkiri, which will—
provide staff for recovery centres; and
work with local iwi to assess the need for mobile welfare services; and
link to iwi providers who can give welfare support; and
the Salvation Army, which—
offers a variety of welfare support services across New Zealand, including—
stand-alone catering units:
pastoral welfare support units:
welfare needs assessments (clothing and furnishings):
meet and greet reception:
critical incident stress support (trained) teams; and
may provide other welfare services as skills and personnel are identified; and
may enter into a memorandum of understanding with local emergency groups using a service agreement to document the services that can be provided; and
the New Zealand Red Cross, which will provide services at a national level, including—
assistance with, and information on, international offers of assistance; and
an international tracing facility through international Red Cross and Red Crescent partners; and
management of a national relief appeal to support the emergency-affected areas; and
registration forms to support the inquiry system; and
a national inquiry centre to handle calls related to people in an affected area in support of MCDEM; and
statistics and reports derived from information received by the national inquiry system; and
Victim Support, which provides ongoing emotional and practical support, information, and personal advocacy to ensure that the needs, rights, and entitlements of those affected are met; and
St John, which offers welfare support services across New Zealand including—
first aid; and
meet, greet, and advocacy for patients at hospitals and welfare centres; and
some psychosocial support; and
caring activities provided by a large number of people across the country; and
voluntary agencies that have community welfare as a principal objective, as they often have resources to contribute to the efforts of civil defence organisations; and
the Royal New Zealand Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, which supports the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in the care of domestic animals in an emergency, and will support territorial authorities if possible.
Risk management should form part of normal business operations.
Agencies should incorporate emergency response and recovery planning into their business continuity arrangements.
National agency plans should—
describe national-level responsibilities; and
support locally managed events.
Agencies should plan, train, exercise, and equip themselves in co-ordination with interdependent agencies so as to be able to—
function to the fullest possible extent, even though this may be at a reduced level, during and after an emergency; and
contribute to response and recovery.
The following are the 5 indicative levels of civil defence emergency management operation and the co-ordination or support (or both) required for each:
level 1: single-agency incidents with on-site co-ordination:
level 2: multi-agency incidents with on-site, local co-ordination; these are managed by the incident controller of the relevant lead agency:
level 3: a multi-agency emergency led by an agency other than a CDEM Group, or a state of local emergency at below CDEM Group-level (district or ward); at this level, CDEM Group support and co-ordination will be required and may be monitored by the National Controller:
level 4: a multi-agency emergency with more significant consequences than in level 3; co-ordination may be required between agencies or areas or both; CDEM Group-level support and co-ordination is required; the actual or potential need for a declaration of a state of local emergency by a CDEM Group requires consideration; national monitoring will occur and national support is available:
level 5: a state of national emergency exists or the civil defence emergency is of national significance; at this level, co-ordination by the National Controller will be required.
Local arrangements continue to operate throughout all levels.
The Director or National Controller can use NCMC facilities at any time to monitor or support a civil defence emergency irrespective of the CDEM Group level of operation.
National agency cluster groups will be activated, to a level required to support the civil defence emergency, at the direction of the National Controller.
Core readiness arrangements are—
the co-ordinated incident management system; and
public education; and
professional development; and
CIMS is used by the emergency services and other agencies as a basis for operational response.
The most important aspect of CIMS is co-ordination that brings together agencies to ensure consistent and effective response and recovery efforts.
CIMS is about teamwork in emergency management through sharing common terminology, using a modular organisational structure, integrating communications, using common incident action plans, ensuring manageable spans of control, and sharing resources.
Co-ordination is based on 4 core elements—
planning and intelligence; and
Multi-agency incident control (horizontally across agencies) is exercised by the senior first responder but is transferred on the basis of which agency has primacy for the incident type (for example, Police for law and order situations).
The National Public Education Strategy 2003–2008 (the details of which are set out in The Guide)—
seeks increased individual and community awareness and acknowledgement of all hazards, and improved preparedness to cope in a civil defence emergency; and
aims to increase community awareness, understanding, and participation in civil defence emergency management.
The capability and capacity of the civil defence emergency management sector to perform appropriately in a civil defence emergency relies on an integrated, broad network of understandings, skills, and relationships. In the civil defence emergency management context, professional development is the process of developing people to perform appropriately together under potentially high levels of stress. It encompasses recruitment, selection, learning, support, and performance review functions appropriate for the civil defence emergency management setting.
Co-ordinated civil defence emergency management professional development opportunities should be an integral part of key civil defence emergency management roles, including (but not limited to)—
controllers (national, group, and local); and
recovery co-ordinators, recovery facilitators, and recovery managers; and
CIMS response co-ordinators and incident controllers; and
emergency management staff within councils; and
EOC and NCMC co-ordination, operations, intelligence, planning, logistics, welfare, and liaison staff; and
governance, executive, and senior management staff of local authorities; and
other staff or contractors associated with local authorities who fulfil roles required in civil defence emergencies; and
regional office staff of central government agencies, as part of their civil defence emergency management responsibilities; and
management, staff, and volunteers from emergency services; and
management, staff, and volunteers from community service and welfare agencies who have a role to play in civil defence emergencies.
A national civil defence emergency management exercise programme is a means by which the operational capability of agencies, and CDEM Groups and their partners, such as life-line utilities, may be tested in relation to civil defence emergency management (details of the programme are set out in The Guide).
The national exercise programme—
is supplemented by regular agency and local exercises; and
seeks to exercise the operational arrangements within this plan, CDEM Group plans, and departmental emergency management plans so as to—
improve response at group and national levels; and
assess the readiness of participants.
Agencies should respond to an emergency by activating their own plans and co-ordinating with the lead agency.
Within the constraints that the emergency creates, each agency, operating within its own jurisdiction, must co-ordinate with interdependent agencies to—
assess the impact of an event on its own staff, assets, and services; and
activate its own continuity and emergency arrangements; and
maintain or restore the services it provides; and
communicate with lead agencies, other responders, and the public; and
align response activities with other agencies to avoid gaps and duplications.
In addition, the emergency services are expected to—
assess the effect of an event on the community; and
co-ordinate the local efforts of their agency; and
communicate assessments and actions with the appropriate lead agency.
Emergency response objectives include—
preservation of life; and
prevention of escalation of the emergency; and
maintenance of law and order; and
care of sick, injured, and dependent people (first aid, medical, and evacuation facilities, and welfare); and
provision of essential services (lifeline utilities, food, shelter, public information, and media); and
preservation of governance (continuity of the machinery of government); and
asset protection, including buildings and historic heritage assets (including structures, areas, landscapes, archeological sites, and wahi tapu); and
protection of natural and physical resources (to the extent reasonably possible in the circumstances); and
preservation of economic activity.
The objective is to issue warnings so that local authorities, agencies, and people can take action to reduce loss of life, injury, and damage.
Warnings about predictable events (for example, severe weather, volcanic eruption, tsunami) are to be given as quickly as practicable.
For unpredictable events like earthquakes, where warning is not possible, the objective is to inform emergency response by providing assessments of the likely impact on any affected areas.
The responsibility for issuing warnings rests with the agency that through its normal function is involved with the identification and analysis of the particular hazard or threat (see Appendix 1).
Relevant government agencies, CDEM Groups, local authorities, and lifeline utilities must maintain arrangements to respond to warnings.
Warning systems are to provide warnings about significant hazards with the potential to affect human populations, geographical areas, or social or economic activities.
This plan does not cover—
localised, long-term, or slowly-evolving threats; or
the local actions and procedures required to disseminate or respond to warnings.
The effectiveness of a warning depends on its delivery and receipt, recipients’ understanding of what they should do under the particular threats, and readiness and response at all levels.
The national warning system establishes a process for the receipt of general warnings and communication of civil-defence-emergency-management related information for warning purposes at all hours by MCDEM.
MCDEM maintains the national warning system to issue civil defence warnings received from responsible agencies.
The standard operating procedure under this system specifies the principles and methods for disseminating national warnings.
National warnings must be provided by MCDEM to CDEM Groups, local authorities, Police, certain government departments, lifeline utilities, and certain broadcasters.
Different hazards require different types of warnings and procedures. The civil defence emergency management hazards for which national warnings may be issued are listed in Appendix 1.
CDEM Groups are responsible for—
disseminating national warnings to local communities; and
maintaining local warning systems.
If arrangements are made with the duty officer of MCDEM, the national warning system is available to issue warnings with respect to hazards for which warning arrangements are decided and maintained by other responsible agencies.
NCMC facilitates a whole-of-government response in support of government crisis management arrangements by providing a secure, centralised facility for information gathering and information management, strategic-level oversight, decision making, and co-ordination of national responses.
NCMC may include or support the operational management facilities of a lead agency’s response arrangements.
Following notification or warning of a civil defence emergency, national agencies with lead roles are to act in support of government crisis management arrangements at a speed and to a level commensurate with the threat. Emergencies requiring a whole-of-government response may require activation of NCMC by ODESC on the recommendation of the responsible lead agency for this purpose.
Agencies with supporting roles are to examine the nature of the emergency or threat and activate their emergency arrangements in co-ordination with the lead agency. These agencies may be required to provide ad hoc or full-time representation and support at NCMC. This representation can form part of formal procedures for particular types of events or be provided at the request of the lead agency.
Activation of NCMC in support of government crisis management arrangements or for the purpose of operational management may occur with or without the existence or need for any form of emergency declaration.
ODESC is responsible for the general management, development, and maintenance of NCMC. ODESC has delegated day-to-day responsibilities for this to MCDEM. NCMC is kept in a constant state of readiness for activation by a lead agency.
MCDEM uses NCMC to—
manage existing or potential—
national emergencies; or
civil defence emergencies of national significance; and
support CDEM Groups in their management of local civil defence emergencies.
NCMC is used to gather, collate, assess and produce information, direct response operations and support, issue public information and conduct media liaison, inform and advise the Government, and, where required, co-ordinate government and non-government resources.
The nature of the civil defence emergency determines the level of activation. NCMC may operate in any of the modes indicated in Appendix 2.
Activating NCMC for a civil defence emergency necessarily involves links with—
CDEM Group EOCs; and
support agencies; and
national lifeline utilities.
The primary support agencies in NCMC for civil defence emergencies include—
the New Zealand Defence Force (Joint Forces Headquarters); and
the New Zealand Fire Service (urban and rural); and
The objective is to promote the effective management and exchange of information to aid decision making, support, and communication.
Information needs to be timely, relevant, consistent, and reliable. It is understood that information may not, owing to the circumstances, be absolutely accurate, but it will be based on the best data available at the time.
Emergency information management supports decision making before, during, and after a civil defence emergency. The delivery of an appropriate and timely response requires effective and efficient information management.
Information may be presented as—
hazard and risk status information:
readiness information including resources and assets:
emergency impact assessments:
incoming and outgoing situation reports and response messages:
recovery status information:
management information such as contact lists or standard operating procedures:
reports, briefings, public notices, and media releases.
The following principles for the management of information in civil defence emergencies are recommended:
use business-as-usual systems; and
use business-as-usual baseline information supplied from and maintained by the responsible agencies; and
maintain local copies of the baseline information in case access to distributed data is disrupted; and
augment the business-as-usual information with information for the event, exchanged between the responding agencies; and
use normal communication methods and additional emergency communications methods in the order of their availability and effectiveness at the time, namely—
the Internet; and
voice communication (for example, telephone, satellite phone, or radio); and
conform, where practical, to equivalent business-as-usual practice and national standard specifications; and
use interoperable data standards; and
use business continuity principles (for example, emergency recovery, off-site backup, multiple (redundant) telecommunication paths); and
ensure information is appropriately secured.
To ensure that consistent information is available to support decision making at the national level, the following must occur:
the relevant territorial authority gives situation reports to the CDEM Group; and
the affected CDEM Groups, along with emergency services communications centres, report the situation to the National Controller (or, in the absence of the National Controller, to the Director); and
the National Controller (or, in the absence of the National Controller, the Director) provides appropriate consolidated reports, when appropriate, to—
the Minister; and
emergency services communications centres; and
other responding agencies.
Relevant government security standards and policies should be followed.
When forwarding information to the National Controller, CDEM Groups complete the national-level information template (further detail is in The Guide).
Public information management assists effective leadership and decision making and supports a sense of confidence during an emergency by—
ensuring that those who need information in a civil defence emergency get it, and that those who provide public information do so in a timely and accurate manner; and
building public confidence in a responsible, competent operation that has made all reasonable efforts to inform and protect the community; and
promoting the effective management of public information between government agencies, CDEM Groups, emergency services, lifeline utilities, the media, and the public.
The target audiences of public information are the agencies that disseminate public warnings and information, or contribute to response and recovery.
The ultimate audience includes all people directly or indirectly affected by the emergency.
The detail of public information management is provided in The Guide.
Public information management is necessary before, during, and after a civil defence emergency.
Public information management deals with—
media liaison: a two-way relationship with links to broadcast, print, and other media for prior planning and dissemination of warnings and exchange of information before, during, and after an event; and
dissemination: collation of information, assessment, and provision of advice to people affected by a civil defence emergency, either through mass media, information centres, or call centre operations.
The principles underpinning management of public information at a national level are:
before a civil defence emergency, news media representatives and public information managers of lead agencies will have established a working relationship and an understanding of each other’s expectations during a civil defence emergency; and
in a civil defence emergency, dependable, accurate, and timely information should be provided to accredited media to help the gathering and dissemination of news and information; and
each agency that manages public information during a civil defence emergency should act according to a well-developed and tested public information management plan; and
national agencies and CDEM Groups may pool personnel and resources to provide a professional and timely media liaison service.
In the response and recovery phases, MCDEM will manage public information in a national civil defence emergency and support CDEM Groups in local emergencies.
During a state of national emergency or a civil defence emergency of national significance, MCDEM will activate a public information cell in NCMC. This cell works with CDEM Groups, emergency services, and other national agencies to co-ordinate public information.
The National Controller will, as required, issue news releases and ensure MCDEM’s website is kept up to date.
MCDEM will develop arrangements with national news media agencies to ensure effective and consistent broadcast of warnings and information.
The New Zealand Red Cross will provide, on request by the Police, a national inquiry centre to answer inquiries about people in the impact area.
If evacuation is required, the objective is to evacuate people in a timely, safe, and effective way.
In emergencies people are usually better off sheltering where they are, but evacuation must be considered when risks are too high and cannot be reduced.
Evacuation should take place only when the risk of staying in place is greater than the risk of shifting.
The type of evacuation is determined by the nature of the emergency and the circumstances of the people affected.
This plan does not include the evacuation of agricultural or stock animals.
Evacuation can be pre- or post-event, voluntary or mandatory.
A pre-event evacuation occurs when the level of risk is uncertain and evacuation is recommended until the situation is contained.
Voluntary evacuation occurs when people choose to move, either without instructions or with instructions.
A mandatory evacuation takes place when the lead agency for the emergency directs that people must leave an area.
As far as possible, evacuation and relocations should take place within a region. When one CDEM Group cannot accommodate its own evacuees, it should ask for and receive help from neighbouring areas. National agencies may give support, and the National Controller will co-ordinate the operation as appropriate.
For evacuations in civil defence emergencies of national significance, the decision to evacuate should be taken in consultation with the National Controller.
Sheltering in place should be considered as the first option, and specifically when—
there has been significant disruption to transport; or
going outside could expose people to hazardous contaminants.
Evacuation may need to be considered when 1 or more of the following conditions apply:
personal safety is under continuing threat (for example, further volcanic eruptions are predicted or shelter against bad weather is inadequate):
there are properties classified as unsafe or insanitary or both and there is a lack of suitable shelter or alternative accommodation:
public health is gravely threatened (this will usually be as a result of serious, long-term disruption to water supplies or sewerage systems):
food and water are not available, or available supplies are contaminated or non-potable and pose a risk to health:
the burden of caring for people in the area is far greater than it would be if they were evacuated. This applies to certain groups (for example, tourist parties) more than to residents.
Any communication of a decision to shelter or evacuate must clearly state to whom it applies.
The area to evacuate must be clearly identified, which will enable CDEM Groups and NCMC to estimate numbers to be evacuated and the resources needed to carry out the evacuation.
If possible, the identity and circumstances of evacuees should be recorded.
The process for evacuation (including command, control, and co-ordination, public instructions, special categories of evacuees, security, and evacuee return) is contained in The Guide.
An emergency in New Zealand may generate offers of assistance from overseas governments and non-governmental organisations, or necessitate requests from New Zealand for external help.
The Government will address requests for, and offers of, overseas assistance through the government crisis management arrangements of DESC.
The Government may request international assistance in a civil defence emergency.
The National Controller or the Director will seek approval for the deployment of international assistance.
MCDEM may require international support to co-ordinate the entry and deployment of international assistance.
Offers to New Zealand of emergency assistance from international sources will be considered in the DESC system and managed by—
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade in the case of government-to-government assistance; or
the New Zealand representatives of non-governmental organisations in the case of all other overseas assistance; or
the National Controller, if there is no New Zealand representative.
Upon arrival in New Zealand, the assistance will be co-ordinated through the National Controller or other agencies as appropriate.
The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 46/182 strengthened the United Nation’s international response to both complex emergencies and natural disasters. The resolution also created the high-level position of Emergency Relief Coordinator as the single United Nations focal point for complex emergencies, as well as for natural disasters.
OCHA, under the direction of the Emergency Relief Coordinator, co-ordinates humanitarian response, policy development, and humanitarian advocacy. OCHA has a wide range of tools, which are developed, mobilised, and co-ordinated by the Field Coordination Support Section, based in Geneva. These are—
the United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) team, which is a stand-by team of disaster management professionals who are nominated and funded by member governments, OCHA, and other United Nations agencies; and
the International Search and Rescue Advisory Group (INSARAG), which deals with urban search and rescue (USAR) and related disaster response issues; the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 57/150 deals with strengthening the effectiveness and co-ordination of international USAR assistance; and
the Virtual On Site Operations Coordination Centre, which provides an Internet tool to facilitate the information exchange between responding governments and organisations involved during an emergency; and
surge capacity available through OCHA, which provides a mechanism to rapidly deploy international resources to emergencies with the aim of supporting the co-ordination function in the field.
New Zealand joined consensus on United Nations General Assembly Resolutions 46/182 and 57/150, which were adopted without vote. OCHA is able to deploy resources at short notice if requested by New Zealand in a state of national emergency or a civil defence emergency of national significance (further detail is contained in The Guide).
The United Nations maintains an international register of all types of assets available, which can be accessed, if necessary, through OCHA.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade will maintain effective lines of communication to foreign governments and international organisations on all aspects of a disaster both through New Zealand’s overseas posts and through foreign diplomatic missions accredited in New Zealand.
The civil defence emergencies addressed by this plan will threaten the physical and emotional well-being of large numbers of people.
The response to and efforts to recover from an emergency are interrelated.
Action to achieve a response or recovery, or both, should be concurrent and co-ordinated.
Welfare activity will have started in the response phase at the beginning of the emergency and will continue through recovery.
The aim of immediate recovery activity is to restore as quickly as possible the quality of life of those affected so that they are able to continue functioning as part of the wider community.
In the medium to long term the aim is to seek the regeneration of a community by addressing the economic, social, natural, and built environmental effects of an emergency. This may take a short time or many years, possibly decades.
Measures to help recovery should be implemented as soon as possible, although early consideration will need to be given to the long-term implications of re-establishing affected communities in the same location as before the event.
Generally, government assistance in recovery will only be considered in circumstances involving emergencies of an unusual type or magnitude, and will be made available only when recovery is beyond the capacity of the local community.
Recovery consists of co-ordinated efforts and processes to effect the short-, medium-, and long-term holistic regeneration of a community following an emergency.
Recovery encompasses the community and 4 environments—
These environments are the focus of recovery activity in the short, medium, and long term.
Recovery begins on day one of an emergency.
This means the recovery arrangements are established and information received about the response is used as a basis for planning recovery.
As the response concludes, a careful transition to recovery must be managed.
The transition from response to recovery in national emergencies or civil defence emergencies of national significance may be staged and variable across regions and areas.
It is expected that the transition from a state of national emergency or a civil defence emergency of national significance will be discussed and agreed between local, group, and national controllers.
The principal aspects of this transition are—
a recovery action plan will—
be prepared in association with the affected CDEM Groups; and
be prepared in consultation with recovery task groups; and
recognise those welfare arrangements established during response that will continue through recovery; and
a communications plan will be developed in conjunction with relevant recovery agencies.
The process of civil defence emergency management recovery, including decision-making, reporting, and media management, is provided in The Guide.
It is important to establish an exit strategy which should include—
assistance required in the long term; and
a transition to business as usual so as to manage long-term recovery; and
planning and reporting in the long term; and
management of public information and communications; and
opportunities for communities to discuss unresolved issues and to continue to participate in their recovery; and
changes to organisational arrangements including the need for task groups; and
debriefing and reviewing.
Arrangements for government financial support for emergencies are determined by Cabinet. The Guide is to be updated as necessary to record the current arrangements. Ongoing work is being undertaken to further develop arrangements.
The provisions for government financial support apply whether or not there is a state of national emergency or a civil defence emergency of national significance.
Financial support towards response activities focuses on costs incurred in—
taking the necessary precautions or preventive actions (whether by evacuation of people, by construction, by demolition, or by any other means) to reduce the immediate danger to human life, where those actions were begun during the response period:
taking precautions or preventive actions with a view to reducing the impact of the event, where those actions were begun in the immediate period leading up to the event.
The purpose of emergency recovery is to restore the affected community to a position in which normal social and economic activity may be resumed as quickly as possible. To achieve this, it is essential to have proper planning for risk management. The Government considers local risks to be a local responsibility. Local authorities are primarily responsible for dealing with the impact of an emergency in their geographical and functional areas of responsibility. Government assistance is contingent upon that expectation.
The aim of any government assistance is to provide the minimum level of assistance required to restore to the community the capacity for self-help and to provide solutions that are the most appropriate long-term solutions. This does not imply an obligation to restore a community to a better state than existed before the emergency, and nor is there an obligation to restore to previous levels if those are not sustainable in the longer term. Upgrading of facilities to a level greater than existed previously may be considered as special policy in cases where such upgrading would decrease the likelihood of a recurrence of the civil defence emergency. Wherever possible, government assistance will be provided in accordance with existing departmental policies. Specific principles for recovery assistance are that—
Government has a role in the recovery process after a significant civil defence emergency; and
any government response programme should be designed to restore the community capacity for self-help and be consistent with any government policies regarding mitigation and alleviation measures; and
initial and primary responsibility for recovery rests with the local community; and
risk management and its associated costs should be carried by the individuals, businesses, and local authorities that benefit and are best able to manage or mitigate the risk; and
individuals, businesses, and local authorities have a responsibility to the extent possible to insure against and attempt to minimise or mitigate risk, in advance of any event; and
government policies should encourage government organisations, local authorities, communities, businesses, and individuals in proper management practices such as—
analysing local hazards and understanding risk exposure; and
preventing the possibility of emergencies occurring, or reducing their likelihood or impact; and
adjusting infrastructures and practices to reduce vulnerability, to mitigate the consequences, and to limit potential damage; and
providing for effective and efficient response; and
providing resources for recovery (that is, physical and financial provisions including adequate emergency reserve funds and insurance).
Government recovery assistance will normally only be provided if—
recovery procedures cannot be carried out without government assistance; or
there is a statutory requirement for action, or a need to invoke a statute to achieve the ends desired from the recovery process; or
government assistance will aid the co-ordination of the recovery process to a significant extent; or
there are advantages of economies of scale.
In addition to immediate response measures co-ordinated by MCDEM or other departments, Government can normally be expected to provide the following:
emergency feeding, housing, and welfare assistance for affected people where this assistance is not available from other sources or agencies; and
transportation assistance if evacuation becomes necessary; and
restoration of those services and facilities that are the Government’s responsibility to provide (for example, schools, and highways); and
assistance in the assessment and appropriate restoration of those services and facilities that other agencies are responsible for providing if—
insurance cannot be obtained; or
the responsible agency cannot effect restoration within an appropriate time frame; and
technical assistance with respect to other damage (this will normally be restricted to providing additional expertise to assist in the detailed assessment of damage, establishing procedures, and any necessary support to expedite insurance claims and damage repair, and, if necessary, temporarily providing additional labour to expedite clean-up operations); and
co-ordination of the response from Government through the Director and, if necessary, the appointment of a Recovery Co-ordinator and the staff and facilities necessary for the Recovery Co-ordinator to carry out his or her role.
cls 60(4), 62(5)
National warnings can be issued via the national warning system for any type of hazard.
Diane Morcom,Clerk of the Executive Council.
Issued under the authority of the Legislation Act 2012.
Date of notification in Gazette: 17 November 2005.
This is a reprint of the National Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan Order 2005 that incorporates all the amendments to that order as at the date of the last amendment to it.
Reprints are presumed to correctly state, as at the date of the reprint, the law enacted by the principal enactment and by any amendments to that enactment. Section 18 of the Legislation Act 2012 provides that this reprint, published in electronic form, has the status of an official version under section 17 of that Act. A printed version of the reprint produced directly from this official electronic version also has official status.
Editorial and format changes to reprints are made using the powers under sections 24 to 26 of the Legislation Act 2012. See also http://www.pco.parliament.govt.nz/editorial-conventions/.
National Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan Order 2015 (LI 2015/140): clause 5
Policing Act 2008 (2008 No 72): section 116(a)(iv)
Coroners Act 2006 (2006 No 38): section 143