Crimes Act 1961

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Reprint
as at 1 October 2012

Coat of Arms of New Zealand

Crimes Act 1961

Public Act1961 No 43
Date of assent1 November 1961
Commencementsee section 1(2)

Note

Changes authorised by section 17C of the Acts and Regulations Publication Act 1989 have been made in this reprint.

A general outline of these changes is set out in the notes at the end of this reprint, together with other explanatory material about this reprint.

This Act is administered by the Ministry of Justice.


Contents

Title

1 Short Title, commencement, etc

2 Interpretation

3 Meaning of convicted on indictment

4 Meaning of ordinarily resident in New Zealand

Part 1
Jurisdiction

5 Application of Act

6 Persons not to be tried in respect of things done outside New Zealand

7 Place of commission of offence

7A Extraterritorial jurisdiction in respect of certain offences with transnational aspects

7B Attorney-General's consent required where jurisdiction claimed under section 7A

8 Jurisdiction in respect of crimes on ships or aircraft beyond New Zealand

8A Jurisdiction in respect of certain persons with diplomatic or consular immunity

9 Offences not to be punishable except under New Zealand Acts

10 Offence under more than 1 enactment

10A Criminal enactments not to have retrospective effect

10B Period of limitation

11 Construction of other Acts

12 Summary jurisdiction

Part 2
Punishments

13 Powers of courts under other Acts not affected

Death

[Repealed]

14 Form of sentence in capital cases [Repealed]

15 Sentence of death not to be passed on pregnant woman [Repealed]

16 Sentence of death not to be passed on person under 18 years of age [Repealed]

Imprisonment

17 No sentence of solitary confinement to be passed

Penalties for certain offences involving home invasion

[Repealed]

17A Interpretation [Repealed]

17B Maximum terms of imprisonment for offences involving home invasion: offences otherwise carrying maximum term of 5, 7, or 10 years imprisonment [Repealed]

17C Maximum terms of imprisonment for offences involving home invasion: offences otherwise carrying maximum term of 14 or 20 years imprisonment [Repealed]

17D Parties, attempts, and accessories [Repealed]

17E Maximum penalties for offences involving home invasion do not affect jurisdiction of trial court [Repealed]

Putting under bond

[Repealed]

18 Putting under bond [Repealed]

Fine

19 Enforcement of fines by High Court

19A Supervision of offender when time for payment is allowed [Repealed]

19B Immediate execution [Repealed]

19C Warrant to collect fine or other sum of money ordered to be paid [Repealed]

19D Execution [Repealed]

19DA Community work, community detention, and home detention for non-payment of fine [Repealed]

19E Period of imprisonment for non-payment of money [Repealed]

19F Stay of execution on appeal [Repealed]

Part 3
Matters of justification or excuse

20 General rule as to justifications

Infancy

21 Children under 10

22 Children between 10 and 14

Insanity

23 Insanity

Compulsion

24 Compulsion

Ignorance of law

25 Ignorance of law

Sentence or process

26 Execution of sentence, process, or warrant

27 Execution of erroneous sentence or process

28 Sentence or process without jurisdiction

29 Irregular warrant or process

Arrest

30 Arresting the wrong person

31 Arrest by constable pursuant to statutory powers

32 Arrest by constable of person believed to have committed offence

33 Arrest by other officers or persons pursuant to statutory powers

34 Persons assisting constable or officer in arrest

35 Arrest of persons found committing certain crimes

36 Arrest of person believed to be committing crime by night

37 Arrest after commission of certain crimes

38 Arrest during flight

Use of force

39 Force used in executing process or in arrest

40 Preventing escape or rescue

41 Prevention of suicide or certain offences

Breach of the peace

42 Preventing breach of the peace

43 Suppression of riot

44 Suppression of riot by Police

45 Suppression of riot by persons acting under lawful orders

46 Suppression of riot by persons without orders

47 Protection of members of New Zealand forces

Defence against assault

48 Self-defence and defence of another

49 Self-defence against provoked assault [Repealed]

50 Provocation defined [Repealed]

51 Defence of person under protection [Repealed]

Defence of property

52 Defence of movable property against trespasser

53 Defence of movable property with claim of right

54 Defence of movable property without claim of right

55 Defence of dwellinghouse

56 Defence of land or building

Peaceable entry

57 Assertion of right to land or building

58 Exercise of right of way, etc

Powers of discipline

59 Parental control

60 Discipline on ship or aircraft

Surgical operations

61 Surgical operations

61A Further provisions relating to surgical operations

General provisions

62 Excess of force

63 Consent to death

64 Obedience to de facto law

65 Other enactments not affected

Part 4
Parties to the commission of offences

66 Parties to offences

67 Conspiracy between spouses or civil union partners

68 Party to murder outside New Zealand

69 Party to any other crime outside New Zealand

70 Offence committed other than offence intended

71 Accessory after the fact

72 Attempts

Part 5
Crimes against public order

Treason and other crimes against the Queen and the State

73 Treason

74 Punishment for treason or attempted treason

75 Evidence of treason

76 Punishment for being party to treason

77 Inciting to mutiny

78 Espionage

78A Wrongful communication, retention, or copying of official information

78B Consent of Attorney-General to proceedings in relation to espionage or wrongful communication, retention, or copying of official information

78C Questions of law in relation to espionage or wrongful communication of information

78D Search without warrant [Repealed]

79 Sabotage

Offence of oath to commit offence

80 Oath to commit offence

81 Seditious offences defined [Repealed]

82 Seditious conspiracy [Repealed]

83 Seditious statements [Repealed]

84 Publication of seditious documents [Repealed]

85 Use of apparatus for making seditious documents or statements [Repealed]

Unlawful assemblies, riots, and breaches of the peace

86 Unlawful assembly

87 Riot

88 Reading the Riot Act [Repealed]

89 Failure of rioters to disperse [Repealed]

90 Riotous damage

91 Forcible entry and detainer

Piracy

92 Piracy

93 Piratical acts

94 Punishment of piratical acts

95 Attempts to commit piracy

96 Conspiring to commit piracy

97 Accessory after the fact to piracy

Slave dealing

98 Dealing in slaves

98AA Dealing in people under 18 for sexual exploitation, removal of body parts, or engagement in forced labour

Participation in criminal gang

98A Participation in organised criminal group

Smuggling and trafficking in people

98B Terms used in sections 98C to 98F

98C Smuggling migrants

98D Trafficking in people by means of coercion or deception

98E Aggravating factors

98F Attorney-General's consent to prosecutions required

Part 6
Crimes affecting the administration of law and justice

Bribery and corruption

99 Interpretation

100 Judicial corruption

101 Bribery of judicial officer, etc

102 Corruption and bribery of Minister of the Crown

103 Corruption and bribery of member of Parliament

104 Corruption and bribery of law enforcement officer

105 Corruption and bribery of official

105A Corrupt use of official information

105B Use or disclosure of personal information disclosed in breach of section 105A

105C Bribery of foreign public official

105D Bribery outside New Zealand of foreign public official

105E Exception for acts lawful in country of foreign public official

106 Restrictions on prosecution

Contravention of statute

107 Contravention of statute

Misleading justice

108 Perjury defined

109 Punishment of perjury

110 False oaths

111 False statements or declarations

112 Evidence of perjury, false oath, or false statement

113 Fabricating evidence

114 Use of purported affidavit or declaration

115 Conspiring to bring false accusation

116 Conspiring to defeat justice

117 Corrupting juries and witnesses

Escapes and rescues

118 Assisting escape of prisoners of war or internees

119 Breaking prison

120 Escape from lawful custody

121 Assisting escape from lawful custody

122 Assisting escape of mentally impaired person detained for offence

Part 7
Crimes against religion, morality, and public welfare

Crime against religion

123 Blasphemous libel

Crimes against morality and decency

124 Distribution or exhibition of indecent matter

125 Indecent act in public place

126 Indecent act with intent to insult or offend

Sexual crimes

127 No presumption because of age

128 Sexual violation defined

128A Allowing sexual activity does not amount to consent in some circumstances

128B Sexual violation

129 Attempted sexual violation and assault with intent to commit sexual violation

129A Sexual conduct with consent induced by certain threats

130 Incest

131 Sexual conduct with dependent family member

131A Dependent family member defined

131B Meeting young person following sexual grooming, etc

132 Sexual conduct with child under 12

133 Indecency with girl under 12 [Repealed]

134 Sexual conduct with young person under 16

134A Defence to charge under section 134

135 Indecent assault

136 Conspiracy to induce sexual intercourse [Repealed]

137 Inducing sexual intercourse under pretence of marriage [Repealed]

138 Sexual exploitation of person with significant impairment

139 Indecent act between woman and girl [Repealed]

140 Indecency with boy under 12 [Repealed]

140A Indecency with boy between 12 and 16 [Repealed]

141 Indecent assault on man or boy [Repealed]

142 Anal intercourse [Repealed]

142A Compelling indecent act with animal

143 Bestiality

144 Indecency with animal

Sexual offences outside New Zealand

144A Sexual conduct with children and young people outside New Zealand

144B Consent of Attorney-General required

144C Organising or promoting child sex tours

Crimes against public welfare

145 Criminal nuisance

146 Keeping place of resort for homosexual acts [Repealed]

147 Brothel-keeping [Repealed]

148 Living on earnings of prostitution [Repealed]

149 Procuring for prostitution [Repealed]

149A Being client in act of prostitution by person under 18 years of age [Repealed]

150 Misconduct in respect of human remains

Part 8
Crimes against the person

Duties tending to the preservation of life

150A Standard of care applicable to persons under legal duties or performing unlawful acts

151 Duty to provide necessaries and protect from injury

152 Duty of parent or guardian to provide necessaries and protect from injury

153 Duty of employers to provide necessaries

154 Abandoning child under 6

155 Duty of persons doing dangerous acts

156 Duty of persons in charge of dangerous things

157 Duty to avoid omissions dangerous to life

Homicide

158 Homicide defined

159 Killing of a child

160 Culpable homicide

161 Procuring death by false evidence [Repealed]

162 Death must be within a year and a day

163 Killing by influence on the mind

164 Acceleration of death

165 Causing death that might have been prevented

166 Causing injury the treatment of which causes death

Murder, manslaughter, etc

167 Murder defined

168 Further definition of murder

169 Provocation [Repealed]

170 Illegal arrest may be evidence of provocation [Repealed]

171 Manslaughter

172 Punishment of murder

173 Attempt to murder

174 Counselling or attempting to procure murder

175 Conspiracy to murder

176 Accessory after the fact to murder

177 Punishment of manslaughter

178 Infanticide

179 Aiding and abetting suicide

180 Suicide pact

181 Concealing dead body of child

Abortion

182 Killing unborn child

182A Miscarriage defined

183 Procuring abortion by any means

184 Procuring abortion by other means [Repealed]

185 Female procuring her own miscarriage [Repealed]

186 Supplying means of procuring abortion

187 Effectiveness of means used immaterial

187A Meaning of unlawfully

Assaults and injuries to the person

188 Wounding with intent

189 Injuring with intent

190 Injuring by unlawful act

191 Aggravated wounding or injury

192 Aggravated assault

193 Assault with intent to injure

194 Assault on a child, or by a male on a female

195 Ill-treatment or neglect of child or vulnerable adult

195A Failure to protect child or vulnerable adult

196 Common assault

197 Disabling

198 Discharging firearm or doing dangerous act with intent

198A Using any firearm against law enforcement officer, etc

198B Commission of crime with firearm

199 Acid throwing

200 Poisoning with intent

201 Infecting with disease

202 Setting traps, etc

202A Possession of offensive weapons or disabling substances

202B Powers in respect of crime against section 202A [Repealed]

202BA Sentencing for second crime against section 202A(4)

202C Assault with weapon

203 Endangering transport [Repealed]

204 Impeding rescue

Female genital mutilation

204A Female genital mutilation

204B Further offences relating to female genital mutilation

Bigamy, feigned marriage

205 Bigamy defined

206 Punishment of bigamy

207 Feigned marriage or feigned civil union

Abduction, kidnapping

208 Abduction for purposes of marriage or sexual connection

209 Kidnapping

209A Young person under 16 cannot consent to being taken away or detained

210 Abduction of young person under 16

210A People claiming in good faith right to possession of young person under 16

Part 9
Crimes against reputation

[Repealed]

211 Criminal libel and publishing defined [Repealed]

212 Publishing upon invitation [Repealed]

213 No prosecution without leave of Judge [Repealed]

214 Plea of justification [Repealed]

215 Punishment of criminal libel [Repealed]

216 Criminal slander [Repealed]

Part 9A
Crimes against personal privacy

216A Interpretation

216B Prohibition on use of interception devices

216C Prohibition on disclosure of private communications unlawfully intercepted

216D Prohibition on dealing, etc, with interception devices

216E Forfeiture

216F Unlawful disclosure

Intimate visual recordings

216G Intimate visual recording defined

216H Prohibition on making intimate visual recording

216I Prohibition on possessing intimate visual recording in certain circumstances

216J Prohibition on publishing, importing, exporting, or selling intimate visual recording

216K Exceptions to prohibition in section 216J

216L Disposal and forfeiture

216M Effect of appeal on order made under section 216L

216N Protection from liability

Part 10
Crimes against rights of property

Interpretation

217 Interpretation

Unlawful taking

218 Matters of ownership

219 Theft or stealing

220 Theft by person in special relationship

221 Theft of animals

222 Theft by spouse or partner

223 Punishment of theft

224 Power of search for goods stolen or unlawfully obtained in transit [Repealed]

225 Power to search vehicles for goods stolen or obtained by crimes involving dishonesty [Repealed]

226 Conversion of vehicle or other conveyance

227 Being in possession of instrument for conversion

227A Power of search for goods stolen or unlawfully obtained in transit [Repealed]

227B Power to search vehicles for goods stolen or obtained by crimes involving dishonesty [Repealed]

228 Dishonestly taking or using document

229 Criminal breach of trust

229A Taking or dealing with certain documents with intent to defraud [Repealed]

230 Taking, obtaining, or copying trade secrets

Burglary

231 Burglary

232 Aggravated burglary

233 Being disguised or in possession of instrument for burglary

Robbery and blackmail

234 Robbery

235 Aggravated robbery

236 Assault with intent to rob

237 Blackmail

238 Punishment of blackmail

239 Demanding with intent to steal, etc

Crimes involving deceit

240 Obtaining by deception or causing loss by deception

240A Aggravated burglary [Repealed]

241 Punishment of obtaining by deception or causing loss by deception

242 False statement by promoter, etc

Money laundering

243 Money laundering

244 Defence of enforcement of enactment

245 Section 243 not to apply to certain acts committed outside New Zealand

Receiving

246 Receiving

247 Punishment of receiving

Crimes involving computers

248 Interpretation

249 Accessing computer system for dishonest purpose

250 Damaging or interfering with computer system

251 Making, selling, or distributing or possessing software for committing crime

252 Accessing computer system without authorisation

253 Qualified exemption to access without authorisation offence for New Zealand Security Intelligence Service [Repealed]

254 Qualified exemption to access without authorisation offence for Government Communications Security Bureau [Repealed]

Forgery and counterfeiting

255 Interpretation

256 Forgery

257 Using forged documents

257A Money laundering [Repealed]

257B Immunity from liability for disclosure of information [Repealed]

258 Altering, concealing, destroying, or reproducing documents with intent to deceive

259 Using altered or reproduced document with intent to deceive

260 False accounting

261 Counterfeiting public seals

262 Counterfeiting corporate seals

263 Possessing forged bank notes

264 Paper or implements for forgery

265 Imitating authorised or customary marks

Coinage

266 Offences involving coinage

266A Altering or reproducing document with intent to defraud [Repealed]

266B Using altered or reproduced document with intent to defraud [Repealed]

Arson, damage, and waste

267 Arson

268 Attempted arson

269 Intentional damage

270 Endangering transport

271 Waste or diversion of electricity, gas, or water

272 Providing explosive to commit crime

273 Using probate obtained by forgery or perjury [Repealed]

274 Paper or implements for forgery [Repealed]

275 Counterfeiting stamps [Repealed]

276 Falsifying registers [Repealed]

277 Falsifying extracts from registers [Repealed]

278 Uttering false certificates [Repealed]

279 Forging certificates [Repealed]

280 Imitating authorised marks [Repealed]

281 Imitating customary marks [Repealed]

282 Interpretation [Repealed]

283 Preparations for coining [Repealed]

284 Counterfeiting coin [Repealed]

285 Altering coin [Repealed]

286 Impairing coin [Repealed]

287 Defacing coin [Repealed]

288 Melting coin [Repealed]

289 Possessing counterfeit coin [Repealed]

290 Uttering counterfeit coin [Repealed]

291 Buying and selling counterfeit coin [Repealed]

292 Importing and exporting counterfeit coin [Repealed]

293 What constitutes criminal damage [Repealed]

294 Arson [Repealed]

295 Attempted arson [Repealed]

296 Damage to other property by fire or explosive [Repealed]

297 Attempt to damage property by fire or explosive [Repealed]

298 Wilful damage [Repealed]

298A Causing disease or sickness in animals

298B Contaminating food, crops, water, or other products

299 Wilful waste or diversion of water, gas, or electricity [Repealed]

300 Interfering with means of transport [Repealed]

301 Wrecking [Repealed]

302 Attempting to wreck [Repealed]

303 Interfering with signals, etc [Repealed]

304 Interfering with mines [Repealed]

305 Providing explosive to commit crime [Repealed]

Part 11
Threatening, conspiring, and attempting to commit offences

306 Threatening to kill or do grievous bodily harm

307 Threatening to destroy property

307A Threats of harm to people or property

308 Threatening acts

309 Conspiring to prevent collection of rates or taxes

310 Conspiring to commit offence

311 Attempt to commit or procure commission of offence

312 Accessory after the fact to crime

Part 11A
Obtaining evidence by interception devices

[Repealed]

Interpretation

[Repealed]

312A Interpretation [Repealed]

Applications for interception warrants in relation to organised criminal enterprises

[Repealed]

312B Application by Police for warrant to intercept private communications [Repealed]

312C Matters on which Judge must be satisfied in respect of applications [Repealed]

Applications for interception warrants in relation to serious violent offences

[Repealed]

312CA Application by Police for warrant to intercept private communications in relation to serious violent offences [Repealed]

312CB Matters on which Judge must be satisfied in respect of applications relating to serious violent offences [Repealed]

312CC Application by Police for warrant to intercept private communications relating to terrorist offences [Repealed]

312CD Matters of which Judge must be satisfied in respect of applications relating to terrorist offences [Repealed]

General provisions

[Repealed]

312D Contents and term of warrant [Repealed]

312E Effect of warrant [Repealed]

312F Renewal of warrants [Repealed]

312G Emergency permits [Repealed]

312H Security of applications [Repealed]

312I Destruction of irrelevant records made by use of interception device [Repealed]

312J Destruction of relevant records made by use of interception device [Repealed]

312K Prohibition on disclosure of private communications lawfully intercepted [Repealed]

312L Notice to be given of intention to produce evidence of private communication [Not in force]

312M Inadmissibility of evidence of private communications unlawfully intercepted [Repealed]

312N Restriction on admissibility of evidence of private communications lawfully intercepted [Repealed]

312O Privileged evidence [Repealed]

312P Report to be made to Judge on use of warrant or permit [Repealed]

312Q Commissioner of Police to give information to Parliament [Repealed]

Part 12
Procedure

313 General provisions as to procedure

314 Procedure where prior consent to prosecution required

General power to stop vehicles to exercise statutory search powers

[Repealed]

314A Statutory search power [Repealed]

314B General power to stop vehicles [Repealed]

314C Powers incidental to stopping vehicles under section 314B [Repealed]

314D Offences relating to stopping vehicles under section 314B [Repealed]

Arrest

315 Arrest without warrant

316 Duty of persons arresting

317 Power to enter premises to arrest offender or prevent offence [Repealed]

317A Power to stop vehicles for purpose of arrest [Repealed]

317AA Powers incidental to stopping vehicles under section 317A [Repealed]

317AB Offences relating to stopping vehicles under section 317A [Repealed]

317B Road blocks [Repealed]

Bail

[Repealed]

318 When bail not allowable [Repealed]

319 Rules as to granting bail [Repealed]

319A Detention while bail bond prepared and signed [Repealed]

319B Variation of conditions of bail [Repealed]

320 Arrest of absconder [Repealed]

320A Person on bail may be arrested without warrant in certain circumstances [Repealed]

320B Failure to answer bail [Repealed]

320C Non-performance of condition of bail bond to be certified by Judge [Repealed]

Plea of guilty after committal for trial

321 Person committed for trial may plead guilty before trial

Change of venue

322 Changing venue or sitting

323 Powers of court of committal as to custody or bail of accused [Repealed]

324 Attendance of witnesses at substituted court

325 Powers of substituted court to compel attendance

326 Trial in substituted court

327 Witnesses' expenses where indictment removed at instance of the Crown

Indictments

328 Form of indictment

329 Contents of counts

330 Crimes may be charged in the alternative

331 Certain objections not to vitiate counts

332 Indictment for perjury or fraud

333 General provisions as to counts not affected

334 Further particulars

335 Variance and amendment

336 Indictment for treason

337 Attempt proved when crime is charged

338 Crime proved when attempt is charged

339 Part of charge proved

340 Joinder of counts

341 Charge of previous conviction

342 Objections to indictment

343 Indictment of parties

344 Accessories after the fact, and receivers

344AA Money launderers

Evidence

344A Interlocutory order relating to admissibility of evidence

Identification evidence

344B Attendance at identification parade voluntary

344C Information relating to identification witness to be supplied to defendant

344D Jury to be warned where principal evidence relates to identification [Repealed]

Filing indictment

345 Presenting indictment

345A Time for filing indictment

345B Extension of time for filing indictment

345C Trial Judge may excuse disclosure of information relating to Police investigations

345D Leave to file amended indictments

346 Failure of prosecutor to file indictment

347 Power to discharge accused

348 Copy of indictment

349 Special provisions in case of treason [Repealed]

Trial and sentence

350 Bench warrant [Repealed]

351 Failure of witness to attend

352 Refusal of witness to give evidence

353 Record of proceedings

354 Right to be defended

355 Arraignment

356 Plea

357 Special pleas

358 Pleas of previous acquittal and conviction

359 Second accusation

360 Evidence of former trial

361 Plea on behalf of corporation

361A Trial before a Judge with a jury general rule

361B Accused may apply for trial before a Judge without a jury

361C Judge may order trial without a jury in certain cases

361D Judge may order trial without jury in certain cases that are likely to be long and complex

361E Judge may order trial without jury in cases involving intimidation of juror or jurors

362 Challenging the array [Repealed]

363 Challenges and directions to stand by [Repealed]

364 Caution to accused when undefended

365 Question to accused when undefended

366 Comment on failure to give evidence

366A Unsworn statement prohibited

367 Evidence and addresses

367A Notice of alibi

368 Adjourning trial for witnesses

369 Admissions [Repealed]

369A Prosecution may withdraw in certain cases

370 Jury retiring to consider verdict [Repealed]

371 Motion in arrest of judgment. Sentence

372 Correction of erroneous sentence

373 Discretion to keep jury together

374 Discharge of juror or jury

375 Power to clear court and forbid report of proceedings [Repealed]

375A Special provisions in cases of sexual nature [Repealed]

376 Presence of the accused

377 Proceedings on Sunday

378 Stay of proceedings

Retrials of previously acquitted persons

378A Order for retrial may be granted if acquittal tainted

378B Meaning of terms used in sections 378C and 378D

378C Consent of Solicitor-General required in certain circumstances for exercise of powers in relation to acquitted person

378D Order for retrial may be granted by Court of Appeal if new and compelling evidence discovered

378E Orders to safeguard fairness of retrial

378F Effect of order for retrial

Part 13
Appeals

379 Interpretation

Appeal on matters arising before trial

379A Right of appeal in certain cases

379AB Appeal against decision of Court of Appeal on appeal against certain orders

Appeal on question of bail

379B Appeal from decision of High Court relating to bail [Repealed]

379C Procedural provisions relating to appeal on question of bail [Repealed]

379CA Appeal against order in respect of costs

379D Execution of decision of Court of Appeal [Repealed]

Appeal on question of law

380 Reserving question of law

381 Appeal where no question reserved

381A Question of law arising out of discharge under section 347 or stay of prosecution may be referred to Court of Appeal

382 Powers of Court of Appeal where appeal is on question of law

Appeal against conviction or sentence

383 Right of appeal against conviction or sentence

383A Appeal against decision of Court of Appeal on appeal against conviction or sentence

384 Right of appeal against sentence or conviction for contempt of court

384A Jurisdiction in certain cases where appeals lie to different courts

385 Determination of appeals in ordinary cases

386 Powers of appellate courts in special cases

387 Revesting and restitution of property on conviction

388 Time for appealing

389 Supplemental powers of appellate courts

390 Duty of Solicitor-General

391 Costs of appeal [Repealed]

392 Duties of Registrar with respect to notices of appeal, etc

General provisions as to appeals

392A Decision about mode of hearing

392B Hearings on the papers

393 Certain powers exercisable by 1 Judge

394 Evidence for appellate courts

395 Right of appellant to be represented, and restriction on attendance

396 Power to forbid report of proceedings, etc [Repealed]

397 Granting of bail to appellant, and custody pending appeal [Repealed]

398 Judgment of Court of Appeal

399 Intermediate effects of appeal

Part 14
Miscellaneous provisions

400 Consent of Attorney-General to certain prosecutions

401 Contempt of court

402 Costs [Repealed]

403 Compensation for loss of property [Repealed]

404 Restitution of property

405 Civil remedy not suspended

406 Prerogative of mercy

406A Appeals against decisions made on references

407 Effect of free pardon

408 Act to bind the Crown

409 Rules of court

410 Regulations

411 Consequential amendments

412 Repeals and savings

413 Enactment creating offence is repealed and replaced or consolidated

414 Repealed enactment continues to have effect

415 Inconsistency with other enactment or rule of law

Schedule 1
Carrying out of sentence of death

[Repealed]

Schedule 2
Forms

Schedule 3
Enactments amended

Schedule 4
United Kingdom enactments ceasing to have effect in New Zealand

Schedule 5
New Zealand enactments repealed

Schedule 6
Interception warrant

[Repealed]


An Act to consolidate and amend the Crimes Act 1908 and certain other enactments of the Parliament of New Zealand relating to crimes and other offences

  • Title: amended, on 1 January 1987, pursuant to section 29(2) of the Constitution Act 1986 (1986 No 114).

1 Short Title, commencement, etc
2 Interpretation
  • (1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,—

    aerodrome has the same meaning as in the Civil Aviation Act 1990

    aircraft has the same meaning as in the Civil Aviation Act 1990; and includes any aircraft for the time being used as an aircraft of any of the armed forces of any country other than New Zealand

    assault means the act of intentionally applying or attempting to apply force to the person of another, directly or indirectly, or threatening by any act or gesture to apply such force to the person of another, if the person making the threat has, or causes the other to believe on reasonable grounds that he has, present ability to effect his purpose; and to assault has a corresponding meaning

    claim of right, in relation to any act, means a belief at the time of the act in a proprietary or possessory right in property in relation to which the offence is alleged to have been committed, although that belief may be based on ignorance or mistake of fact or of any matter of law other than the enactment against which the offence is alleged to have been committed

    Commonwealth country means a country that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations; and includes every territory for whose international relations the government of any such country is responsible

    Commonwealth ship means a ship registered or required to be registered in any Commonwealth country, or recognised by the law of any Commonwealth country as a ship belonging to that country; and includes any ship for the time being used as a ship of any of the armed forces of any Commonwealth country

    constable has the meaning given in section 4 of the Policing Act 2008

    crime means an offence for which the offender may be proceeded against by indictment

    crime involving dishonesty means any crime described in Part 10 except the crimes described in sections 267 to 272

    criminally responsible means liable to punishment for an offence

    day, or daytime, means the interval between 6 o'clock in the morning of any day and 9 o'clock at night of the same day

    depositions includes written statements admitted in evidence at the standard committal or the committal hearing under section 162 of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957, and statements made under section 164 of that Act and admitted in evidence at the standard committal or read in evidence at the committal hearing

    firearm has the same meaning as in the Arms Act 1983

    for a material benefit, in relation to doing a thing, means—

    • (a) after having obtained a material benefit for doing the thing; or

    • (b) intending to obtain a material benefit for doing the thing

    foreign ship means a ship that is not a Commonwealth ship

    genitalia includes a surgically constructed or reconstructed organ analogous to naturally occurring male or female genitalia (whether the person concerned is male, female, or of indeterminate sex)

    is liable means is liable on conviction on indictment

    Judge, in relation to a District Court, or District Court Judge means a Judge who holds a warrant under section 28B of the District Courts Act 1947 to conduct trials on indictment; and in section 399 of this Act includes any other District Court Judge

    justified, in relation to any person, means not guilty of an offence and not liable to any civil proceeding

    medical practitioner means a health practitioner who is, or is deemed to be, registered with the Medical Council of New Zealand continued by section 114(1)(a) of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 as a practitioner of the profession of medicine

    New Zealand includes all waters within the outer limits of the territorial sea of New Zealand (as defined by section 3 of the Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone, and Exclusive Economic Zone Act 1977)

    New Zealand aircraft means any aircraft that is registered or required to be registered in New Zealand under the Civil Aviation Act 1990; and includes any aircraft for the time being used as an aircraft of the New Zealand forces

    New Zealand forces means the New Zealand Naval Forces, the New Zealand Army, and the Royal New Zealand Air Force

    New Zealand ship means a ship registered in New Zealand, or recognised by the law of New Zealand as a ship belonging to New Zealand; and includes any ship for the time being used as a ship of the New Zealand forces

    night, or night-time, means the interval between 9 o'clock at night and 6 o'clock in the following morning

    obtain a material benefit, in relation to doing a thing, means obtain, directly or indirectly, any goods, money, pecuniary advantage, privilege, property, or other valuable consideration of any kind for doing the thing (or taking an action that forms part of doing the thing)

    offence means any act or omission for which any one can be punished under this Act or under any other enactment, whether on conviction on indictment or on summary conviction

    penis includes a surgically constructed or reconstructed organ analogous to a naturally occurring penis (whether the person concerned is male, female, or of indeterminate sex)

    person, owner, and other words and expressions of the like kind, include the Crown and any public body or local authority, and any board, society, or company, and any other body of persons, whether incorporated or not, and the inhabitants of the district of any local authority, in relation to such acts and things as it or they are capable of doing or owning

    prison manager means the manager of a prison

    property includes real and personal property, and any estate or interest in any real or personal property, money, electricity, and any debt, and any thing in action, and any other right or interest

    prosecutor means—

    • (a) a Crown Solicitor:

    • (b) in relation to a Crown prosecution, the Attorney-General:

    • (c) in relation to a private prosecution, the private prosecutor

    protected from criminal responsibility means not liable to any proceedings except a civil proceeding

    Registrar

    • (a) for the purposes of Part 12, means any Registrar of the trial court; and includes any Deputy Registrar of that court:

    • (b) for any other purpose, means any Registrar of the High Court or of a District Court, as the case may require; and includes any Deputy Registrar

    serious violent offence means any offence—

    • (a) that is punishable by a period of imprisonment for a term of 7 years or more; and

    • (b) where the conduct constituting the offence involves—

      • (i) loss of a person's life or serious risk of loss of a person's life; or

      • (ii) serious injury to a person or serious risk of serious injury to a person; or

      • (iii) serious damage to property in circumstances endangering the physical safety of any person; or

      • (iv) perverting the course of justice, where the purpose of the conduct is to prevent, seriously hinder, or seriously obstruct the detection, investigation, or prosecution of any offence—

        • (A) that is punishable by a period of imprisonment for a term of 7 years or more; and

        • (B) that involved, involves, or would involve conduct of the kind referred to in any of subparagraphs (i) to (iii)

    sexual connection means—

    • (a) connection effected by the introduction into the genitalia or anus of one person, otherwise than for genuine medical purposes, of—

      • (i) a part of the body of another person; or

      • (ii) an object held or manipulated by another person; or

    • (b) connection between the mouth or tongue of one person and a part of another person's genitalia or anus; or

    • (c) the continuation of connection of a kind described in paragraph (a) or paragraph (b)

    ship means every description of vessel used in navigation, however propelled; and includes any barge, lighter, dinghy, raft, or like vessel; and also includes any ship belonging to or used as a ship of the armed forces of any country

    Supreme Court means the Supreme Court of New Zealand established by section 6 of the Supreme Court Act 2003

    territorial waters, in relation to any country other than New Zealand, means such part of the sea adjacent to the coast of that country as is within the territorial sovereignty of that country; and includes ports, harbours, rivers, and other places in which at the commencement of this Act the Admiralty of England has jurisdiction (whether exclusive or not) in respect of offences of any kind committed on board Commonwealth ships

    to injure means to cause actual bodily harm

    trial Judge means,—

    • (a) if the accused has been committed to the High Court for trial and the case has not been transferred to the District Court for trial under section 184Q of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957, a High Court Judge:

    • (b) if the accused has been committed to the District Court for trial or the case has been transferred to that court for trial under section 184Q of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957, and the court has jurisdiction in the matter under section 28A of the District Courts Act 1947, a District Court Judge

    unlawful act means a breach of any Act, regulation, rule, or bylaw

    vulnerable adult, for the purposes of sections 151, 195, and 195A, means a person unable, by reason of detention, age, sickness, mental impairment, or any other cause, to withdraw himself or herself from the care or charge of another person.

    (1A) For the purposes of paragraph (a) of the definition in subsection (1) of sexual connection, introduction to the slightest degree is enough to effect a connection.

    (1B) For the purposes of this Act, one person does an indecent act on another person whether he or she—

    • (a) does an indecent act with or on the other person; or

    • (b) induces or permits the other person to do an indecent act with or on him or her.

    (2) When it is provided in this Act that any one is liable to any punishment for doing or omitting any act, every person doing or omitting that act is, subject to the provisions of this Act, guilty of a crime.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 2, 4A(1), 207, 237; 1948 No 77 s 8; 1950 No 83 s 2; 1953 No 120 s 2(1); 1954 No 29 s 2

    Section 2(1) aerodrome: amended, on 1 September 1990, pursuant to section 101(1) of the Civil Aviation Act 1990 (1990 No 98).

    Section 2(1) aircraft: amended, on 1 September 1990, pursuant to section 101(1) of the Civil Aviation Act 1990 (1990 No 98).

    Section 2(1) claim of right: inserted, on 1 October 2003, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 2(1) claim of right: amended, on 19 March 2012, by section 4(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 2011 (2011 No 79).

    Section 2(1) colour of right: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 2(1) constable: substituted, on 1 October 2008, by section 130(1) of the Policing Act 2008 (2008 No 72).

    Section 2(1) crime involving dishonesty: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 4(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 2(1) depositions: substituted, on 29 June 2009, by section 18 of the Summary Proceedings Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 41).

    Section 2(1) firearm: inserted, on 28 October 1986, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1986 (1986 No 71).

    Section 2(1) for a material benefit: inserted, on 20 May 2005, by section 3(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

    Section 2(1) genitalia: inserted, on 20 May 2005, by section 3(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

    Section 2(1) Judge: inserted, on 1 May 1981, by section 2(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1980 (1980 No 85).

    Section 2(1) medical practitioner: inserted, on 18 September 2004, by section 175(1) of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 (2003 No 48).

    Section 2(1) New Zealand: substituted, on 1 January 1966, by section 11 of the Territorial Sea and Fishing Zone Act 1965 (1965 No 11).

    Section 2(1) New Zealand: amended, on 1 August 1996, pursuant to section 5(4) of the Territorial Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone Amendment Act 1996 (1996 No 74).

    Section 2(1) New Zealand: amended, on 1 October 1977, by section 33(1) of the Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone, and Exclusive Economic Zone Act 1977 (1977 No 28).

    Section 2(1) New Zealand aircraft: amended, on 1 September 1990, pursuant to section 101(1) of the Civil Aviation Act 1990 (1990 No 98).

    Section 2(1) obtain a material benefit: inserted, on 18 June 2002, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2002 (2002 No 20).

    Section 2(1) penis: inserted, on 20 May 2005, by section 3(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

    Section 2(1) prison manager: inserted, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

    Section 2(1) property: amended, on 1 October 2003, by section 4(3) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 2(1) prosecutor: inserted, on 1 March 1996, by section 2(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 2(1) Registrar: substituted, on 1 March 1996, by section 2(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 2(1) sexual connection: inserted, on 20 May 2005, by section 3(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

    Section 2(1) Superintendent: repealed, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

    Section 2(1) Supreme Court: inserted, on 1 January 2004, by section 48(1) of the Supreme Court Act 2003 (2003 No 53).

    Section 2(1) serious violent offence: inserted, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(3) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

    Section 2(1) territorial waters: amended, on 1 January 1966, by section 11 of the Territorial Sea and Fishing Zone Act 1965 (1965 No 11).

    Section 2(1) trial Judge: inserted, on 1 March 1996, by section 2(3) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 2(1) trial Judge paragraph (a): amended, on 29 June 2009, by section 18 of the Summary Proceedings Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 41).

    Section 2(1) trial Judge paragraph (b): amended, on 29 June 2009, by section 18 of the Summary Proceedings Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 41).

    Section 2(1) trial Judge paragraph (b): amended, on 22 November 1997, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1997 (1997 No 88).

    Section 2(1) valuable security: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 4(4) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 2(1) unlawful act: inserted, on 19 March 2012, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 2011 (2011 No 79).

    Section 2(1) vulnerable adult: inserted, on 19 March 2012, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 2011 (2011 No 79).

    Section 2(1A): inserted, on 20 May 2005, by section 3(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

    Section 2(1B): inserted, on 20 May 2005, by section 3(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

3 Meaning of convicted on indictment
  • For the purposes of this Act, a person shall be deemed to be convicted on indictment if—

    • (a) he pleads guilty on indictment; or

    • (b) he is found guilty on indictment; or

    • (c) he is committed to the High Court for sentence under section 44 or section 160 or 184J of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957; or

    • (d) after having been committed for trial, he pleads guilty under section 321.

    Compare: 1945 No 23 s 2(2)

    Section 3(c): amended, on 29 June 2009, by section 18 of the Summary Proceedings Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 41).

    Section 3(c): amended, on 1 April 1980, pursuant to section 12 of the Judicature Amendment Act 1979 (1979 No 124).

    Section 3(c): amended, on 1 May 1977, by section 15(1) of the Judicature Amendment Act 1977 (1977 No 32).

    Section 3(d): amended, on 1 May 1981, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1980 (1980 No 85).

4 Meaning of ordinarily resident in New Zealand
  • For the purposes of this Act, a person shall be deemed to be ordinarily resident in New Zealand if—

    • (a) his home is in New Zealand; or

    • (b) he is residing in New Zealand with the intention of residing therein indefinitely; or

    • (c) having resided in New Zealand with the intention of establishing his home therein, or with the intention of residing in New Zealand indefinitely, he is outside New Zealand but has an intention to return to establish his home therein or to reside in New Zealand indefinitely.

Part 1
Jurisdiction

5 Application of Act
  • (1) This Act applies to all offences for which the offender may be proceeded against and tried in New Zealand.

    (2) This Act applies to all acts done or omitted in New Zealand.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 3

6 Persons not to be tried in respect of things done outside New Zealand
  • Subject to the provisions of section 7, no act done or omitted outside New Zealand is an offence, unless it is an offence by virtue of any provision of this Act or of any other enactment.

7 Place of commission of offence
  • For the purpose of jurisdiction, where any act or omission forming part of any offence, or any event necessary to the completion of any offence, occurs in New Zealand, the offence shall be deemed to be committed in New Zealand, whether the person charged with the offence was in New Zealand or not at the time of the act, omission, or event.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 4

7A Extraterritorial jurisdiction in respect of certain offences with transnational aspects
  • (1) Even if the acts or omissions alleged to constitute the offence occurred wholly outside New Zealand, proceedings may be brought for any offence against this Act committed in the course of carrying out a terrorist act (as defined in section 5(1) of the Terrorism Suppression Act 2002) or an offence against section 98AA, section 98A, section 98C, section 98D, any of sections 100 to 104, section 105(2), section 116, section 117, section 243, section 298A, or section 298B

    • (a) if the person to be charged—

      • (i) is a New Zealand citizen; or

      • (ii) is ordinarily resident in New Zealand; or

      • (iii) has been found in New Zealand and has not been extradited; or

      • (iv) is a body corporate, or a corporation sole, incorporated under the law of New Zealand; or

    • (b) if any of the acts or omissions is alleged to have occurred—

      • (ii) on board a ship used as a ship of the New Zealand Defence Force; or

      • (iii) on board a New Zealand aircraft; or

      • (iv) on board an aircraft that is leased to a lessee whose principal place of business is in New Zealand, or who is a New Zealand citizen or a person ordinarily resident in New Zealand; or

    • (c) if a person in respect of whom the offence is alleged to have been committed—

      • (i) is a New Zealand citizen; or

      • (ii) is ordinarily resident in New Zealand; or

    • (d) in the case of an offence against section 98A, if the group of people with or in which the person to be charged is alleged to have participated are alleged to have as their objective or one of their objectives the obtaining of material benefits by the commission in New Zealand of offences or conduct referred to in paragraph (a) or paragraph (b) of section 98A(2).

    (2) Even if the acts or omissions alleged to constitute the offence occurred wholly outside New Zealand, proceedings may be brought for an offence against section 98C or section 98D,—

    • (a) in the case of an offence against section 98C(1) or section 98D, if the act or omission is alleged to relate to the entry of a person into New Zealand; or

    • (b) in the case of an offence against section 98C(2), if the act or omission is alleged to relate to arranging the bringing of a person to New Zealand.

    (2A) Even if some or all of the acts alleged to constitute the offence occurred wholly outside New Zealand, proceedings may be brought for an offence against section 131B

    • (a) if the person to be charged—

      • (i) is a New Zealand citizen; or

      • (ii) is ordinarily resident in New Zealand; or

      • (iii) has been found in New Zealand and has not been extradited; or

    • (b) if any of the acts is alleged to have occurred—

      • (ii) on board a ship used as a ship of the New Zealand Defence Force; or

      • (iii) on board a New Zealand aircraft; or

      • (iv) on board an aircraft that is leased to a lessee whose principal place of business is in New Zealand, or who is a New Zealand citizen or a person ordinarily resident in New Zealand; or

    • (c) if a person in respect of whom the offence is alleged to have been committed—

      • (i) is a New Zealand citizen; or

      • (ii) is ordinarily resident in New Zealand.

    (3) Neither section 8 nor section 400 applies to an offence referred to in subsection (1).

    (4) Nothing in subsections (1) to (3) limits or affects—

    • (a) the application of section 7 to the occurrence in New Zealand of—

      • (i) an act or omission forming part of an offence; or

      • (ii) an event necessary to the completion of an offence; or

    Section 7A: inserted, on 18 June 2002, by section 4 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2002 (2002 No 20).

    Section 7A(1): amended, on 20 May 2005, by section 4(1)(a) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

    Section 7A(1): amended, on 20 May 2005, by section 4(1)(b) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

    Section 7A(1): amended, on 17 November 2003, by section 3(a) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2003 (2003 No 105).

    Section 7A(1): amended, on 17 November 2003, by section 3(b) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2003 (2003 No 105).

    Section 7A(1)(d): amended, on 1 December 2009, by section 4 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2009 (2009 No 47).

    Section 7A(2A): inserted, on 20 May 2005, by section 4(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

7B Attorney-General's consent required where jurisdiction claimed under section 7A
  • (1) Proceedings for an offence against section 98AA, section 98A, section 116, section 117, section 243, section 298A, or section 298B cannot be brought in a New Zealand court against a person without the Attorney-General's consent, if jurisdiction over the person is claimed by virtue of section 7A.

    (2) A person over whom jurisdiction is claimed by virtue of section 7A may be arrested for an offence against section 98AA, section 98A, section 116, section 117, or section 243, or a warrant for the person's arrest for the offence may be issued and executed, and the person may be remanded in custody or on bail, even though the Attorney-General's consent to the bringing of proceedings against the person has not been obtained.

    (3) Proceedings for an offence against this Act committed in the course of carrying out a terrorist act (as defined in section 5(1) of the Terrorism Suppression Act 2002) cannot be brought in a New Zealand court against a person without the Attorney-General's consent, if jurisdiction over the person is claimed solely by virtue of section 7A.

    Section 7B: inserted, on 18 June 2002, by section 4 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2002 (2002 No 20).

    Section 7B(1): amended, on 20 May 2005, by section 5(a) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

    Section 7B(1): amended, on 20 May 2005, by section 5(b) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

    Section 7B(1): amended, on 17 November 2003, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2003 (2003 No 105).

    Section 7B(2): amended, on 20 May 2005, by section 5(a) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

    Section 7B(2): amended, on 20 May 2005, by section 5(b) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

    Section 7B(3): added, on 17 November 2003, by section 4(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2003 (2003 No 105).

8 Jurisdiction in respect of crimes on ships or aircraft beyond New Zealand
  • (1) This section applies to any act done or omitted beyond New Zealand by any person—

    • (a) on board any Commonwealth ship; or

    • (b) on board any New Zealand aircraft; or

    • (c) on board any ship or aircraft, if that person arrives in New Zealand on that ship or aircraft in the course or at the end of a journey during which the act was done or omitted; or

    • (d) being a British subject, on board any foreign ship (not being a ship to which he belongs) on the high seas, or on board any such ship within the territorial waters of any Commonwealth country; or

    • (e) being a New Zealand citizen or a person ordinarily resident in New Zealand, on board any aircraft:

    provided that paragraph (c) shall not apply where the act was done or omitted by a person, not being a British subject, on any ship or aircraft for the time being used as a ship or aircraft of any of the armed forces of a country that is not a Commonwealth country.

    (2) Where any person does or omits any act to which this section applies, and that act or omission would, if it occurred within New Zealand, be a crime under this Act or under any other enactment (whether that enactment was passed before or after the commencement of this Act), then, subject to the provisions of this Act and of that other enactment, he shall be liable on conviction on indictment or, in the case of a crime to which Part 1 of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957 applies, either on conviction on indictment or on summary conviction under that Part, as if the act or omission had occurred in New Zealand:

    provided that where any proceedings are taken by virtue of the jurisdiction conferred by this section it shall be a defence to prove that the act or omission would not have been an offence under the law of the country of which the person charged was a national or citizen at the time of the act or omission, if it had occurred in that country.

    (3) Where at any place beyond New Zealand any person who belongs, or within 3 months previously has belonged, to any Commonwealth ship does or omits any act, whether on shore or afloat, not being an act or omission to which subsection (1) applies, and that act or omission would, if it occurred within New Zealand, be a crime, then this section shall apply in respect of that act or omission in the same manner in all respects as if it had occurred on board a Commonwealth ship.

    (4) The provisions of this section shall have the same operation in relation to the Republic of Ireland and to the citizens thereof, and to ships registered therein or belonging thereto, and to persons who belong or have belonged to those ships, and to all other persons on board those ships, as if the Republic of Ireland were a Commonwealth country and as if the citizens thereof were British subjects.

    (5) This section shall be read subject to the provisions of section 400.

    (6) In this section, the expression British subject includes a British protected person within the meaning of the British Nationality and Citizenship Act 1948.

    (7) Nothing in this section shall apply with respect to any crime against the Maritime Transport Act 1994 or Part 5A of the Civil Aviation Act 1990.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 4A(2); 1948 No 77 s 8; 1953 No 120 ss 2, 3, 4, 6; Criminal Code (1954, as amended 1959) s 5A (Canada)

    Section 8(7): amended, on 1 June 2004, by section 41(3) of the Civil Aviation Amendment Act 2004 (2004 No 8).

    Section 8(7): amended, on 1 February 1995, pursuant to section 202(1) of the Maritime Transport Act 1994 (1994 No 104).

8A Jurisdiction in respect of certain persons with diplomatic or consular immunity
  • (1) This section applies to every person who is—

    • (b) a person who is on overseas service pursuant to section 6 of the Foreign Affairs Act 1988; or

    • (c) a New Zealand citizen ordinarily resident in New Zealand and who is—

      • (i) a member of the family of a person described in paragraph (a) or paragraph (b); or

      • (ii) a member of the staff of a New Zealand overseas post or a New Zealand overseas mission, whether or not an officer or employee of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade or a person employed under section 10 of the Foreign Affairs Act 1988; or

      • (iii) an officer or employee of the State services (as defined in section 2(1) of the State Sector Act 1988), or of New Zealand Trade and Enterprise (as established by the New Zealand Trade and Enterprise Act 2003), who is serving in a New Zealand overseas post or a New Zealand overseas mission.

    (2) Where—

    • (a) any person to whom this section applies does, or omits to do, any act outside New Zealand (whether or not the act or omission concerned constitutes an offence under the laws in force in the place where it took place) that, if done or omitted within New Zealand would constitute an offence punishable by imprisonment for 1 year or more; and

    • (b) that person has immunity from criminal jurisdiction in the place where that act or omission took place; and

    • (c) that immunity has not been waived (otherwise than to any extent necessary to enable the extradition of that person),—

    that act or omission shall be deemed to have taken place within New Zealand.

    (3) No information shall be laid against any person over whom jurisdiction is claimed by virtue of subsection (2) without the leave of the Attorney-General.

    (4) Subsection (5) applies to any offence to the laying of an information in respect of which the consent of the Attorney-General is required by subsection (3).

    (5) Where any person is alleged to have committed an offence to which this subsection applies,—

    • (a) he may be arrested; or

    • (b) a warrant for his arrest may be issued and executed,—

    and he may be remanded in custody or on bail, notwithstanding that the consent of the Attorney-General has not been obtained to the laying of an information in respect of that offence; but no further proceedings shall be taken until that consent has been obtained.

    Section 8A: inserted, on 16 December 1983, by section 30 of the Foreign Affairs Act 1983 (1983 No 128).

    Section 8A(1): substituted, on 1 December 1988, by section 14(1) of the Foreign Affairs Act 1988 (1988 No 159).

    Section 8A(1)(a): amended, on 1 July 1993, pursuant to section 2(3) of the Foreign Affairs Amendment Act 1993 (1993 No 48).

    Section 8A(1)(b): amended, on 1 July 1993, pursuant to section 2(3) of the Foreign Affairs Amendment Act 1993 (1993 No 48).

    Section 8A(1)(c)(ii): amended, on 1 July 1993, pursuant to section 2(3) of the Foreign Affairs Amendment Act 1993 (1993 No 48).

    Section 8A(1)(c)(ii): amended, on 1 July 1993, by section 6(1) of the Foreign Affairs Amendment Act 1993 (1993 No 48).

    Section 8A(1)(c)(iii): amended, on 1 July 2003, by section 84 of the New Zealand Trade and Enterprise Act 2003 (2003 No 27).

9 Offences not to be punishable except under New Zealand Acts
  • No one shall be convicted of any offence at common law, or of any offence against any Act of the Parliament of England or the Parliament of Great Britain or the Parliament of the United Kingdom:

    provided that—

    • (a) nothing in this section shall limit or affect the power or authority of the House of Representatives or of any court to punish for contempt:

    • (b) nothing in this section shall limit or affect the jurisdiction or powers of the Court Martial, or of any officer in any of the New Zealand forces.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 5; Criminal Code (1954) s 8 (Canada)

    Section 9 proviso paragraph (b): amended, on 1 July 2009, by section 87 of the Court Martial Act 2007 (2007 No 101).

10 Offence under more than 1 enactment
  • (1) Where an act or omission constitutes an offence under this Act and under any other Act, the offender may be prosecuted and punished either under this Act or under that other Act.

    (2) Where an act or omission constitutes an offence under 2 or more Acts other than this Act, the offender may be prosecuted and punished under any one of those Acts.

    (3) Where an act or omission constitutes an offence under 2 or more provisions of this Act or of any other Act, the offender may be prosecuted and punished under any one of those provisions.

    (4) No one shall be liable, whether on conviction on indictment or on summary conviction, to be punished twice in respect of the same offence.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 6; 1924 No 11 s 25(i)

10A Criminal enactments not to have retrospective effect
  • Notwithstanding any other enactment or rule of law to the contrary, no person shall be liable in any criminal proceedings in respect of an act or omission by him if, at the time of the act or omission, the act or omission by him did not constitute an offence.

    Compare: 1954 No 50 s 43B; 1980 No 21 s 22

    Section 10A: inserted, on 1 October 1985, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1985 (1985 No 121).

10B Period of limitation
  • (1) Except with the prior consent of the Attorney-General, no proceedings in respect of an offence to which this section applies, or, where such proceedings have been commenced, no further steps in the proceedings (other than steps subsequent to the trial or hearing) shall be taken after the expiration of 10 years from the date of the commission of the offence.

    (2) This section shall apply to the following offences:

    • (a) an offence punishable by a fine only, where the maximum fine that may be imposed in respect of that offence is less than $2,000:

    • (b) an offence punishable by imprisonment, where the maximum term of imprisonment that may be imposed in respect of that offence is less than 3 years.

    (3) This section shall apply with respect to offences committed before or after the commencement of this section, and, in the case of an offence committed before the commencement of this section, whether or not proceedings in respect of the offence have been commenced before the commencement of this section or are in progress at the commencement of this section.

    (4) Nothing in this section shall derogate from the provisions of any other Act fixing a period of limitation of less than 10 years for the commencement of proceedings in respect of an offence.

    Compare: 1954 No 50 s 40A; 1966 No 99 s 5

    Section 10B: inserted, on 1 October 1985, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1985 (1985 No 121).

11 Construction of other Acts
  • (1) Every Act shall be read and construed as if any offence therein mentioned for which the offender may be prosecuted by indictment (however the offence may be therein described or referred to) were described or referred to as a crime; and all provisions of this Act relating to crimes generally shall apply to every such offence.

    (2) Every commission, Proclamation, warrant, or other document relating to criminal procedure in which offences that are crimes as defined by this Act are described or referred to by any names whatever shall be read and construed as if those offences were therein described and referred to as crimes.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 357

12 Summary jurisdiction
  • Nothing in this Act shall be construed to limit or affect in any way any provision made by any other Act for the trial and punishment of indictable offences in a summary way.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 7(5)

Part 2
Punishments

13 Powers of courts under other Acts not affected
  • Nothing in this Act shall be construed to limit or affect in any way any provision of any other Act conferring on any court any power to pass a sentence or impose a punishment or make an order in addition to or instead of a sentence or punishment prescribed by this Act, or otherwise to deal with any offender.

Death

[Repealed]

  • Heading: repealed, on 26 December 1989, pursuant to section 3(1)(a) of the Abolition of the Death Penalty Act 1989 (1989 No 119).

14 Form of sentence in capital cases
  • [Repealed]

    Section 14: repealed, on 26 December 1989, by section 3(1)(a) of the Abolition of the Death Penalty Act 1989 (1989 No 119).

15 Sentence of death not to be passed on pregnant woman
  • [Repealed]

    Section 15: repealed, on 26 December 1989, by section 3(1)(a) of the Abolition of the Death Penalty Act 1989 (1989 No 119).

16 Sentence of death not to be passed on person under 18 years of age
  • [Repealed]

    Section 16: repealed, on 26 December 1989, by section 3(1)(a) of the Abolition of the Death Penalty Act 1989 (1989 No 119).

Imprisonment

17 No sentence of solitary confinement to be passed
  • (1) No offender shall be sentenced to solitary confinement.

    (2) Every reference in any enactment to solitary confinement, or to imprisonment in solitary confinement, shall hereafter be construed as a reference to imprisonment.

    (3) Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit or affect any of the provisions of the Corrections Act 2004, or of any regulations thereunder, in respect of offences against discipline.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 24(2)

    Section 17(3): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

Penalties for certain offences involving home invasion

[Repealed]

  • Heading: repealed, on 30 June 2002, pursuant to section 164(a) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

17A Interpretation
  • [Repealed]

    Section 17A: repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(a) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

17B Maximum terms of imprisonment for offences involving home invasion: offences otherwise carrying maximum term of 5, 7, or 10 years imprisonment
  • [Repealed]

    Section 17B: repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(a) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

17C Maximum terms of imprisonment for offences involving home invasion: offences otherwise carrying maximum term of 14 or 20 years imprisonment
  • [Repealed]

    Section 17C: repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(a) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

17D Parties, attempts, and accessories
  • [Repealed]

    Section 17D: repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(a) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

17E Maximum penalties for offences involving home invasion do not affect jurisdiction of trial court
  • [Repealed]

    Section 17E: repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(a) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

Putting under bond

[Repealed]

  • Heading: repealed, on 1 October 1985, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1985 (1985 No 121).

18 Putting under bond
  • [Repealed]

    Section 18: repealed, on 1 October 1985, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1985 (1985 No 121).

Fine

19 Enforcement of fines by High Court
  • (1) If the High Court imposes 1 or more fines, Part 3 of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957 applies to the fine or fines, subject to any necessary modifications and subject to the modifications in subsections (2) to (5).

    (2) Without limiting the actions that the High Court may take under Part 3 of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957 in relation to the fine or fines, the High Court may make any orders that it thinks fit, including a charging order or sale order in relation to the offender's real property.

    (3) To avoid doubt, section 88A of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957 does not apply if the High Court makes, in accordance with subsection (2), a charging order or sale order in relation to real property.

    (4) If an offender is sentenced by the High Court to community work, community detention, or home detention under section 88AE(1) of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957 or is imprisoned under a warrant of commitment issued under that section,—

    • (a) section 89(2) and (3) of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957 apply with any necessary modifications as if—

      • (i) the references in those subsections to a District Court Judge were references to a High Court Judge; and

      • (ii) the reference to the High Court was a reference to the Court of Appeal; and

    • (b) sections 115 and 121 of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957, and any other relevant provisions of that Act relating to appeals against sentence, apply with any necessary modifications as if—

      • (i) the references in those sections to a District Court were references to the High Court; and

      • (ii) the references in those sections to the High Court were references to the Court of Appeal.

    (5) Despite section 90 of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957, the period of imprisonment that the High Court may impose on the offender for the non-payment of 1 or more fines must not exceed, for each fine, the lesser of—

    • (a) the maximum term of imprisonment to which the offender was liable on the conviction; or

    • (b) a period of 2 years.

    (6) If the High Court enforces 1 or more fines under this section, the court may, at the same time, enforce any outstanding fine or fines imposed on the offender by a District Court.

    (7) For the purposes of subsection (6), the outstanding fine or fines imposed by the District Court must be treated as if the fine or fines were imposed by the High Court and, in accordance with subsection (1), Part 3 of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957 applies to the fine or fines, subject to any necessary modifications, and—

    • (a) subject to the modifications in subsections (2) to (5), if the outstanding fine or fines were imposed in the District Court's indictable jurisdiction; and

    • (b) subject to the modifications in subsections (2) and (4), but not the modification in subsection (5), if the outstanding fine or fines were imposed in the District Court's summary jurisdiction.

    (8) A Registrar of a District Court or of the High Court may exercise any jurisdiction and powers conferred on a Registrar of a District Court by Part 3 of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957 in respect of the fine or fines imposed by the High Court to which, under subsection (1), that Part applies.

    (9) A bailiff of a District Court may exercise any jurisdiction and powers conferred on a bailiff of a District Court by Part 3 of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957 in respect of the fine or fines imposed by the High Court to which, under subsection (1), that Part applies.

    (10) The amount of the fee payable if default is made in the payment of 1 or more fines imposed by the High Court to which, under subsection (1), Part 3 of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957 applies is the same as that prescribed by regulations, made under the Summary Proceedings Act 1957, in respect of enforcement action taken under that Act to enforce the fine or fines.

    (11) To avoid doubt, sections 92A to 92I of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957 apply, subject to any necessary modifications, to any fine or fines imposed by the High Court, and accordingly, the chief executive of the Ministry of Justice may, among other things authorised by those sections, disclose information about default balances relating to such fine or fines in accordance with those sections.

    (12) For the purposes of this section, and subject to subsection (4), any reference in Part 3 of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957 to—

    • (a) a Court is, unless the context otherwise requires, taken to be a reference to the High Court; and

    • (b) a District Court Judge is, unless the context otherwise requires, taken to be a reference to a High Court Judge; and

    • (c) a Registrar is, unless the context otherwise requires, taken to be a reference to a Registrar of the High Court or of a District Court and includes a Deputy Registrar.

    (13) In this section, fine has the meaning given to it in section 79 of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957.

    Section 19: replaced, on 13 February 2012, by section 4 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2011 (2011 No 34).

19A Supervision of offender when time for payment is allowed
  • [Repealed]

    Section 19A: repealed, on 1 October 1985, by section 4 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1985 (1985 No 121).

19B Immediate execution
  • [Repealed]

    Section 19B: repealed, on 13 February 2012, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2011 (2011 No 34).

19C Warrant to collect fine or other sum of money ordered to be paid
  • [Repealed]

    Section 19C: repealed, on 13 February 2012, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2011 (2011 No 34).

19D Execution
  • [Repealed]

    Section 19D: repealed, on 13 February 2012, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2011 (2011 No 34).

19DA Community work, community detention, and home detention for non-payment of fine
  • [Repealed]

    Section 19DA: repealed, on 13 February 2012, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2011 (2011 No 34).

19E Period of imprisonment for non-payment of money
  • [Repealed]

    Section 19E: repealed, on 13 February 2012, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2011 (2011 No 34).

19F Stay of execution on appeal
  • [Repealed]

    Section 19F: repealed, on 13 February 2012, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2011 (2011 No 34).

Part 3
Matters of justification or excuse

20 General rule as to justifications
  • (1) All rules and principles of the common law which render any circumstances a justification or excuse for any act or omission, or a defence to any charge, shall remain in force and apply in respect of a charge of any offence, whether under this Act or under any other enactment, except so far as they are altered by or are inconsistent with this Act or any other enactment.

    (2) The matters provided for in this Part are hereby declared to be justifications or excuses in the case of all charges to which they are applicable.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 40

Infancy

21 Children under 10
  • (1) No person shall be convicted of an offence by reason of any act done or omitted by him when under the age of 10 years.

    (2) The fact that by virtue of this section any person has not been or is not liable to be convicted of an offence shall not affect the question whether any other person who is alleged to be a party to that offence is guilty of that offence.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 41

22 Children between 10 and 14
  • (1) No person shall be convicted of an offence by reason of any act done or omitted by him when of the age of 10 but under the age of 14 years, unless he knew either that the act or omission was wrong or that it was contrary to law.

    (2) The fact that by virtue of this section any person has not been or is not liable to be convicted of an offence shall not affect the question whether any other person who is alleged to be a party to that offence is guilty of that offence.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 42

Insanity

23 Insanity
  • (1) Every one shall be presumed to be sane at the time of doing or omitting any act until the contrary is proved.

    (2) No person shall be convicted of an offence by reason of an act done or omitted by him when labouring under natural imbecility or disease of the mind to such an extent as to render him incapable—

    • (a) of understanding the nature and quality of the act or omission; or

    • (b) of knowing that the act or omission was morally wrong, having regard to the commonly accepted standards of right and wrong.

    (3) Insanity before or after the time when he did or omitted the act, and insane delusions, though only partial, may be evidence that the offender was, at the time when he did or omitted the act, in such a condition of mind as to render him irresponsible for the act or omission.

    (4) The fact that by virtue of this section any person has not been or is not liable to be convicted of an offence shall not affect the question whether any other person who is alleged to be a party to that offence is guilty of that offence.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 43

Compulsion

24 Compulsion
  • (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, a person who commits an offence under compulsion by threats of immediate death or grievous bodily harm from a person who is present when the offence is committed is protected from criminal responsibility if he believes that the threats will be carried out and if he is not a party to any association or conspiracy whereby he is subject to compulsion.

    (2) Nothing in subsection (1) shall apply where the offence committed is an offence specified in any of the following provisions of this Act, namely:

    • (h) subsection (1) of section 189 (injuring with intent to cause grievous bodily harm):

    • (ka) [Repealed]

    (3) Where a woman who is married or in a civil union commits an offence, the fact that her husband or civil union partner was present at the commission of the offence does not of itself raise a presumption of compulsion.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 44

    Section 24(2): amended, on 1 February 1986, by section 7(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 1985 (1985 No 160).

    Section 24(2)(k): substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 24(2)(ka): repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 24(2)(l): substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 24(2)(m): added, on 1 October 2003, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 24(3): substituted, on 26 April 2005, by section 7 of the Relationships (Statutory References) Act 2005 (2005 No 3).

Ignorance of law

25 Ignorance of law
  • The fact that an offender is ignorant of the law is not an excuse for any offence committed by him.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 45

Sentence or process

26 Execution of sentence, process, or warrant
  • (1) Every ministerial officer of any court authorised to execute a lawful sentence, and every prison manager of any prison, and every person lawfully assisting any such ministerial officer or prison manager, is justified in executing the sentence.

    (2) Every ministerial officer of any court duly authorised to execute any lawful process of the court, whether of a civil or a criminal nature, and every person lawfully assisting him, is justified in executing it; and every prison manager required under the process to receive and detain any person is justified in receiving and detaining him.

    (3) Every one duly authorised to execute a lawful warrant issued by any court or Justice or Community Magistrate or other person having jurisdiction to issue the warrant, and every person lawfully assisting him, is justified in executing the warrant; and every prison manager required under the warrant to receive and detain any person is justified in receiving and detaining him.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 46

    Section 26(1): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

    Section 26(2): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

    Section 26(3): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

    Section 26(3): amended, on 30 June 1998, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1998 (1998 No 79).

27 Execution of erroneous sentence or process
  • If a sentence is passed or a process is issued by a court having jurisdiction under any circumstances to pass such a sentence or issue such a process, or if a warrant is issued by a court or person having jurisdiction under any circumstances to issue such a warrant, the sentence passed or process or warrant issued shall be sufficient to justify the execution of it by every officer, prison manager, or other person authorised to execute it, and by every person lawfully assisting him, notwithstanding that—

    • (a) the court passing the sentence or issuing the process had no authority to pass that sentence or issue that process in the particular case; or

    • (b) the court or other person issuing the warrant had no jurisdiction to issue it, or exceeded its or his jurisdiction in issuing it, in the particular case.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 47

    Section 27: amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

28 Sentence or process without jurisdiction
  • (1) Every officer, prison manager, or person executing any sentence, process, or warrant, and every person lawfully assisting him, shall be protected from criminal responsibility if—

    • (a) he acts in good faith under the belief that the sentence or process was that of a court having jurisdiction, or, as the case may be, that the warrant was that of a court, Justice, Community Magistrate, or other person having authority to issue warrants; and

    • (b) it is proved that the person passing the sentence or issuing the process acted as such a court under colour of having some appointment or commission lawfully authorising him to act as such a court, or, as the case may require, that the person issuing the warrant acted as a Justice, Community Magistrate, or other person having authority to do so.

    (2) This section shall apply notwithstanding that, in fact,—

    • (a) any such appointment or commission as aforesaid did not exist or had expired; or

    • (b) the court or the person passing the sentence or issuing the process was not the court or the person authorised by the appointment or commission to act; or

    • (c) the person issuing the warrant was not duly authorised to issue it.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 48

    Section 28(1): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

    Section 28(1)(a): amended, on 30 June 1998, by section 3(a) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1998 (1998 No 79).

    Section 28(1)(b): amended, on 30 June 1998, by section 3(b) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1998 (1998 No 79).

29 Irregular warrant or process
  • (1) Every one acting under a warrant or process that is bad in law on account of some defect in substance or in form, apparent on the face of it, shall be protected from criminal responsibility to the same extent and subject to the same provisions as if the warrant or process were good in law if in good faith and without culpable ignorance or negligence he believed that the warrant or process was good in law; and ignorance of the law shall in this case be an excuse.

    (2) It is a question of law whether the facts of which there is evidence do or do not constitute culpable ignorance or negligence in his so believing the warrant or process to be good in law.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 50

Arrest

30 Arresting the wrong person
  • (1) Every one duly authorised to execute a warrant to arrest who thereupon arrests a person, believing in good faith and on reasonable and probable grounds that he is the person named in the warrant, shall be protected from criminal responsibility to the same extent and subject to the same provisions as if the person arrested had been the person named in the warrant.

    (2) Every one called on to assist the person making such arrest, and believing that the person in whose arrest he is called on to assist is the person for whose arrest the warrant is issued, and every prison manager who is required to receive and detain the person arrested, shall be protected from criminal responsibility to the same extent and subject to the same provisions as if the person arrested had been the person named in the warrant.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 49

    Section 30(2): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

31 Arrest by constable pursuant to statutory powers
  • Every constable is justified in arresting any person without warrant in accordance with the provisions of section 315 or in accordance with any other enactment conferring on him a power so to arrest.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 56, 57(2)

32 Arrest by constable of person believed to have committed offence
  • Where under any enactment any constable has power to arrest without warrant any person who has committed an offence, the constable is justified in arresting without warrant any person whom he believes, on reasonable and probable grounds, to have committed that offence, whether or not the offence has in fact been committed, and whether or not the arrested person committed it.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 51

33 Arrest by other officers or persons pursuant to statutory powers
  • Every officer or other person, not being a constable, who is authorised by any enactment to arrest any person without warrant is justified in so arresting any person in accordance with the provisions of that enactment.

34 Persons assisting constable or officer in arrest
  • (1) Every one called upon by a constable to assist him in the arrest of any person believed or suspected to have committed any offence is justified in assisting unless he knows that there is no reasonable ground for the belief or suspicion.

    (2) Where by any enactment it is provided that any officer or person, not being a constable, may call upon any other person to assist him in arresting without warrant any one who has committed or is found committing any offence, every person so called upon is justified in assisting unless he knows that there is no reasonable ground for believing that the person to be arrested has committed the offence.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 52

35 Arrest of persons found committing certain crimes
  • Every one is justified in arresting without warrant—

    • (a) any person whom he finds committing any offence against this Act for which the maximum punishment is not less than 3 years' imprisonment:

    • (b) any person whom he finds by night committing any offence against this Act.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 53, 57(1)

    Section 35(a): amended, on 27 March 2008, by section 4 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2008 (2008 No 8).

36 Arrest of person believed to be committing crime by night
  • Every one is protected from criminal responsibility for arresting without warrant any person whom he finds by night in circumstances affording reasonable and probable grounds for believing that that person is committing an offence against this Act.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 55

37 Arrest after commission of certain crimes
  • Where any offence against this Act has been committed, every one who believes, on reasonable and probable grounds, that any person has committed that offence is protected from criminal responsibility for arresting that person without warrant, whether or not that person committed the offence.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 54

38 Arrest during flight
  • (1) Every one is protected from criminal responsibility for arresting without warrant any person whom he believes, on reasonable and probable grounds, to have committed an offence against this Act, and to be escaping from and to be freshly pursued by any one whom he believes, on reasonable and probable grounds, to have lawful authority to arrest that person for the offence.

    (2) This section shall apply whether or not the offence has in fact been committed, and whether or not the arrested person committed it.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 58

Use of force

39 Force used in executing process or in arrest
  • Where any person is justified, or protected from criminal responsibility, in executing or assisting to execute any sentence, warrant, or process, or in making or assisting to make any arrest, that justification or protection shall extend and apply to the use by him of such force as may be necessary to overcome any force used in resisting such execution or arrest, unless the sentence, warrant, or process can be executed or the arrest made by reasonable means in a less violent manner:

    provided that, except in the case of a constable or a person called upon by a constable to assist him, this section shall not apply where the force used is intended or likely to cause death or grievous bodily harm.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 60

40 Preventing escape or rescue
  • (1) Where any person is lawfully authorised to arrest or to assist in arresting any other person, or is justified in or protected from criminal responsibility for arresting or assisting to arrest any other person, that authority, justification, or protection, as the case may be, shall extend and apply to the use of such force as may be necessary—

    • (a) to prevent the escape of that other person if he takes to flight in order to avoid arrest; or

    • (b) to prevent the escape or rescue of that other person after his arrest—

    unless in any such case the escape or rescue can be prevented by reasonable means in a less violent manner:

    provided that, except in the case of a constable or a person called upon by a constable to assist him, this subsection shall not apply where the force used is intended or likely to cause death or grievous bodily harm.

    (2) Where any prisoner of a prison is attempting to escape from lawful custody, or is fleeing after having escaped therefrom, every constable, and every person called upon by a constable to assist him, is justified in using such force as may be necessary to prevent the escape of or to recapture the prisoner, unless in any such case the escape can be prevented or the recapture effected by reasonable means in a less violent manner.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 62, 63, 64, 65

    Section 40(2): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

41 Prevention of suicide or certain offences
  • Every one is justified in using such force as may be reasonably necessary in order to prevent the commission of suicide, or the commission of an offence which would be likely to cause immediate and serious injury to the person or property of any one, or in order to prevent any act being done which he believes, on reasonable grounds, would, if committed, amount to suicide or to any such offence.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 72

Breach of the peace

42 Preventing breach of the peace
  • (1) Every one who witnesses a breach of the peace is justified in interfering to prevent its continuance or renewal, and may detain any person committing it, in order to give him into the custody of a constable:

    provided that the person interfering shall use no more force than is reasonably necessary for preventing the continuance or renewal of the breach of the peace, or than is reasonably proportionate to the danger to be apprehended from its continuance or renewal.

    (2) Every constable who witnesses a breach of the peace, and every person lawfully assisting him, is justified in arresting any one whom he finds committing it.

    (3) Every constable is justified in receiving into custody any person given into his charge, as having been a party to a breach of the peace, by one who has witnessed it or whom the constable believes on reasonable and probable grounds to have witnessed it.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 66

43 Suppression of riot
  • Every one is justified in using such force as is necessary to suppress a riot, if the force used is not disproportionate to the danger to be apprehended from the continuance of the riot.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 67

44 Suppression of riot by Police
  • The senior constable for the time being acting at the place of any riot is justified in using and ordering to be used, and every constable is justified in using, such force as he believes, in good faith and on reasonable and probable grounds, to be necessary to suppress the riot, not being disproportionate to the danger which he believes, on reasonable and probable grounds, is to be apprehended from the continuance of the riot.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 68

    Section 44: amended, on 1 October 2008, pursuant to section 116(a)(ii) of the Policing Act 2008 (2008 No 72).

45 Suppression of riot by persons acting under lawful orders
  • (1) Every one, whether a member of the New Zealand forces or not, acting in good faith in obedience to orders for the suppression of any riot given by the senior constable for the time being acting at the place of the riot is justified in obeying the orders so given, unless those orders are manifestly unlawful; and is protected from criminal responsibility for using such force as he believes, on reasonable and probable grounds, to be necessary for carrying those orders into effect.

    (2) It is a question of law whether any particular order is manifestly unlawful or not.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 69

    Section 45(1): amended, on 1 October 2008, pursuant to section 116(a)(ii) of the Policing Act 2008 (2008 No 72).

46 Suppression of riot by persons without orders
  • Every one, whether a member of the New Zealand forces or not, who believes, in good faith and on reasonable and probable grounds, that serious mischief will arise from the riot before there is time to procure the intervention of the Police, is justified in using such force as he believes, in good faith and on reasonable and probable grounds, to be necessary to suppress the riot, not being disproportionate to the danger which he believes, on reasonable grounds, is to be apprehended from the continuance of the riot.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 70

47 Protection of members of New Zealand forces
  • (1) Every one bound as a member of the New Zealand forces to obey the lawful command of his superior officer is justified in obeying any command given him by any such officer for the suppression of a riot, unless the command is manifestly unlawful.

    (2) It is a question of law whether any particular command is manifestly unlawful or not.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 71

Defence against assault

48 Self-defence and defence of another
  • Every one is justified in using, in the defence of himself or another, such force as, in the circumstances as he believes them to be, it is reasonable to use.

    Section 48: substituted, on 1 January 1981, by section 2(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1980 (1980 No 63).

49 Self-defence against provoked assault
  • [Repealed]

    Section 49: repealed, on 1 January 1981, by section 2(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1980 (1980 No 63).

50 Provocation defined
  • [Repealed]

    Section 50: repealed, on 1 January 1981, by section 2(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1980 (1980 No 63).

51 Defence of person under protection
  • [Repealed]

    Section 51: repealed, on 1 January 1981, by section 2(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1980 (1980 No 63).

Defence of property

52 Defence of movable property against trespasser
  • (1) Every one in peaceable possession of any movable thing, and every one lawfully assisting him, is justified in using reasonable force to resist the taking of the thing by any trespasser or to retake it from any trespasser, if in either case he does not strike or do bodily harm to the trespasser.

    (2) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 77

    Section 52(2): repealed, on 1 January 1981, by section 2(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1980 (1980 No 63).

53 Defence of movable property with claim of right
  • (1) Every one in peaceable possession of any movable thing under a claim of right, and every one acting under his authority, is protected from criminal responsibility for defending his possession by the use of reasonable force, even against a person entitled by law to possession, if he does not strike or do bodily harm to the other person.

    (2) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 78

    Section 53(2): repealed, on 1 January 1981, by section 2(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1980 (1980 No 63).

54 Defence of movable property without claim of right
  • (1) Every one in peaceable possession of any movable thing, but neither claiming right thereto nor acting under the authority of a person claiming right thereto, is neither justified in nor protected from criminal responsibility for defending his possession against a person entitled by law to possession.

    (2) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 79

    Section 54(2): repealed, on 1 January 1981, by section 2(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1980 (1980 No 63).

55 Defence of dwellinghouse
  • Every one in peaceable possession of a dwellinghouse, and every one lawfully assisting him or acting by his authority, is justified in using such force as is necessary to prevent the forcible breaking and entering of the dwellinghouse by any person if he believes, on reasonable and probable grounds, that there is no lawful justification for the breaking and entering.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 80, 81; Criminal Code (1954) s 40 (Canada)

56 Defence of land or building
  • (1) Every one in peaceable possession of any land or building, and every one lawfully assisting him or acting by his authority, is justified in using reasonable force to prevent any person from trespassing on the land or building or to remove him therefrom, if he does not strike or do bodily harm to that person.

    (2) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 82

    Section 56(2): repealed, on 1 January 1981, by section 2(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1980 (1980 No 63).

Peaceable entry

57 Assertion of right to land or building
  • (1) Every one is justified in peaceably entering in the daytime on any land or building to the possession of which he, or some person under whose authority he acts, is lawfully entitled, for the purpose of taking possession thereof.

    (2) [Repealed]

    (3) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 83

    Section 57(2): repealed, on 1 January 1981, by section 2(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1980 (1980 No 63).

    Section 57(3): repealed, on 1 January 1981, by section 2(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1980 (1980 No 63).

58 Exercise of right of way, etc
  • Every one lawfully entitled to enter on any land for the exercise of any right of way or other easement or profit is justified in peaceably entering on the land for the purpose of exercising that right of way, easement, or profit:

    provided that if any one so entering has notice that his right to use that way or easement, or to take that profit, is disputed by the person in possession of the land, an assault committed by that person, or by any person acting under his authority, for the purpose of making the person entering desist from entry, shall be deemed to be provoked by the person entering.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 84

Powers of discipline

59 Parental control
  • (1) Every parent of a child and every person in the place of a parent of the child is justified in using force if the force used is reasonable in the circumstances and is for the purpose of—

    • (a) preventing or minimising harm to the child or another person; or

    • (b) preventing the child from engaging or continuing to engage in conduct that amounts to a criminal offence; or

    • (c) preventing the child from engaging or continuing to engage in offensive or disruptive behaviour; or

    • (d) performing the normal daily tasks that are incidental to good care and parenting.

    (2) Nothing in subsection (1) or in any rule of common law justifies the use of force for the purpose of correction.

    (3) Subsection (2) prevails over subsection (1).

    (4) To avoid doubt, it is affirmed that the Police have the discretion not to prosecute complaints against a parent of a child or person in the place of a parent of a child in relation to an offence involving the use of force against a child, where the offence is considered to be so inconsequential that there is no public interest in proceeding with a prosecution.

    Section 59: substituted, on 21 June 2007, by section 5 of the Crimes (Substituted Section 59) Amendment Act 2007 (2007 No 18).

60 Discipline on ship or aircraft
  • (1) The master or officer in command of a ship on a voyage or the pilot in command of an aircraft on a flight is justified in using and ordering the use of force for the purpose of maintaining good order and discipline on board his ship or aircraft if he believes on reasonable grounds that the use of force is necessary, and if the force used is reasonable in the circumstances.

    (2) Every one acting in good faith is justified in using force in obedience to any order given by the master or officer or pilot in command for the purpose aforesaid, if the force used is reasonable in the circumstances.

    (3) The reasonableness of the grounds of which the use of force was believed to be necessary, and the reasonableness of the force used, are questions of fact.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 85(2), (3)

Surgical operations

61 Surgical operations
  • Every one is protected from criminal responsibility for performing with reasonable care and skill any surgical operation upon any person for his benefit, if the performance of the operation was reasonable, having regard to the patient's state at the time and to all the circumstances of the case.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 86(1)

61A Further provisions relating to surgical operations
  • (1) Every one is protected from criminal responsibility for performing with reasonable care and skill any surgical operation upon any person if the operation is performed with the consent of that person, or of any person lawfully entitled to consent on his behalf to the operation, and for a lawful purpose.

    (2) Without limiting the term lawful purpose in subsection (1), a surgical operation that is performed for the purpose of rendering the patient sterile is performed for a lawful purpose.

    Section 61A: inserted, on 16 December 1977, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1977 (1977 No 113).

General provisions

62 Excess of force
  • Every one authorised by law to use force is criminally responsible for any excess, according to the nature and quality of the act that constitutes the excess.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 86(2)

63 Consent to death
  • No one has a right to consent to the infliction of death upon himself; and, if any person is killed, the fact that he gave any such consent shall not affect the criminal responsibility of any person who is a party to the killing.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 87

64 Obedience to de facto law
  • Every one is protected from criminal responsibility for any act done in obedience to the laws for the time being made and enforced by those in possession de facto of the sovereign power in and over the place where the act is done.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 88

65 Other enactments not affected
  • Nothing in this Act shall take away or diminish any authority given by any other enactment to arrest, detain, or put any restraint on any person.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 59

Part 4
Parties to the commission of offences

66 Parties to offences
  • (1) Every one is a party to and guilty of an offence who—

    • (a) actually commits the offence; or

    • (b) does or omits an act for the purpose of aiding any person to commit the offence; or

    • (c) abets any person in the commission of the offence; or

    • (d) incites, counsels, or procures any person to commit the offence.

    (2) Where 2 or more persons form a common intention to prosecute any unlawful purpose, and to assist each other therein, each of them is a party to every offence committed by any one of them in the prosecution of the common purpose if the commission of that offence was known to be a probable consequence of the prosecution of the common purpose.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 90

67 Conspiracy between spouses or civil union partners
  • A person is capable of conspiring with his or her spouse or civil union partner or with his or her spouse or civil union partner and any other person.

    Section 67: substituted, on 26 April 2005, by section 7 of the Relationships (Statutory References) Act 2005 (2005 No 3).

68 Party to murder outside New Zealand
  • (1) Except as hereinafter provided, every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who, in New Zealand, aids, incites, counsels, or procures the doing or omission of an act outside New Zealand which, if done or omitted in New Zealand, would be murder.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who, in New Zealand, incites, counsels, or attempts to procure the doing or omission of an act outside New Zealand which, if done or omitted in New Zealand, would be murder, when no such act is in fact done or omitted.

    (3) It is a defence to a charge under this section to prove that the doing or omission of the act was not an offence under the law of the place where it was, or was to be, done or omitted.

    (4) Nothing in this section limits or affects sections 9 to 11 of the International Crimes and International Criminal Court Act 2000.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 189(b)

    Section 68(4): added, on 1 October 2000, by section 181(1) of the International Crimes and International Criminal Court Act 2000 (2000 No 26).

69 Party to any other crime outside New Zealand
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who, in New Zealand, aids, incites, counsels, or procures the doing or omission outside New Zealand, by any person not owing allegiance to Her Majesty the Queen in right of New Zealand, of any act which, if done or omitted outside New Zealand by a person owing such allegiance, would be any of the crimes of treason, inciting to mutiny, or espionage, as specified in sections 73, 77, and 78.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who, in New Zealand, incites, counsels, or attempts to procure the doing or omission outside New Zealand of any act which, if done or omitted in New Zealand, would be any such crime as aforesaid, when that act is not in fact done or omitted.

    (3) Every one who, in New Zealand, aids, incites, counsels, or procures the doing or omission outside New Zealand of any act (not being an act to which the foregoing provisions of this section apply) which, if done or omitted in New Zealand, would be a crime other than murder, is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding that prescribed for the crime, or 7 years, whichever is the less:

    provided that it shall be a defence to a charge under this subsection to prove that the doing or omission of the act to which the charge relates was not an offence under the law of the place where it was, or was to be, done or omitted.

    (4) Except as otherwise provided in this Act, no one shall be convicted of inciting, counselling, or attempting to procure in New Zealand the doing or omission of an act outside New Zealand when that act is not in fact done or omitted.

    (5) Nothing in this section limits or affects sections 9 to 11 of the International Crimes and International Criminal Court Act 2000.

    Section 69(1): amended, on 1 July 1983, by section 2(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1982 (1982 No 157).

    Section 69(5): added, on 1 October 2000, by section 181(2) of the International Crimes and International Criminal Court Act 2000 (2000 No 26).

70 Offence committed other than offence intended
  • (1) Every one who incites, counsels, or procures another to be a party to an offence of which that other is afterwards guilty is a party to that offence, although it may be committed in a way different from that which was incited, counselled, or suggested.

    (2) Every one who incites, counsels, or procures another to be a party to an offence is a party to every offence which that other commits in consequence of such inciting, counselling, or procuring, and which the first-mentioned person knew to be likely to be committed in consequence thereof.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 91

71 Accessory after the fact
  • (1) An accessory after the fact to an offence is one who, knowing any person to have been a party to the offence, receives, comforts, or assists that person or tampers with or actively suppresses any evidence against him, in order to enable him to escape after arrest or to avoid arrest or conviction.

    (2) No person whose spouse or civil union partner has been a party to an offence becomes an accessory after the fact to that offence by doing any act to which this section applies in order to enable the spouse or civil union partner, or the spouse, civil union partner, and any other person who has been a party to the offence, to escape after arrest or to avoid arrest or conviction.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 92; Criminal Code (1954) s 23 (Canada)

    Section 71(2): substituted, on 26 April 2005, by section 7 of the Relationships (Statutory References) Act 2005 (2005 No 3).

72 Attempts
  • (1) Every one who, having an intent to commit an offence, does or omits an act for the purpose of accomplishing his object, is guilty of an attempt to commit the offence intended, whether in the circumstances it was possible to commit the offence or not.

    (2) The question whether an act done or omitted with intent to commit an offence is or is not only preparation for the commission of that offence, and too remote to constitute an attempt to commit it, is a question of law.

    (3) An act done or omitted with intent to commit an offence may constitute an attempt if it is immediately or proximately connected with the intended offence, whether or not there was any act unequivocally showing the intent to commit that offence.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 93

Part 5
Crimes against public order

Treason and other crimes against the Queen and the State

73 Treason
  • Every one owing allegiance to Her Majesty the Queen in right of New Zealand commits treason who, within or outside New Zealand,—

    • (a) kills or wounds or does grievous bodily harm to Her Majesty the Queen, or imprisons or restrains her; or

    • (b) levies war against New Zealand; or

    • (c) assists an enemy at war with New Zealand, or any armed forces against which New Zealand forces are engaged in hostilities, whether or not a state of war exists between New Zealand and any other country; or

    • (d) incites or assists any person with force to invade New Zealand; or

    • (e) uses force for the purpose of overthrowing the Government of New Zealand; or

    • (f) conspires with any person to do anything mentioned in this section.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 94; Criminal Code (1954) s 46 (Canada)

74 Punishment for treason or attempted treason
  • (1) Except as otherwise provided in this Act, every one who commits treason within the meaning of any of the provisions of paragraphs (a) to (e) of section 73 shall upon conviction be sentenced to imprisonment for life.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who commits treason within the meaning of paragraph (f) of the said section 73.

    (3) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who, owing allegiance to Her Majesty the Queen in right of New Zealand, attempts to commit treason within or outside New Zealand.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 95, 99

    Section 74(1): amended, on 26 December 1989, by section 3(2) of the Abolition of the Death Penalty Act 1989 (1989 No 119).

75 Evidence of treason
  • (1) No one shall be convicted of treason on the evidence of 1 witness only, unless the evidence of that witness is corroborated in some material particular by evidence implicating the accused.

    (2) Nothing in subsection (1) shall apply to treason within the meaning of paragraph (a) of section 73.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 96(1); Criminal Code (1954) s 47(2) (Canada)

76 Punishment for being party to treason
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who—

    • (a) becomes an accessory after the fact to treason; or

    • (b) knowing that a person is about to commit treason, fails without reasonable excuse to inform a constable as soon as possible or to use other reasonable efforts to prevent its commission.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 98

77 Inciting to mutiny
  • Every one owing allegiance to Her Majesty the Queen in right of New Zealand is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who, within or outside New Zealand, for any traitorous or mutinous purpose,—

    • (a) endeavours at any time to seduce any person serving in the New Zealand forces from his duty; or

    • (b) during any war or state of hostilities in which New Zealand forces are engaged, endeavours to seduce any person serving in any allied armed force, whether a Commonwealth force or not, from his duty.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 100; 1954 No 29 s 3

78 Espionage
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who, being a person who owes allegiance to the Queen in right of New Zealand, within or outside New Zealand,—

    • (a) with intent to prejudice the security or defence of New Zealand, communicates information or delivers any object to a country or organisation outside New Zealand or to a person acting on behalf of any such country or organisation; or

    • (b) with intent to prejudice the security or defence of New Zealand and with the intention of communicating information or delivering any object to a country or organisation outside New Zealand or to a person acting on behalf of any such country or organisation,—

      • (i) collects or records any information; or

      • (ii) copies any document; or

      • (iii) obtains any object; or

      • (iv) makes any sketch, plan, model, or note; or

      • (v) takes any photograph; or

      • (vi) records any sound or image; or

      • (vii) delivers any object to any person,—

    if the communication or delivery or intended communication or intended delivery under paragraph (a) or paragraph (b) is likely to prejudice the security or defence of New Zealand.

    Section 78: substituted, on 1 July 1983, by section 2(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1982 (1982 No 157).

78A Wrongful communication, retention, or copying of official information
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who, being a person who owes allegiance to the Queen in right of New Zealand, within or outside New Zealand,—

    • (a) knowingly or recklessly, and with knowledge that he is acting without proper authority, communicates any official information or delivers any object to any other person knowing that such communication or delivery is likely to prejudice the security or defence of New Zealand; or

    • (b) with intent to prejudice the security or defence of New Zealand, retains or copies any official document—

      • (i) which he knows he does not have proper authority to retain or copy; and

      • (ii) which he knows relates to the security or defence of New Zealand; and

      • (iii) which would, by its unauthorised disclosure, be likely to prejudice the security or defence of New Zealand; or

    • (c) knowingly fails to comply with any directions issued by a lawful authority for the return of an official document—

      • (i) which is in his possession or under his control; and

      • (ii) which he knows relates to the security or defence of New Zealand; and

      • (iii) which would, by its unauthorised disclosure, be likely to prejudice seriously the security or defence of New Zealand.

    (2) In this section,—

    department means a government department named in Part 1 of Schedule 1 of the Ombudsmen Act 1975

    object means any object which—

    • (a) a department; or

    • (b) a Minister of the Crown in his official capacity; or

    • (c) an organisation; or

    • (d) an officer or employee of any department or organisation in his capacity as such an officer or employee or in his capacity as a statutory officer; or

    • (e) an independent contractor engaged by any department or Minister of the Crown or organisation in his capacity as such contractor; or

    • (f) a branch or post, outside New Zealand, of a department or organisation; or

    • (g) an unincorporated body (being a board, council, committee, subcommittee, or other body)—

      • (i) which is established for the purpose of assisting or advising, or performing functions connected with, any department or Minister of the Crown or organisation; and

      • (ii) which is so established in accordance with the provisions of any enactment or by any department or Minister of the Crown or organisation,—

    is entitled to have in its or his possession by virtue of its or his rights as the owner, hirer, lessee, bailee, or custodian of that object

    official information

    • (a) means any information held by—

      • (i) a department; or

      • (ii) a Minister of the Crown in his official capacity; or

      • (iii) an organisation; or

      • (iv) an officer or employee of any department or organisation in his capacity as such an officer or employee or in his capacity as a statutory officer; or

      • (v) an independent contractor engaged by any department or Minister of the Crown or organisation in his capacity as such contractor; and

    • (b) includes any information held outside New Zealand by any branch or post of—

      • (i) a department; or

      • (ii) an organisation; and

    • (c) includes any information held by an unincorporated body (being a board, council, committee, subcommittee, or other body)—

      • (i) which is established for the purpose of assisting or advising, or performing functions connected with, any department or Minister of the Crown or organisation; and

      • (ii) which is so established in accordance with the provisions of any enactment or by any department or Minister of the Crown or organisation

    organisation means—

    • (a) an organisation named in Part 2 of Schedule 1 of the Ombudsmen Act 1975:

    • (b) an organisation named in Schedule 1 of the Official Information Act 1982

    statutory officer means a person—

    • (a) holding or performing the duties of an office established by an enactment; or

    • (b) performing duties expressly conferred on him by virtue of his office by an enactment.

    Section 78A: inserted, on 1 July 1983, by section 2(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1982 (1982 No 157).

78B Consent of Attorney-General to proceedings in relation to espionage or wrongful communication, retention, or copying of official information
  • (1) No information shall be laid against any person for—

    except with the consent of the Attorney-General:

    provided that a person alleged to have committed any offence mentioned in this subsection may be arrested, or a warrant for his arrest may be issued and executed, and any such person may be remanded in custody or on bail, notwithstanding that the consent of the Attorney-General to the laying of an information for the offence has not been obtained, but no further or other proceedings shall be taken until that consent has been obtained.

    (2) The Attorney-General may, before deciding whether or not to give his consent under subsection (1), make such inquiries as he thinks fit.

    Section 78B: inserted, on 1 July 1983, by section 2(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1982 (1982 No 157).

78C Questions of law in relation to espionage or wrongful communication of information
  • (1) It is a question of law, in the case of—

    whether the communication or delivery or intended communication or intended delivery was or would have been, at the time of the alleged offence, likely to have prejudiced the security or defence of New Zealand.

    (2) It is a question of law, in the case of,—

    whether the document would, by its unauthorised disclosure at the time of the alleged offence, have been likely to have prejudiced or to have prejudiced seriously, as the case may require, the security or defence of New Zealand.

    (3) Where the decision on any question of law to which this section applies depends on any questions of fact, the prosecutor or the accused may adduce, and the Judge may hear, in addition to the evidence heard by the jury, any evidence relevant to those questions of fact.

    Section 78C: inserted, on 1 July 1983, by section 2(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1982 (1982 No 157).

78D Search without warrant

[Repealed]

  • Section 78D: repealed, on 1 October 2012, by section 325(4) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

79 Sabotage
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who, with intent to prejudice the safety, security, or defence of New Zealand or the safety or security of the armed forces of any other country, lawfully present in New Zealand,—

    • (a) impairs the efficiency or impedes the working of any ship, vehicle, aircraft, arms, munitions, equipment, machinery, apparatus, or atomic or nuclear plant; or

    • (b) damages or destroys any property which it is necessary to keep intact for the safety or health of the public.

    (2) No person shall be convicted of an offence against this section by reason only of the fact that he takes part in any strike or lockout.

    Compare: Criminal Code (1954) s 52 (Canada)

Offence of oath to commit offence

  • Heading: substituted, on 1 January 2008, by section 4 of the Crimes (Repeal of Seditious Offences) Amendment Act 2007 (2007 No 96).

80 Oath to commit offence
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who—

    • (a) administers or is present at and consenting to the administration of any oath or engagement purporting to bind the person taking the same to commit any offence; or

    • (b) attempts to induce or compel any person to take any such oath or engagement; or

    • (c) takes any such oath or engagement.

    (2) No one who has been acquitted or convicted of any offence against this section is liable to be afterwards tried for treason, or for being accessory after the fact to treason, in respect of the same matter.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 115, 116

81 Seditious offences defined
  • [Repealed]

    Section 81: repealed, on 1 January 2008, by section 5 of the Crimes (Repeal of Seditious Offences) Amendment Act 2007 (2007 No 96).

82 Seditious conspiracy
  • [Repealed]

    Section 82: repealed, on 1 January 2008, by section 5 of the Crimes (Repeal of Seditious Offences) Amendment Act 2007 (2007 No 96).

83 Seditious statements
  • [Repealed]

    Section 83: repealed, on 1 January 2008, by section 5 of the Crimes (Repeal of Seditious Offences) Amendment Act 2007 (2007 No 96).

84 Publication of seditious documents
  • [Repealed]

    Section 84: repealed, on 1 January 2008, by section 5 of the Crimes (Repeal of Seditious Offences) Amendment Act 2007 (2007 No 96).

85 Use of apparatus for making seditious documents or statements
  • [Repealed]

    Section 85: repealed, on 1 January 2008, by section 5 of the Crimes (Repeal of Seditious Offences) Amendment Act 2007 (2007 No 96).

Unlawful assemblies, riots, and breaches of the peace

86 Unlawful assembly
  • (1) An unlawful assembly is an assembly of 3 or more persons who, with intent to carry out any common purpose, assemble in such a manner, or so conduct themselves when assembled, as to cause persons in the neighbourhood of the assembly to fear, on reasonable grounds, that the persons so assembled—

    • (a) will use violence against persons or property in that neighbourhood or elsewhere; or

    • (b) will, by that assembly, needlessly and without reasonable cause provoke other persons to use violence against persons or property in that neighbourhood:

    provided that no one shall be deemed to provoke other persons needlessly and without reasonable cause by doing or saying anything that he is lawfully entitled to do or say.

    (2) Persons lawfully assembled may become an unlawful assembly if, with a common purpose, they conduct themselves in such a manner that their assembling would have been unlawful if they had assembled in that manner for that purpose.

    (3) An assembly of 3 or more persons for the purpose of protecting the house of any one of their number against persons threatening to break and enter that house in order to commit a crime therein is not unlawful.

    (4) Every member of an unlawful assembly is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 101

    Section 86(1): substituted, on 1 January 1974, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1973 (1973 No 118).

87 Riot
  • (1) A riot is a group of 6 or more persons who, acting together, are using violence against persons or property to the alarm of persons in the neighbourhood of that group.

    (2) Every member of a riot is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years.

    Section 87: substituted, on 12 March 1987, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1987 (1987 No 1).

88 Reading the Riot Act
  • [Repealed]

    Section 88: repealed, on 12 March 1987, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1987 (1987 No 1).

89 Failure of rioters to disperse
  • [Repealed]

    Section 89: repealed, on 12 March 1987, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1987 (1987 No 1).

90 Riotous damage
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, being a member of a riot, unlawfully damages any property.

    Section 90: substituted, on 12 March 1987, by section 4 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1987 (1987 No 1).

91 Forcible entry and detainer
  • (1) Every one commits forcible entry when, by force or in a manner that causes or is likely to cause a breach of the peace or reasonable apprehension of a breach of the peace, he enters on land that is in the actual and peaceable possession of another for the purpose of taking possession, whether or not he is entitled to enter.

    (2) Every one commits forcible detainer when, being in actual possession of land without claim of right, he detains it, in a manner that causes or is likely to cause a breach of the peace or reasonable apprehension of a breach of the peace, against another who is entitled by law to possession of the land.

    (3) Whether there was actual possession, or claim of right, is a question of fact.

    (4) Every one who commits forcible entry or forcible detainer is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 111

    Section 91(2): amended, on 1 October 2003, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 91(3): amended, on 1 October 2003, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

Piracy

92 Piracy
  • (1) Every one who does any act amounting to piracy by the law of nations, whether that act is done within or outside New Zealand,—

    • (a) shall upon conviction thereof be sentenced to imprisonment for life if, in committing piracy, he murders, attempts to murder, or does any act likely to endanger the life of any person:

    • (b) is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years in any other case.

    (2) Any act that by the law of nations would amount to piracy if it had been done on the high seas on board or in relation to a ship shall be piracy for the purposes of this section if it is done on board or in relation to an aircraft, whether the aircraft is on or above the sea or is on or above the land.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 121

93 Piratical acts
  • (1) Every one commits a piratical act who—

    • (a) within New Zealand, or, being a New Zealand citizen or a person ordinarily resident in New Zealand, outside New Zealand, under pretence of any commission from any State other than New Zealand (whether or not that State is at war with New Zealand) or under pretence of authority from any person whatever, commits an act of hostility or robbery:

    • (b) within or outside New Zealand, enters into any New Zealand ship and throws overboard or destroys any goods on board the ship:

    • (c) within or outside New Zealand, on board any New Zealand ship—

      • (i) turns enemy or rebel and piratically runs away with the ship or any boat, weapons, ammunition, or goods; or

      • (ii) voluntarily yields up the ship or any boat, weapons, ammunition, or goods to any pirate; or

      • (iii) counsels or procures any person to yield up or run away with any ship, goods, or merchandise, or to turn pirate or go over to pirates; or

      • (iv) assaults the master or commander of any ship in order to prevent him from fighting in defence of his ship and goods; or

      • (v) imprisons or restrains the master or commander of any ship; or

      • (vi) makes or endeavours to make a revolt in the ship.

    (2) Subsection (1) shall extend and apply to aircraft as it applies to ships; and for the purposes of this subsection any reference in subsection (1) to the master or commander of any ship shall be read as a reference to the pilot in command of an aircraft.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 122

94 Punishment of piratical acts
  • Every one who commits any piratical act—

    • (a) shall upon conviction thereof be sentenced to imprisonment for life if, in committing that act, he murders, attempts to murder, or does any act likely to endanger the life of any person:

    • (b) is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years in any other case.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 122, 123

95 Attempts to commit piracy
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who, within or outside New Zealand, attempts to do any act amounting to piracy by the law of nations.

96 Conspiring to commit piracy
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who, within or outside New Zealand, conspires with any other person to do any act amounting to piracy by the law of nations.

97 Accessory after the fact to piracy
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, within or outside New Zealand, is accessory after the fact to any act amounting to piracy by the law of nations.

Slave dealing

98 Dealing in slaves
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who, within or outside New Zealand,—

    • (a) sells, purchases, transfers, barters, lets, hires, or in any way whatsoever deals with any person as a slave; or

    • (b) employs or uses any person as a slave, or permits any person to be so employed or used; or

    • (c) detains, confines, imprisons, carries away, removes, receives, transports, imports, or brings into any place whatsoever any person as a slave or to be dealt with as a slave; or

    • (d) induces any person to sell, let, or give himself, or any other person dependent on him or in his charge, as a slave; or

    • (e) in any case not covered by paragraph (d), induces any person to sell, let, or give any other person into debt-bondage or serfdom; or

    • (f) builds, fits out, sells, purchases, transfers, lets, hires, uses, provides with personnel, navigates, or serves on board any ship or aircraft for any of the purposes in paragraphs (a) to (e); or

    • (g) for gain or reward gives in marriage or transfers any woman to another person without her consent; or

    • (h) is a party to the inheritance by any person of a woman on the death of her husband; or

    • (i) being a parent or guardian of any child under the age of 18 years, delivers that child to another person with intent that the child or his labour shall be exploited; or

    • (j) agrees or offers to do any of the acts mentioned in this subsection.

    (2) For the purposes of this section—

    debt-bondage means the status or condition arising from a pledge by a debtor of his personal services, or of the personal services of any person under his control, as security for a debt, if the value of those services, as reasonably assessed, is not applied towards the liquidation of the debt or if the length and nature of those services are not limited and defined

    serfdom means the status or condition of a tenant who is by any law, custom, or agreement bound to live and labour on land belonging to another person and to render some determinate service to that other person, whether for reward or not, and who is not free to change that status or condition

    slave includes, without limitation, a person subject to debt-bondage or serfdom.

    Compare: Slave Trade Act 1824 ss 2, 3, 10 (UK); Slave Trade Act 1843 s 1 (UK)

    Section 98(1)(e): substituted, on 4 April 2001, by section 3(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2001 (2001 No 9).

    Section 98(1)(f): substituted, on 4 April 2001, by section 3(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2001 (2001 No 9).

    Section 98(2) slave: added, on 4 April 2001, by section 3(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2001 (2001 No 9).

98AA Dealing in people under 18 for sexual exploitation, removal of body parts, or engagement in forced labour
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who—

    • (a) sells, buys, transfers, barters, rents, hires, or in any other way enters into a dealing involving a person under the age of 18 years for the purpose of—

      • (i) the sexual exploitation of the person; or

      • (ii) the removal of body parts from the person; or

      • (iii) the engagement of the person in forced labour; or

    • (b) engages a person under the age of 18 years in forced labour; or

    • (c) permits a person under the age of 18 years to be engaged in forced labour; or

    • (d) detains, confines, imprisons, or carries away a person under the age of 18 years for the purpose of—

      • (i) the sexual exploitation of the person; or

      • (ii) the removal of body parts from the person; or

      • (iii) the engagement of the person in forced labour; or

    • (e) removes, receives, transports, imports, or brings into any place a person under the age of 18 years for the purpose of—

      • (i) the sexual exploitation of the person; or

      • (ii) the removal of body parts from the person for a material benefit; or

      • (iii) the engagement of the person in forced labour; or

    • (f) induces a person under the age of 18 years to sell, rent, or give himself or herself for the purpose of—

      • (i) the sexual exploitation of the person; or

      • (ii) the removal of body parts from the person for a material benefit; or

      • (iii) the engagement of the person in forced labour; or

    • (g) induces a person to sell, rent, or give another person (being a person who is under the age of 18 years and who is dependent on him or her or in his or her charge) for the purpose of—

      • (i) the sexual exploitation of the other person; or

      • (ii) the removal of body parts from the other person; or

      • (iii) the engagement of the other person in forced labour; or

    • (h) builds, fits out, sells, buys, transfers, rents, hires, uses, provides with personnel, navigates, or serves on board a ship, aircraft, or other vehicle for the purpose of doing an act stated in any of paragraphs (a) to (g); or

    • (i) agrees or offers to do an act stated in any of paragraphs (a) to (h).

    (2) It is a defence to a charge under this section if the person charged proves that he or she believed on reasonable grounds that the person under the age of 18 years concerned was of or over the age of 18 years.

    (3) For the purposes of subsection (1), sexual exploitation, in relation to a person, includes the following acts:

    • (a) the taking by any means, or transmission by any means, of still or moving images of the person engaged in explicit sexual activities (whether real or simulated):

    • (b) the taking by any means or transmission by any means, for a material benefit, of still or moving images of the person's genitalia, anus, or breasts (not being an act described in subsection (4) or subsection (5)):

    • (c) the person's participation in a performance or display (not being an act described in subsection (4)) that—

      • (i) is undertaken for a material benefit; and

      • (ii) involves the exposure of the person's genitalia, anus, or breasts:

    • (d) the person's undertaking of an activity (for example, employment in a restaurant) that—

      • (i) is undertaken for a material benefit; and

      • (ii) involves the exposure of the person's genitalia, anus, or breasts.

    (4) For the purposes of paragraphs (b) and (c) of subsection (3), sexual exploitation, in relation to a person, does not include the recording or transmission of an artistic or cultural performance or display honestly undertaken primarily for purposes other than the exposure of body parts for the sexual gratification of viewers.

    (5) For the purposes of subsection (3)(b), sexual exploitation, in relation to a person, does not include the taking or transmission of images of the person's genitalia, anus, or breasts for the purpose of depicting a medical condition, or a surgical or medical technique, for the instruction or information of health professionals.

    (6) For the purposes of subsection (3)(b), sexual exploitation, in relation to a person, does not include the taking or transmission of images of the person's genitalia, anus, or breasts if the images are honestly intended—

    • (a) to provide medical or health education; or

    • (b) to provide information relating to medical or health matters; or

    • (c) to advertise a product, instrument, or service intended to be used for medical or health purposes.

    (7) The person under the age of 18 years in respect of whom an offence against this section was committed cannot be charged as a party to the offence.

    (8) This section does not limit or affect the generality of section 98.

    Section 98AA: inserted, on 14 June 2006, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

Participation in criminal gang

  • Heading: inserted, on 1 January 1998, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1997 (1997 No 93).

98A Participation in organised criminal group
  • (1) Every person commits an offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who participates in an organised criminal group—

    • (a) knowing that 3 or more people share any 1 or more of the objectives (the particular objective or particular objectives) described in paragraphs (a) to (d) of subsection (2) (whether or not the person himself or herself shares the particular objective or particular objectives); and

    • (b) either knowing that his or her conduct contributes, or being reckless as to whether his or her conduct may contribute, to the occurrence of any criminal activity; and

    • (c) either knowing that the criminal activity contributes, or being reckless as to whether the criminal activity may contribute, to achieving the particular objective or particular objectives of the organised criminal group.

    (2) For the purposes of this Act, a group is an organised criminal group if it is a group of 3 or more people who have as their objective or one of their objectives—

    • (a) obtaining material benefits from the commission of offences that are punishable by imprisonment for a term of 4 years or more; or

    • (b) obtaining material benefits from conduct outside New Zealand that, if it occurred in New Zealand, would constitute the commission of offences that are punishable by imprisonment for a term of 4 years or more; or

    • (c) the commission of serious violent offences; or

    • (d) conduct outside New Zealand that, if it occurred in New Zealand, would constitute the commission of serious violent offences.

    (3) A group of people is capable of being an organised criminal group for the purposes of this Act whether or not—

    • (a) some of them are subordinates or employees of others; or

    • (b) only some of the people involved in it at a particular time are involved in the planning, arrangement, or execution at that time of any particular action, activity, or transaction; or

    • (c) its membership changes from time to time.

    Section 98A: substituted, on 18 June 2002, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2002 (2002 No 20).

    Section 98A(1): substituted, on 1 December 2009, by section 5(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2009 (2009 No 47).

    Section 98A(2)(c): amended, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(5) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

    Section 98A(2)(c): amended, on 1 December 2009, by section 5(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2009 (2009 No 47).

    Section 98A(2)(d): amended, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(5) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

    Section 98A(2)(d): amended, on 1 December 2009, by section 5(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2009 (2009 No 47).

Smuggling and trafficking in people

  • Heading: inserted, on 18 June 2002, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2002 (2002 No 20).

98B Terms used in sections 98C to 98F
  • In sections 98C to 98F, unless the context otherwise requires,—

    act of coercion against the person includes—

    • (a) abducting the person:

    • (b) using force in respect of the person:

    • (c) harming the person:

    • (d) threatening the person (expressly or by implication) with the use of force in respect of, or the harming of, the person or some other person

    act of deception includes fraudulent action

    arranges for an unauthorised migrant to be brought to a State includes—

    • (a) organises or procures the bringing to a State:

    • (b) recruits for bringing to a State:

    • (c) carries to a State

    arranges for an unauthorised migrant to enter a State includes—

    • (a) organises or procures the entry into a State:

    • (b) recruits for entry into a State:

    • (c) carries into a State

    document includes a thing that is or is intended to be—

    • (a) attached to a document; or

    • (b) stamped or otherwise signified on a document

    harming of a person means causing harm of any kind to the person; and (in particular) includes—

    • (a) causing physical, psychological, or financial harm to the person:

    • (b) sexually mistreating the person:

    • (c) causing harm to the person's reputation, status, or prospects

    unauthorised migrant, in relation to a State, means a person who is neither a citizen of the State nor in possession of all the documents required by or under the law of the State for the person's lawful entry into the State.

    Section 98B: inserted, on 18 June 2002, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2002 (2002 No 20).

    Section 98B for a material benefit: repealed, on 20 May 2005, by section 3(3) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

98C Smuggling migrants
  • (1) Every one is liable to the penalty stated in subsection (3) who arranges for an unauthorised migrant to enter New Zealand or any other State, if he or she—

    • (a) does so for a material benefit; and

    • (b) either knows that the person is, or is reckless as to whether the person is, an unauthorised migrant.

    (2) Every one is liable to the penalty stated in subsection (3) who arranges for an unauthorised migrant to be brought to New Zealand or any other State, if he or she—

    • (a) does so for a material benefit; and

    • (b) either knows that the person is, or is reckless as to whether the person is, an unauthorised migrant; and

    • (c) either—

      • (i) knows that the person intends to try to enter the State; or

      • (ii) is reckless as to whether the person intends to try to enter the State.

    (3) The penalty is imprisonment for a term not exceeding 20 years, a fine not exceeding $500,000, or both.

    (4) Proceedings may be brought under subsection (1) even if the unauthorised migrant did not in fact enter the State concerned.

    (5) Proceedings may be brought under subsection (2) even if the unauthorised migrant was not in fact brought to the State concerned.

    Section 98C: inserted, on 18 June 2002, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2002 (2002 No 20).

98D Trafficking in people by means of coercion or deception
  • (1) Every one is liable to the penalty stated in subsection (2) who—

    • (a) arranges the entry of a person into New Zealand or any other State by 1 or more acts of coercion against the person, 1 or more acts of deception of the person, or both; or

    • (b) arranges, organises, or procures the reception, concealment, or harbouring in New Zealand or any other State of a person, knowing that the person's entry into New Zealand or that State was arranged by 1 or more acts of coercion against the person, 1 or more acts of deception of the person, or both.

    (2) The penalty is imprisonment for a term not exceeding 20 years, a fine not exceeding $500,000, or both.

    (3) Proceedings may be brought under this section even if the person coerced or deceived—

    • (a) did not in fact enter the State concerned; or (as the case may be)

    • (b) was not in fact received, concealed, or harboured in the State concerned.

    (4) Proceedings may be brought under this section even if parts of the process by which the person coerced or deceived was brought or came to or towards the State concerned were accomplished without an act of coercion or deception.

    Section 98D: inserted, on 18 June 2002, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2002 (2002 No 20).

98E Aggravating factors
  • (1) When determining the sentence to be imposed on, or other way of dealing with, a person convicted of an offence against section 98C or section 98D, a court must take into account—

    • (a) whether bodily harm or death (whether to or of a person in respect of whom the offence was committed or some other person) occurred during the commission of the offence:

    • (b) whether the offence was committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with, an organised criminal group (within the meaning of section 98A(2)):

    • (c) whether a person in respect of whom the offence was committed was subjected to inhuman or degrading treatment as a result of the commission of the offence:

    • (d) if during the proceedings concerned the person was convicted of the same offence in respect of 2 or more people, the number of people in respect of whom the offence was committed.

    (2) When determining the sentence to be imposed on, or other way of dealing with, a person convicted of an offence against section 98D, a court must also take into account—

    • (a) whether a person in respect of whom the offence was committed was subjected to exploitation (for example, sexual exploitation, a requirement to undertake forced labour, or the removal of organs) as a result of the commission of the offence:

    • (b) the age of the person in respect of whom the offence was committed and, in particular, whether the person was under the age of 18 years:

    • (c) whether the person convicted committed the offence, or took actions that were part of it, for a material benefit.

    (3) The examples in paragraph (a) of subsection (2) do not limit the generality of that paragraph.

    (4) This section does not limit the matters that a court may take into account when determining the sentence to be imposed on, or other way of dealing with, a person convicted of an offence against section 98C or section 98D.

    Section 98E: inserted, on 18 June 2002, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2002 (2002 No 20).

98F Attorney-General's consent to prosecutions required
  • (1) Proceedings for an offence against section 98C or section 98D cannot be brought in a New Zealand court without the Attorney-General's consent.

    (2) A person alleged to have committed an offence against section 98C or section 98D may be arrested, or a warrant for the person's arrest may be issued and executed, and the person be remanded in custody or on bail, even though the Attorney-General's consent to the bringing of proceedings against the person has not been obtained.

    Section 98F: inserted, on 18 June 2002, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2002 (2002 No 20).

Part 6
Crimes affecting the administration of law and justice

Bribery and corruption

99 Interpretation
  • In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires,—

    bribe means any money, valuable consideration, office, or employment, or any benefit, whether direct or indirect

    judicial officer means a Judge of any court, or a District Court Judge, Coroner, Justice of the Peace, or Community Magistrate, or any other person holding any judicial office, or any person who is a member of any tribunal authorised by law to take evidence on oath

    law enforcement officer means any constable, or any person employed in the detection or prosecution or punishment of offenders

    official means any person in the service of Her Majesty in right of New Zealand (whether that service is honorary or not, and whether it is within or outside New Zealand), or any member or employee of any local authority or public body, or any person employed in the education service within the meaning of the State Sector Act 1988.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 126, 127

    Section 99 judicial officer: amended, on 30 June 1998, by section 4 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1998 (1998 No 79).

    Section 99 judicial officer: amended, on 1 April 1980, pursuant to section 18(2) of the District Courts Amendment Act 1979 (1979 No 125).

    Section 99 official: amended, on 3 May 1997, by section 4 of the State Sector Amendment Act 1997 (1997 No 8).

100 Judicial corruption
  • (1) Every judicial officer is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who corruptly accepts or obtains, or agrees or offers to accept or attempts to obtain, any bribe for himself or any other person in respect of any act done or omitted, or to be done or omitted, by him in his judicial capacity.

    (2) Every judicial officer, and every Registrar or Deputy Registrar of any court, is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who corruptly accepts or obtains, or agrees or offers to accept or attempts to obtain, any bribe for himself or any other person in respect of any act done or omitted, or to be done or omitted, by him in his official capacity, not being an act or omission to which subsection (1) applies.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 126(a), 127(a)

101 Bribery of judicial officer, etc
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who corruptly gives or offers or agrees to give any bribe to any person with intent to influence any judicial officer in respect of any act or omission by him in his judicial capacity.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who corruptly gives or offers or agrees to give any bribe to any person with intent to influence any judicial officer or any Registrar or Deputy Registrar of any court in respect of any act or omission by him in his official capacity, not being an act or omission to which subsection (1) applies.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 126(b), 127(b)

    Section 101(2): amended, on 3 May 2001, by section 4 of the Crimes (Bribery of Foreign Public Officials) Amendment Act 2001 (2001 No 28).

102 Corruption and bribery of Minister of the Crown
  • (1) Every Minister of the Crown or member of the Executive Council is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who corruptly accepts or obtains, or agrees or offers to accept or attempts to obtain, any bribe for himself or any other person in respect of any act done or omitted, or to be done or omitted, by him in his capacity as a Minister or member of the Executive Council.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who corruptly gives or offers or agrees to give any bribe to any person with intent to influence any Minister of the Crown or member of the Executive Council in respect of any act or omission by him in his capacity as a Minister or member of the Executive Council.

    (3) No one shall be prosecuted for an offence against this section without the leave of a Judge of the High Court. Notice of the intention to apply for such leave shall be given to the person whom it is intended to prosecute, and he shall have an opportunity of being heard against the application.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 128, 362; Criminal Code (1954) s 100 (Canada)

    Section 102(3): amended, on 1 April 1980, pursuant to section 12 of the Judicature Amendment Act 1979 (1979 No 124).

103 Corruption and bribery of member of Parliament
  • (1) Every member of Parliament is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who corruptly accepts or obtains, or agrees or offers to accept or attempts to obtain, any bribe for himself or any other person in respect of any act done or omitted, or to be done or omitted, by him in his capacity as a member of Parliament.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who corruptly gives or offers or agrees to give any bribe to any person with intent to influence any member of Parliament in respect of any act or omission by him in his capacity as a member of Parliament.

    (3) No one shall be prosecuted for an offence against this section without the leave of a Judge of the High Court. Notice of the intention to apply for such leave shall be given to the person whom it is intended to prosecute, and he shall have an opportunity of being heard against the application.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 128, 362; Criminal Code (1954) s 100 (Canada)

    Section 103(2): amended, on 3 May 2001, by section 5 of the Crimes (Bribery of Foreign Public Officials) Amendment Act 2001 (2001 No 28).

    Section 103(3): amended, on 1 April 1980, pursuant to section 12 of the Judicature Amendment Act 1979 (1979 No 124).

104 Corruption and bribery of law enforcement officer
  • (1) Every law enforcement officer is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who corruptly accepts or obtains, or agrees or offers to accept or attempts to obtain, any bribe for himself or any other person in respect of any act done or omitted, or to be done or omitted, by him in his official capacity.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who corruptly gives or offers or agrees to give any bribe to any person with intent to influence any law enforcement officer in respect of any act or omission by him in his official capacity.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 127

    Section 104(2): amended, on 3 May 2001, by section 6 of the Crimes (Bribery of Foreign Public Officials) Amendment Act 2001 (2001 No 28).

105 Corruption and bribery of official
  • (1) Every official is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, whether within New Zealand or elsewhere, corruptly accepts or obtains, or agrees or offers to accept or attempts to obtain, any bribe for himself or any other person in respect of any act done or omitted, or to be done or omitted, by him in his official capacity.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who corruptly gives or offers or agrees to give any bribe to any person with intent to influence any official in respect of any act or omission by him in his official capacity.

    Compare: Criminal Code (1954) s 102 (Canada)

    Section 105(2): amended, on 3 May 2001, by section 7 of the Crimes (Bribery of Foreign Public Officials) Amendment Act 2001 (2001 No 28).

105A Corrupt use of official information
  • Every official is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, whether within New Zealand or elsewhere, corruptly uses or discloses any information, acquired by him in his official capacity, to obtain, directly or indirectly, an advantage or a pecuniary gain for himself or any other person.

    Section 105A: inserted, on 1 July 1983, by section 3(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1982 (1982 No 157).

    Section 105A: amended, on 1 July 1993, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1993 (1993 No 33).

105B Use or disclosure of personal information disclosed in breach of section 105A
  • (1) Every person is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who,—

    • (a) having received personal information (being information that comes into that person's possession as a result of the commission of an offence against section 105A); and

    • (b) knowing that the information has been disclosed in contravention of that section,—

    uses or discloses that information to obtain, directly or indirectly, an advantage or pecuniary gain for that person or any other person.

    (2) It is a defence to a charge under this section if the person charged proves that the person was legally authorised to use or disclose the information.

    (3) In this section, the term personal information means any information about an identifiable natural person, including a deceased natural person.

    Section 105B: inserted, on 1 July 1993, by section 3(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1993 (1993 No 33).

105C Bribery of foreign public official
  • (1) In this section and in sections 105D and 105E,—

    benefit means any money, valuable consideration, office, or employment, or any benefit, whether direct or indirect

    foreign country includes—

    • (a) a territory for whose international relations the government of a foreign country is responsible; and

    • (b) an organised foreign area or entity including an autonomous territory or a separate customs territory

    foreign government includes all levels and subdivisions of government, such as local, regional, and national government

    foreign public agency means any person or body, wherever situated, that carries out a public function under the laws of a foreign country

    foreign public enterprise means—

    • (a) a company, wherever incorporated, that—

      • (i) a foreign government is able to control or dominate (whether by reason of its ownership of shares in the company, its voting powers in the company, or its ability to appoint 1 or more directors (however described), or by reason that the directors (however described) are accustomed or under an obligation to act in accordance with the directions of that government, or otherwise); and

      • (ii) enjoys subsidies or other privileges that are enjoyed only by companies, persons, or bodies to which subparagraph (i) or paragraph (b)(i) apply; or

    • (b) a person or body (other than a company), wherever situated, that—

      • (i) a foreign government is able to control or dominate (whether by reason of its ability to appoint the person or 1 or more members of the body, or by reason that the person or members of the body are accustomed or under an obligation to act in accordance with the directions of that government, or otherwise); and

      • (ii) enjoys subsidies or other privileges that are enjoyed only by companies, persons, or bodies to which subparagraph (i) or paragraph (a)(i) apply

    foreign public official includes any of the following:

    • (a) a member or officer of the executive, judiciary, or legislature of a foreign country:

    • (b) a person who is employed by a foreign government, foreign public agency, foreign public enterprise, or public international organisation:

    • (c) a person, while acting in the service of or purporting to act in the service of a foreign government, foreign public agency, foreign public enterprise, or public international organisation

    public international organisation means any of the following organisations, wherever situated:

    • (a) an organisation of which 2 or more countries or 2 or more governments are members, or represented on the organisation:

    • (b) an organisation constituted by an organisation to which paragraph (a) applies or by persons representing 2 or more such organisations:

    • (c) an organisation constituted by persons representing 2 or more countries or 2 or more governments:

    • (d) an organisation that is part of an organisation referred to in any of paragraphs (a) to (c)

    routine government action, in relation to the performance of any action by a foreign public official, does not include—

    • (a) any decision about—

      • (i) whether to award new business; or

      • (ii) whether to continue existing business with any particular person or body; or

      • (iii) the terms of new business or existing business; or

    • (b) any action that is outside the scope of the ordinary duties of that official.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who corruptly gives or offers or agrees to give a bribe to a person with intent to influence a foreign public official in respect of any act or omission by that official in his or her official capacity (whether or not the act or omission is within the scope of the official's authority) in order to—

    • (a) obtain or retain business; or

    • (b) obtain any improper advantage in the conduct of business.

    (3) This section does not apply if—

    • (a) the act that is alleged to constitute the offence was committed for the sole or primary purpose of ensuring or expediting the performance by a foreign public official of a routine government action; and

    • (b) the value of the benefit is small.

    (4) This section is subject to section 105E.

    Section 105C: inserted, on 3 May 2001, by section 8 of the Crimes (Bribery of Foreign Public Officials) Amendment Act 2001 (2001 No 28).

105D Bribery outside New Zealand of foreign public official
  • (1) Every one commits an offence who, being a person described in subsection (2), does, outside New Zealand, any act that would, if done in New Zealand, constitute an offence against section 105C.

    (2) Subsection (1) applies to a person who is—

    • (a) a New Zealand citizen; or

    • (b) ordinarily resident in New Zealand; or

    • (c) a body corporate incorporated in New Zealand; or

    • (d) a corporation sole incorporated in New Zealand.

    (3) Every one who commits an offence against this section is liable to the same penalty to which the person would have been liable if the person had been convicted of an offence against section 105C.

    (4) This section is subject to section 105E.

    Section 105D: inserted, on 3 May 2001, by section 8 of the Crimes (Bribery of Foreign Public Officials) Amendment Act 2001 (2001 No 28).

105E Exception for acts lawful in country of foreign public official
  • (1) Sections 105C and 105D do not apply if the act that is alleged to constitute an offence under either of those sections—

    • (a) was done outside New Zealand; and

    • (b) was not, at the time of its commission, an offence under the laws of the foreign country in which the principal office of the person, organisation, or other body for whom the foreign public official is employed or otherwise provides services, is situated.

    (2) If a person is charged with an offence under section 105C or section 105D, it is to be presumed, unless the person charged puts the matter at issue, that the act was an offence under the laws of the foreign country referred to in subsection (1)(b).

    Section 105E: inserted, on 3 May 2001, by section 8 of the Crimes (Bribery of Foreign Public Officials) Amendment Act 2001 (2001 No 28).

106 Restrictions on prosecution
  • (1) No one shall be prosecuted for an offence against any of the provisions of sections 100, 101, 104, 105, 105A, 105B, 105C, and 105D without the leave of the Attorney-General, who before giving leave may make such inquiries as he thinks fit.

    (2) No Judge who holds his office subject to a power of removal by Her Majesty on an address of the House of Representatives shall be prosecuted for any such offence except by the Attorney-General in pursuance of a resolution of that House.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 361

    Section 106(1): amended, on 3 May 2001, by section 9 of the Crimes (Bribery of Foreign Public Officials) Amendment Act 2001 (2001 No 28).

    Section 106(1): amended, on 1 July 1993, by section 3(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1993 (1993 No 33).

    Section 106(1): amended, on 1 July 1983, by section 3(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1982 (1982 No 157).

Contravention of statute

107 Contravention of statute
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year who, without lawful excuse, contravenes any enactment by wilfully doing any act which it forbids, or by wilfully omitting to do any act which it requires to be done, unless—

    • (a) some penalty or punishment is expressly provided by law in respect of such contravention as aforesaid; or

    • (b) in the case of any such contravention in respect of which no penalty or punishment is so provided, the act forbidden or required to be done is solely of an administrative or a ministerial or procedural nature, or it is otherwise inconsistent with the intent and object of the enactment, or with its context, that the contravention should be regarded as an offence.

    (2) Nothing in subsection (1) applies to any contravention of any Imperial enactment or Imperial subordinate legislation that is part of the laws of New Zealand, or to any omission to do any act which any such Imperial enactment or Imperial subordinate legislation requires to be done.

    (3) In subsection (2), the terms Imperial enactment and Imperial subordinate legislation have the meanings given to them by section 2 of the Imperial Laws Application Act 1988.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 129

    Section 107(2): added, on 1 January 1989, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1988 (1988 No 114).

    Section 107(3): added, on 1 January 1989, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1988 (1988 No 114).

Misleading justice

108 Perjury defined
  • (1) Perjury is an assertion as to a matter of fact, opinion, belief, or knowledge made by a witness in a judicial proceeding as part of his evidence on oath, whether the evidence is given in open court or by affidavit or otherwise, that assertion being known to the witness to be false and being intended by him to mislead the tribunal holding the proceeding.

    (2) In this section the term oath includes an affirmation, and also includes a declaration made under section 13 of the Oaths and Declarations Act 1957.

    (3) Every person is a witness within the meaning of this section who actually gives evidence, whether he is competent to be a witness or not, and whether his evidence is admissible or not.

    (4) Every proceeding is judicial within the meaning of this section if it is held before any of the following tribunals, namely:

    • (a) any court of justice:

    • (b) the House of Representatives or any Committee of that House:

    • (c) any arbitrator or umpire, or any person or body of persons authorised by law to make an inquiry and take evidence therein upon oath:

    • (d) any legal tribunal by which any legal right or liability can be established:

    • (e) any person acting as a court or tribunal having power to hold a judicial proceeding:

    (5) Every such proceeding is judicial within the meaning of this section whether the tribunal was duly constituted or appointed or not, and whether the proceeding was duly instituted or not, and whether the proceeding was invalid or not.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 130

    Section 108(4)(f): substituted, on 1 July 2009, by section 81 of the Armed Forces Discipline Amendment Act (No 2) 2007 (2007 No 98).

109 Punishment of perjury
  • (1) Except as provided in subsection (2), every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who commits perjury.

    (2) If perjury is committed in order to procure the conviction of a person for any offence for which the maximum punishment is not less than 3 years' imprisonment, the punishment may be imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 131

    Section 109(2): amended, on 26 December 1989, by section 3(3) of the Abolition of the Death Penalty Act 1989 (1989 No 119).

110 False oaths
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who, being required or authorised by law to make any statement on oath or affirmation, thereupon makes a statement that would amount to perjury if made in a judicial proceeding.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 132

111 False statements or declarations
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who, on any occasion on which he is required or permitted by law to make any statement or declaration before any officer or person authorised by law to take or receive it, or before any notary public to be certified by him as such notary, makes a statement or declaration that would amount to perjury if made on oath in a judicial proceeding.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 133

112 Evidence of perjury, false oath, or false statement
  • No one shall be convicted of perjury, or of any offence against section 110 or section 111, on the evidence of 1 witness only, unless the evidence of that witness is corroborated in some material particular by evidence implicating the accused.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 134; Criminal Code (1954) s 115 (Canada)

113 Fabricating evidence
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, with intent to mislead any tribunal holding any judicial proceeding to which section 108 applies, fabricates evidence by any means other than perjury.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 135

114 Use of purported affidavit or declaration
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who—

    • (a) signs a writing that purports to be an affidavit sworn before him or a statutory declaration taken by him, when the writing was not so sworn or taken, or when he knows that he has no authority to administer that oath or take that declaration; or

    • (b) uses or offers for use any writing purporting to be an affidavit or statutory declaration that he knows was not sworn or made, as the case may be, by the deponent or before a person authorised to administer that oath or take that declaration.

    Compare: Criminal Code (1954) s 118 (Canada)

115 Conspiring to bring false accusation
  • Every one who conspires to prosecute any person for any alleged offence, knowing that person to be innocent thereof, is liable—

    • (a) to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years if that person might, on conviction of the alleged offence, be sentenced to preventive detention, or to imprisonment for a term of 3 years or more:

    • (b) to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years if that person might, on conviction of the alleged offence, be sentenced to imprisonment for a term less than 3 years.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 136

    Section 115(a): amended, on 26 December 1989, by section 3(4) of the Abolition of the Death Penalty Act 1989 (1989 No 119).

116 Conspiring to defeat justice
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who conspires to obstruct, prevent, pervert, or defeat the course of justice in New Zealand or the course of justice in an overseas jurisdiction.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 137

    Section 116: amended, on 18 June 2002, by section 6(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2002 (2002 No 20).

117 Corrupting juries and witnesses
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who—

    • (a) dissuades or attempts to dissuade a person, by threats, bribes, or other corrupt means, from giving evidence in any cause or matter (whether civil or criminal, and whether tried or to be tried in New Zealand or in an overseas jurisdiction); or

    • (b) influences or attempts to influence, by threats or bribes or other corrupt means, a member of a jury in his or her conduct as such (whether in a cause or matter tried or to be tried in New Zealand or in an overseas jurisdiction, and whether the member has been sworn as a member of a particular jury or not); or

    • (c) accepts any bribe or other corrupt consideration to abstain from giving evidence (whether in a cause or matter tried or to be tried in New Zealand or in an overseas jurisdiction); or

    • (d) accepts any bribe or other corrupt consideration on account of his or her conduct as a member of a jury (whether in a cause or matter tried or to be tried in New Zealand or in an overseas jurisdiction, and whether the member has been sworn as a member of a particular jury or not); or

    • (e) wilfully attempts in any other way to obstruct, prevent, pervert, or defeat the course of justice in New Zealand or the course of justice in an overseas jurisdiction.

    Section 117: substituted, on 18 June 2002, by section 7(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2002 (2002 No 20).

Escapes and rescues

118 Assisting escape of prisoners of war or internees
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who knowingly and wilfully—

    • (a) assists any prisoner of war detained in New Zealand, or any person interned in New Zealand, to escape from any place in which he is for the time being detained; or

    • (b) assists any such prisoner or person as aforesaid, suffered to be at large on his parole in New Zealand, to escape from the place where he is at large on his parole.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 140

119 Breaking prison
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who by force or violence breaks any prison, with intent to set at liberty himself or any other person detained therein.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 141; 1954 No 51 Schedule 1

    Section 119 heading: amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

    Section 119: amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

120 Escape from lawful custody
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who,—

    • (a) having been convicted of an offence, escapes from any lawful custody in which he may be under the conviction; or

    • (b) whether convicted or not, escapes from any prison in which he is lawfully detained; or

    • (ba) being subject to an order or direction made under any of sections 38, 42, and 44 of the Criminal Procedure (Mentally Impaired Persons) Act 2003 or section 184T(3) of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957, escapes from the place in which he or she is required to stay under the order; or

    • (c) being in lawful custody otherwise than aforesaid, escapes from such custody.

    (2) For the purposes of this section, custody under an illegal warrant or other irregular process shall be deemed to be lawful.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 142, 143, 147(2); 1954 No 51 Schedule 1

    Section 120(1)(b): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

    Section 120(1)(ba): substituted, on 1 September 2004, by section 51 of the Criminal Procedure (Mentally Impaired Persons) Act 2003 (2003 No 115).

    Section 120(1)(ba): amended, on 29 June 2009, by section 18 of the Summary Proceedings Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 41).

121 Assisting escape from lawful custody
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who—

    • (a) rescues any person from lawful custody, whether in a prison or not; or

    • (b) assists any person in escaping or attempting to escape from lawful custody, whether in a prison or not; or

    • (c) with intent to facilitate the escape of any person lawfully detained in a prison, conveys or causes to be conveyed into any prison any thing whatever.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who—

    • (a) being a constable who has any person in his lawful custody, voluntarily and intentionally permits that person to escape from such custody:

    • (aa) being a security officer (within the meaning of section 3(1) of the Corrections Act 2004) in whose custody any person is lawfully detained, voluntarily and intentionally permits that person to escape from such custody:

    • (b) being an officer of a prison in which any person is lawfully detained, voluntarily and intentionally permits that person to escape from the prison.

    (3) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year who, by failing to perform any legal duty, permits any person in his lawful custody to escape.

    (4) For the purposes of this section, custody under an irregular warrant or other irregular process shall be deemed to be lawful.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 144, 145, 146, 147, 149; 1954 No 51 Schedule 1

    Section 121(1)(a): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

    Section 121(1)(b): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

    Section 121(1)(c): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

    Section 121(2)(aa): inserted, on 1 March 1995, by section 27(1) of the Penal Institutions Amendment Act 1994 (1994 No 120).

    Section 121(2)(aa): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

    Section 121(2)(b): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

122 Assisting escape of mentally impaired person detained for offence
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who—

    • (b) being a constable, an officer of a prison, a security officer within the meaning of section 3(1) of the Corrections Act 2004, or an officer of or employee in any hospital within the meaning of the Mental Health (Compulsory Assessment and Treatment) Act 1992, or a secure facility within the meaning of the Intellectual Disability (Compulsory Care and Rehabilitation) Act 2003, and who has in his or her custody any person lawfully detained as a special patient under the Mental Health (Compulsory Assessment and Treatment) Act 1992 or as a special care recipient under the Intellectual Disability (Compulsory Care and Rehabilitation) Act 2003, voluntarily and intentionally permits that person to escape from custody, whether while the person is being taken to or from any of the places specified in paragraph (a) or otherwise.

    Section 122: substituted, on 1 September 2004, by section 51 of the Criminal Procedure (Mentally Impaired Persons) Act 2003 (2003 No 115).

    Section 122(b): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

Part 7
Crimes against religion, morality, and public welfare

Crime against religion

123 Blasphemous libel
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year who publishes any blasphemous libel.

    (2) Whether any particular published matter is or is not a blasphemous libel is a question of fact.

    (3) It is not an offence against this section to express in good faith and in decent language, or to attempt to establish by arguments used in good faith and conveyed in decent language, any opinion whatever on any religious subject.

    (4) No one shall be prosecuted for an offence against this section without the leave of the Attorney-General, who before giving leave may make such inquiries as he thinks fit.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 150

Crimes against morality and decency

124 Distribution or exhibition of indecent matter
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years who, without lawful justification or excuse,—

    • (a) sells, exposes for sale, or otherwise distributes to the public any indecent model or object; or

    • (b) exhibits or presents in or within view of any place to which the public have or are permitted to have access any indecent object or indecent show or performance; or

    • (c) exhibits or presents in the presence of any person in consideration or expectation of any payment or otherwise for gain, any indecent show or performance.

    (2) It is a defence to a charge under this section to prove that the public good was served by the acts alleged to have been done.

    (3) It is a question of law whether the sale, exposure for sale, distribution, exhibition, or presentation might in the circumstances serve the public good, and whether there is evidence of excess beyond what the public good requires; but it is a question of fact whether or not the acts complained of did so serve the public good and whether or not there was such excess.

    (4) It is no defence that the person charged did not know that the model, object, show, or performance to which the charge relates was indecent, unless that person also satisfies the court—

    • (a) that he had no reasonable opportunity of knowing it; and

    • (b) that in the circumstances his ignorance was excusable.

    (5) No one shall be prosecuted for an offence against this section without the leave of the Attorney-General, who before giving leave may make such inquiries as he thinks fit.

    (6) Nothing in this section shall apply to any publication within the meaning of the Films, Videos, and Publications Classification Act 1993, whether the publication is objectionable within the meaning of that Act or not.

    (7) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 157

    Section 124(1)(b): amended, on 1 January 1967, by section 3(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1966 (1966 No 98).

    Section 124(1)(c): added, on 1 January 1967, by section 3(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1966 (1966 No 98).

    Section 124(6): substituted, on 1 October 1994, by section 150(1) of the Films, Videos, and Publications Classification Act 1993 (1993 No 94).

    Section 124(7): repealed, on 1 October 1994, by section 150(1) of the Films, Videos, and Publications Classification Act 1993 (1993 No 94).

125 Indecent act in public place
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years who wilfully does any indecent act in any place to which the public have or are permitted to have access, or within view of any such place.

    (2) It is a defence to a charge under this section if the person charged proves that he had reasonable grounds for believing that he would not be observed.

    (3) For the purposes of this section, the term place includes any railway carriage, and also includes any ship, aircraft, or vehicle used for the carriage of passengers for hire or reward.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 156(a)

126 Indecent act with intent to insult or offend
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years who with intent to insult or offend any person does any indecent act in any place.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 156(b)

Sexual crimes

127 No presumption because of age
  • There is no presumption of law that a person is incapable of sexual connection because of his or her age.

    Section 127: substituted, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

128 Sexual violation defined
  • (1) Sexual violation is the act of a person who—

    • (a) rapes another person; or

    • (b) has unlawful sexual connection with another person.

    (2) Person A rapes person B if person A has sexual connection with person B, effected by the penetration of person B's genitalia by person A's penis,—

    • (a) without person B's consent to the connection; and

    • (b) without believing on reasonable grounds that person B consents to the connection.

    (3) Person A has unlawful sexual connection with person B if person A has sexual connection with person B—

    • (a) without person B's consent to the connection; and

    • (b) without believing on reasonable grounds that person B consents to the connection.

    (4) One person may be convicted of the sexual violation of another person at a time when they were married to each other.

    Section 128: substituted, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

128A Allowing sexual activity does not amount to consent in some circumstances
  • (1) A person does not consent to sexual activity just because he or she does not protest or offer physical resistance to the activity.

    (2) A person does not consent to sexual activity if he or she allows the activity because of—

    • (a) force applied to him or her or some other person; or

    • (b) the threat (express or implied) of the application of force to him or her or some other person; or

    • (c) the fear of the application of force to him or her or some other person.

    (3) A person does not consent to sexual activity if the activity occurs while he or she is asleep or unconscious.

    (4) A person does not consent to sexual activity if the activity occurs while he or she is so affected by alcohol or some other drug that he or she cannot consent or refuse to consent to the activity.

    (5) A person does not consent to sexual activity if the activity occurs while he or she is affected by an intellectual, mental, or physical condition or impairment of such a nature and degree that he or she cannot consent or refuse to consent to the activity.

    (6) One person does not consent to sexual activity with another person if he or she allows the sexual activity because he or she is mistaken about who the other person is.

    (7) A person does not consent to an act of sexual activity if he or she allows the act because he or she is mistaken about its nature and quality.

    (8) This section does not limit the circumstances in which a person does not consent to sexual activity.

    (9) For the purposes of this section,—

    allows includes acquiesces in, submits to, participates in, and undertakes

    sexual activity, in relation to a person, means—

    • (a) sexual connection with the person; or

    • (b) the doing on the person of an indecent act that, without the person's consent, would be an indecent assault of the person.

    Section 128A: substituted, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

128B Sexual violation
  • (1) Every one who commits sexual violation is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 20 years.

    (2) A person convicted of sexual violation must be sentenced to imprisonment unless, having regard to the matters stated in subsection (3), the court thinks that the person should not be sentenced to imprisonment.

    (3) The matters are—

    • (a) the particular circumstances of the person convicted; and

    • (b) the particular circumstances of the offence, including the nature of the conduct constituting it.

    Section 128B: substituted, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

129 Attempted sexual violation and assault with intent to commit sexual violation
  • (1) Every one who attempts to commit sexual violation is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years.

    (2) Every one who assaults another person with intent to commit sexual violation of the other person is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years.

    Section 129: substituted, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

129A Sexual conduct with consent induced by certain threats
  • (1) Every one who has sexual connection with another person knowing that the other person has been induced to consent to the connection by threat is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years.

    (2) Every one who does an indecent act on another person knowing that the other person has been induced to consent to the act by threat is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years.

    (3) For the purposes of subsection (1), a person who has sexual connection with another person knows that the other person has been induced to consent to the sexual connection by threat if (and only if) he or she knows that the other person has been induced to consent to the sexual connection by an express or implied threat of a kind described in subsection (5).

    (4) For the purposes of subsection (2),—

    • (a) a person who does an indecent act on another person knows that the other person has been induced to consent to the act by threat if (and only if) he or she knows that the other person has been induced to consent to the act by an express or implied threat of a kind described in subsection (5); and

    • (b) a person is induced to consent to an indecent act whether—

      • (i) he or she is induced to consent to the doing of an indecent act with or on him or her; or

      • (ii) he or she is induced to consent to do an indecent act himself or herself.

    (5) The kinds of threat referred to in subsections (3) and (4)(a) are—

    • (a) a threat that the person making the threat or some other person will commit an offence that—

      • (i) is punishable by imprisonment; but

      • (ii) does not involve the actual or threatened application of force to any person; and

    • (b) a threat that the person making the threat or some other person will make an accusation or disclosure (whether true or false) about misconduct by any person (whether living or dead) that is likely to damage seriously the reputation of the person against or about whom the accusation or disclosure is made; and

    • (c) a threat that the person making the threat will make improper use, to the detriment of the person consenting, of a power or authority arising out of—

      • (i) an occupational or vocational position held by the person making the threat; or

      • (ii) a commercial relationship existing between the person making the threat and the person consenting.

    Section 129A: substituted, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

130 Incest
  • (1) Sexual connection is incest if—

    • (a) it is between 2 people whose relationship is that of parent and child, siblings, half-siblings, or grandparent and grandchild; and

    • (b) the person charged knows of the relationship.

    (2) Every one of or over the age of 16 years who commits incest is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years.

    Section 130: substituted, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

131 Sexual conduct with dependent family member
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who has sexual connection with a dependent family member under the age of 18 years.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who attempts to have sexual connection with a dependent family member under the age of 18 years.

    (3) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who does an indecent act on a dependent family member under the age of 18 years.

    (4) The dependent family member cannot be charged as a party to the offence.

    (5) It is not a defence to a charge under this section that the dependent family member consented.

    Section 131: substituted, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

131A Dependent family member defined
  • (1) For the purposes of section 131, one person is a dependent family member of another person—

    • (a) if the other person has power or authority over him or her, and is—

      • (i) his or her parent, step-parent, foster parent, guardian, uncle, or aunt; or

      • (ii) a parent, step-parent, or foster parent of a person described in subparagraph (i); or

      • (iii) a child of his or her parent or step-parent; or

      • (iv) the spouse or de facto partner of a person described in subparagraph (i) or subparagraph (ii) or subparagraph (iii); or

    • (b) if they are members of the same family, whanau, or other culturally recognised family group, and the other person—

      • (i) is not a person referred to in paragraph (a); but

      • (ii) has a responsibility for, or significant role in, his or her care or upbringing; or

    • (c) if he or she is living with the other person as a member of the other person's family, and the other person is not a person referred to in paragraph (a), but has—

      • (i) power or authority over him or her; and

      • (ii) a responsibility for, or significant role in, his or her care or upbringing.

    (2) In subsection (1),—

    aunt, in relation to a person, includes a half-sister of one of the person's parents

    foster parent includes a former foster parent

    guardian

    • (b) includes a former guardian

    step-parent includes a former step-parent

    uncle, in relation to a person, includes a half-brother of one of the person's parents.

    Section 131A: inserted, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

131B Meeting young person following sexual grooming, etc
  • (1) Every person is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years if,—

    • (a) having met or communicated with a person under the age of 16 years (the young person) on an earlier occasion, he or she takes one of the following actions:

      • (i) intentionally meets the young person:

      • (ii) travels with the intention of meeting the young person:

      • (iii) arranges for or persuades the young person to travel with the intention of meeting him or her; and

    • (b) at the time of taking the action, he or she intends—

      • (i) to take in respect of the young person an action that, if taken in New Zealand, would be an offence against this Part, or against any of paragraphs (a)(i), (d)(i), (e)(i), (f)(i), of section 98AA(1); or

      • (ii) that the young person should do on him or her an act the doing of which would, if he or she permitted it to be done in New Zealand, be an offence against this Part on his or her part.

    (1A) A reference in this section to a young person under the age of 16 years or the young person includes a reference to a constable who pretends to be a young person under the age of 16 years (the fictitious young person) if the offender, when taking any of the actions described in subsection (1), believed that the fictitious young person was a young person under the age of 16 years.

    (2) It is a defence to a charge under subsection (1) if the person charged proves that,—

    • (a) before the time he or she took the action concerned, he or she had taken reasonable steps to find out whether the young person was of or over the age of 16 years; and

    • (b) at the time he or she took the action concerned, he or she believed on reasonable grounds that the young person was of or over the age of 16 years.

    Section 131B: inserted, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

    Section 131B heading: amended, on 19 March 2012, by section 5(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 2011 (2011 No 79).

    Section 131B(1A): inserted, on 19 March 2012, by section 5(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 2011 (2011 No 79).

132 Sexual conduct with child under 12
  • (1) Every one who has sexual connection with a child is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years.

    (2) Every one who attempts to have sexual connection with a child is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years.

    (3) Every one who does an indecent act on a child is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years.

    (4) It is not a defence to a charge under this section that the person charged believed that the child was of or over the age of 12 years.

    (5) It is not a defence to a charge under this section that the child consented.

    (6) In this section,—

    • (a) child means a person under the age of 12 years; and

    • (b) doing an indecent act on a child includes indecently assaulting the child.

    Section 132: substituted, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

133 Indecency with girl under 12
  • [Repealed]

    Section 133: repealed, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

134 Sexual conduct with young person under 16
  • (1) Every one who has sexual connection with a young person is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years.

    (2) Every one who attempts to have sexual connection with a young person is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years.

    (3) Every one who does an indecent act on a young person is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years.

    (4) No person can be convicted of a charge under this section if he or she was married to the young person concerned at the time of the sexual connection or indecent act concerned.

    (5) The young person in respect of whom an offence against this section was committed cannot be charged as a party to the offence if the person who committed the offence was of or over the age of 16 years when the offence was committed.

    (6) In this section,—

    • (a) young person means a person under the age of 16 years; and

    • (b) doing an indecent act on a young person includes indecently assaulting the young person.

    Section 134: substituted, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

134A Defence to charge under section 134
  • (1) It is a defence to a charge under section 134 if the person charged proves that,—

    • (a) before the time of the act concerned, he or she had taken reasonable steps to find out whether the young person concerned was of or over the age of 16 years; and

    • (b) at the time of the act concerned, he or she believed on reasonable grounds that the young person was of or over the age of 16 years; and

    • (c) the young person consented.

    (2) Except to the extent provided in subsection (1),—

    • (a) it is not a defence to a charge under section 134 that the young person concerned consented; and

    • (b) it is not a defence to a charge under section 134 that the person charged believed that the young person concerned was of or over the age of 16 years.

    Section 134A: inserted, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

135 Indecent assault
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who indecently assaults another person.

    Section 135: substituted, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

136 Conspiracy to induce sexual intercourse
  • [Repealed]

    Section 136: repealed, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

137 Inducing sexual intercourse under pretence of marriage
  • [Repealed]

    Section 137: repealed, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

138 Sexual exploitation of person with significant impairment
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who has exploitative sexual connection with a person with a significant impairment.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who attempts to have exploitative sexual connection with a person with a significant impairment.

    (3) For the purposes of subsections (1) and (2), a person has exploitative sexual connection with a person with a significant impairment (the impaired person) if he or she—

    • (a) has sexual connection with the impaired person knowing that the impaired person is a person with a significant impairment; and

    • (b) has obtained the impaired person's acquiescence in, submission to, participation in, or undertaking of the connection by taking advantage of the impairment.

    (4) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who exploitatively does an indecent act on a person with a significant impairment.

    (5) For the purposes of subsection (4), a person exploitatively does an indecent act on a person with a significant impairment (the impaired person) if he or she—

    • (a) does an indecent act on the impaired person knowing that the impaired person is a person with a significant impairment; and

    • (b) has obtained the impaired person's acquiescence in, submission to, participation in, or undertaking of the doing of the act by taking advantage of the impairment.

    (6) For the purposes of this section, a significant impairment is an intellectual, mental, or physical condition or impairment (or a combination of 2 or more intellectual, mental, or physical conditions or impairments) that affects a person to such an extent that it significantly impairs the person's capacity—

    • (a) to understand the nature of sexual conduct; or

    • (b) to understand the nature of decisions about sexual conduct; or

    • (c) to foresee the consequences of decisions about sexual conduct; or

    • (d) to communicate decisions about sexual conduct.

    Section 138: substituted, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

139 Indecent act between woman and girl
  • [Repealed]

    Section 139: repealed, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

140 Indecency with boy under 12
  • [Repealed]

    Section 140: repealed, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

140A Indecency with boy between 12 and 16
  • [Repealed]

    Section 140A: repealed, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

141 Indecent assault on man or boy
  • [Repealed]

    Section 141: repealed, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

142 Anal intercourse
  • [Repealed]

    Section 142: repealed, on 20 May 2005, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

142A Compelling indecent act with animal
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who compels any other person, by the actual or threatened application of force to that other person or some other person, to perform, or to submit to or acquiesce in, any act of indecency with an animal, whether or not involving penetration.

    (2) [Repealed]

    Section 142A: inserted, on 1 February 1986, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 1985 (1985 No 160).

    Section 142A(2): repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(b) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

143 Bestiality
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who commits bestiality.

    (2) This offence is complete upon penetration.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 153; 1941 No 10 Schedule

144 Indecency with animal
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who commits any act of indecency with an animal.

Sexual offences outside New Zealand

  • Heading: inserted, on 1 September 1995, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1995 (1995 No 49).

144A Sexual conduct with children and young people outside New Zealand
  • (1) Every one commits an offence who, being a New Zealand citizen or ordinarily resident in New Zealand,—

    • (a) does outside New Zealand, with or on a child under the age of 12 years, an act to which subsection (2) applies; or

    • (b) does outside New Zealand, with or on a person under the age of 16 years, an act to which subsection (3) applies; or

    • (c) does outside New Zealand, with or on a person under the age of 18 years, an act to which subsection (4) applies.

    (2) This subsection applies to an act that, if done in New Zealand, would be an offence against—

    • (b) section 132(2) (attempted sexual connection with a child under 12); or

    (3) This subsection applies to an act that, if done in New Zealand, would be an offence against—

    • (b) section 134(2) (attempted sexual connection with a young person); or

    (4) This subsection applies to an act that, if done in New Zealand, would be an offence against section 23(1) of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 (breach of prohibitions on use in prostitution of persons under 18 years).

    (5) A person who commits an offence against this section in respect of a provision specified in any of subsections (2) to (4) is liable to the penalty to which he or she would be liable if convicted of an offence against the provision.

    (6) Every limiting provision that applied to a provision specified in any of subsections (2) to (4) when an offence against this section in respect of the provision specified is alleged to have been committed applies also to—

    • (a) the commencement of proceedings for the offence; and

    • (b) a charge under this section in respect of the provision specified.

    (7) In this section, limiting provision, in relation to a provision specified in any of subsections (2) to (4), means a provision of this Act or the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 that states (in relation to the provision specified only, or more generally)—

    • (a) circumstances that constitute a defence to a charge under the provision specified; or

    • (b) circumstances that do not constitute a defence to a charge under the provision specified; or

    • (c) circumstances in which the person on or with whom an offence against the provision specified is committed may not be charged with an offence against that provision.

    Section 144A: substituted, on 14 June 2006, by section 8 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

144B Consent of Attorney-General required
  • (1) No information shall be laid for an offence against section 144A except with the consent of the Attorney-General.

    (2) A person who is alleged to have committed such an offence may be arrested, or a warrant for the arrest of the person may be issued and executed, and any such person may be remanded in custody or on bail, notwithstanding that the consent of the Attorney-General to the laying of an information for the offence has not been obtained, but no further or other proceedings shall be taken until that consent has been obtained.

    (3) The Attorney-General may, before deciding whether or not to give his or her consent under subsection (1), make such inquiries as he or she thinks fit.

    Section 144B: inserted, on 1 September 1995, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1995 (1995 No 49).

144C Organising or promoting child sex tours
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who—

    • (a) makes or organises any travel arrangements for or on behalf of any other person with the intention of facilitating the commission by that other person of an offence against section 144A, whether or not such an offence is actually committed by that other person; or

    • (b) transports any other person to a place outside New Zealand with the intention of facilitating the commission by that other person of an offence against section 144A, whether or not such an offence is actually committed by that other person; or

    • (c) prints or publishes any information that is intended to promote conduct that would constitute an offence against section 144A, or to assist any other person to engage in such conduct.

    (2) For the purposes of this section,—

    • (a) the making or organising of travel arrangements includes, but is not limited to,—

      • (i) the purchase or reservation of tickets for travel to a country outside New Zealand:

      • (ii) the purchase or reservation of accommodation in a country outside New Zealand:

    • (b) the publication of information means publication of information by any means, whether by written, electronic, or other form of communication; and includes the distribution of information.

    Section 144C: inserted, on 1 September 1995, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1995 (1995 No 49).

Crimes against public welfare

145 Criminal nuisance
  • (1) Every one commits criminal nuisance who does any unlawful act or omits to discharge any legal duty, such act or omission being one which he knew would endanger the lives, safety, or health of the public, or the life, safety, or health of any individual.

    (2) Every one who commits criminal nuisance is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 158, 159

146 Keeping place of resort for homosexual acts
  • [Repealed]

    Section 146: repealed, on 8 August 1986, by section 6(1) of the Homosexual Law Reform Act 1986 (1986 No 33).

147 Brothel-keeping
  • [Repealed]

    Section 147: repealed, on 28 June 2003, by section 48(1)(a) of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 (2003 No 28).

148 Living on earnings of prostitution
  • [Repealed]

    Section 148: repealed, on 28 June 2003, by section 48(1)(a) of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 (2003 No 28).

149 Procuring for prostitution
  • [Repealed]

    Section 149: repealed, on 28 June 2003, by section 48(1)(a) of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 (2003 No 28).

149A Being client in act of prostitution by person under 18 years of age
  • [Repealed]

    Section 149A: repealed, on 28 June 2003, by section 48(1)(a) of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 (2003 No 28).

150 Misconduct in respect of human remains
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years who—

    • (a) neglects to perform any duty imposed on him by law or undertaken by him with reference to the burial or cremation of any dead human body or human remains; or

    • (b) improperly or indecently interferes with or offers any indignity to any dead human body or human remains, whether buried or not.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 165

Part 8
Crimes against the person

Duties tending to the preservation of life

150A Standard of care applicable to persons under legal duties or performing unlawful acts
  • (1) This section applies in respect of—

    • (b) an unlawful act referred to in section 160 where the unlawful act relied on requires proof of negligence or is a strict or absolute liability offence.

    (2) For the purposes of this Part, a person is criminally responsible for omitting to discharge or perform a legal duty, or performing an unlawful act, to which this section applies only if, in the circumstances, the omission or unlawful act is a major departure from the standard of care expected of a reasonable person to whom that legal duty applies or who performs that unlawful act.

    Section 150A: replaced, on 19 March 2012, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 2011 (2011 No 79).

151 Duty to provide necessaries and protect from injury
  • Every one who has actual care or charge of a person who is a vulnerable adult and who is unable to provide himself or herself with necessaries is under a legal duty—

    • (a) to provide that person with necessaries; and

    • (b) to take reasonable steps to protect that person from injury.

    Section 151: replaced, on 19 March 2012, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 2011 (2011 No 79).

152 Duty of parent or guardian to provide necessaries and protect from injury
  • Every one who is a parent, or is a person in place of a parent, who has actual care or charge of a child under the age of 18 years is under a legal duty—

    • (a) to provide that child with necessaries; and

    • (b) to take reasonable steps to protect that child from injury.

    Section 152: replaced, on 19 March 2012, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 2011 (2011 No 79).

153 Duty of employers to provide necessaries
  • (1) Every one who as employer has contracted to provide necessary food, clothing, or lodging for any servant or apprentice under the age of 16 years is under a legal duty to provide the same, and is criminally responsible for omitting without lawful excuse to perform such duty if the death of that servant or apprentice is caused, or if his life is endangered or his health permanently injured, by such omission.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who, without lawful excuse, neglects the duty specified in this section so that the life of the servant or apprentice is endangered or his health permanently injured by such neglect.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 168

154 Abandoning child under 6
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who unlawfully abandons or exposes any child under the age of 6 years.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 169

155 Duty of persons doing dangerous acts
  • Every one who undertakes (except in case of necessity) to administer surgical or medical treatment, or to do any other lawful act the doing of which is or may be dangerous to life, is under a legal duty to have and to use reasonable knowledge, skill, and care in doing any such act, and is criminally responsible for the consequences of omitting without lawful excuse to discharge that duty.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 170

156 Duty of persons in charge of dangerous things
  • Every one who has in his charge or under his control anything whatever, whether animate or inanimate, or who erects, makes, operates, or maintains anything whatever, which, in the absence of precaution or care, may endanger human life is under a legal duty to take reasonable precautions against and to use reasonable care to avoid such danger, and is criminally responsible for the consequences of omitting without lawful excuse to discharge that duty.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 171

157 Duty to avoid omissions dangerous to life
  • Every one who undertakes to do any act the omission to do which is or may be dangerous to life is under a legal duty to do that act, and is criminally responsible for the consequences of omitting without lawful excuse to discharge that duty.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 172

Homicide

158 Homicide defined
  • Homicide is the killing of a human being by another, directly or indirectly, by any means whatsoever.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 173

159 Killing of a child
  • (1) A child becomes a human being within the meaning of this Act when it has completely proceeded in a living state from the body of its mother, whether it has breathed or not, whether it has an independent circulation or not, and whether the navel string is severed or not.

    (2) The killing of such child is homicide if it dies in consequence of injuries received before, during, or after birth.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 174

160 Culpable homicide
  • (1) Homicide may be either culpable or not culpable.

    (2) Homicide is culpable when it consists in the killing of any person—

    • (a) by an unlawful act; or

    • (b) by an omission without lawful excuse to perform or observe any legal duty; or

    • (c) by both combined; or

    • (d) by causing that person by threats or fear of violence, or by deception, to do an act which causes his death; or

    • (e) by wilfully frightening a child under the age of 16 years or a sick person.

    (3) Except as provided in section 178, culpable homicide is either murder or manslaughter.

    (4) Homicide that is not culpable is not an offence.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 175

161 Procuring death by false evidence
  • [Repealed]

    Section 161: repealed, on 26 December 1989, by section 3(1)(a) of the Abolition of the Death Penalty Act 1989 (1989 No 119).

162 Death must be within a year and a day
  • (1) No one is criminally responsible for the killing of another unless the death takes place within a year and a day after the cause of death.

    (2) The period of a year and a day shall be reckoned inclusive of the day on which the last unlawful act contributing to the cause of death took place.

    (3) Where the cause of death is an omission to fulfil a legal duty, the period shall be reckoned inclusive of the day on which such omission ceased.

    (4) Where death is in part caused by an unlawful act and in part by an omission, the period shall be reckoned inclusive of the day on which the last unlawful act took place or the omission ceased, whichever happened last.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 177

163 Killing by influence on the mind
  • No one is criminally responsible for the killing of another by any influence on the mind alone, except by wilfully frightening a child under the age of 16 years or a sick person, nor for the killing of another by any disorder or disease arising from such influence, except by wilfully frightening any such child as aforesaid or a sick person.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 178

164 Acceleration of death
  • Every one who by any act or omission causes the death of another person kills that person, although the effect of the bodily injury caused to that person was merely to hasten his death while labouring under some disorder or disease arising from some other cause.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 179

165 Causing death that might have been prevented
  • Every one who by any act or omission causes the death of another person kills that person, although death from that cause might have been prevented by resorting to proper means.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 180

166 Causing injury the treatment of which causes death
  • Every one who causes to another person any bodily injury, in itself of a dangerous nature, from which death results, kills that person, although the immediate cause of death be treatment, proper or improper, applied in good faith.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 181

Murder, manslaughter, etc

167 Murder defined
  • Culpable homicide is murder in each of the following cases:

    • (a) if the offender means to cause the death of the person killed:

    • (b) if the offender means to cause to the person killed any bodily injury that is known to the offender to be likely to cause death, and is reckless whether death ensues or not:

    • (c) if the offender means to cause death, or, being so reckless as aforesaid, means to cause such bodily injury as aforesaid to one person, and by accident or mistake kills another person, though he does not mean to hurt the person killed:

    • (d) if the offender for any unlawful object does an act that he knows to be likely to cause death, and thereby kills any person, though he may have desired that his object should be effected without hurting any one.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 182

168 Further definition of murder
  • (1) Culpable homicide is also murder in each of the following cases, whether the offender means or does not mean death to ensue, or knows or does not know that death is likely to ensue:

    • (a) if he means to cause grievous bodily injury for the purpose of facilitating the commission of any of the offences mentioned in subsection (2), or facilitating the flight or avoiding the detection of the offender upon the commission or attempted commission thereof, or for the purpose of resisting lawful apprehension in respect of any offence whatsoever, and death ensues from such injury:

    • (b) if he administers any stupefying or overpowering thing for any of the purposes aforesaid, and death ensues from the effects thereof:

    • (c) if he by any means wilfully stops the breath of any person for any of the purposes aforesaid, and death ensues from such stopping of breath.

    (2) The offences referred to in subsection (1) are those specified in the following provisions of this Act, namely:

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 183

    Section 168(2)(e): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

    Section 168(2)(f): substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 7(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 168(2)(j): substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 7(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 168(2)(k): substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 7(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 168(2)(l): substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 7(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

169 Provocation
  • [Repealed]

    Section 169: repealed, on 8 December 2009, by section 4 of the Crimes (Provocation Repeal) Amendment Act 2009 (2009 No 64).

170 Illegal arrest may be evidence of provocation
  • [Repealed]

    Section 170: repealed, on 8 December 2009, by section 4 of the Crimes (Provocation Repeal) Amendment Act 2009 (2009 No 64).

171 Manslaughter
  • Except as provided in section 178, culpable homicide not amounting to murder is manslaughter.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 186

172 Punishment of murder
  • (1) Every one who commits murder is liable to imprisonment for life.

    (2) Subsection (1) is subject to section 102 of the Sentencing Act 2002.

    Section 172: substituted, on 30 June 2002, by section 165 of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

173 Attempt to murder
  • (1) Every one who attempts to commit murder is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years.

    (2) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 188

    Section 173(2): repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(b) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

174 Counselling or attempting to procure murder
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who incites, counsels, or attempts to procure any person to murder any other person in New Zealand, when that murder is not in fact committed.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 189(b)

175 Conspiracy to murder
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who conspires or agrees with any person to murder any other person, whether the murder is to take place in New Zealand or elsewhere.

    (2) For the purposes of this section, the expression to murder includes to cause the death of another person out of New Zealand in circumstances that would amount to murder if the act were committed in New Zealand.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 189(a)

176 Accessory after the fact to murder
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who is an accessory after the fact to murder.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 190

177 Punishment of manslaughter
  • (1) Every one who commits manslaughter is liable to imprisonment for life.

    (2) [Repealed]

    (3) [Repealed]

    (4) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 191

    Section 177(2): repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(b) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

    Section 177(3): repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(b) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

    Section 177(4): repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(b) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

178 Infanticide
  • (1) Where a woman causes the death of any child of hers under the age of 10 years in a manner that amounts to culpable homicide, and where at the time of the offence the balance of her mind was disturbed, by reason of her not having fully recovered from the effect of giving birth to that or any other child, or by reason of the effect of lactation, or by reason of any disorder consequent upon childbirth or lactation, to such an extent that she should not be held fully responsible, she is guilty of infanticide, and not of murder or manslaughter, and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years.

    (2) Where upon the trial of a woman for the murder or manslaughter of any child of hers under the age of 10 years there is evidence that would support a verdict of infanticide, the jury may return such a verdict instead of a verdict of murder or manslaughter, and the accused shall be liable accordingly. Subsection (2) of section 339 shall be read subject to the provisions of this subsection, but nothing in this subsection shall affect the power of the jury under that section to return a verdict of manslaughter.

    (3) Where upon the trial of a woman for infanticide, or for the murder or manslaughter of any child of hers under the age of 10 years, the jury are of opinion that at the time of the alleged offence the balance of her mind was disturbed, by reason of her not having fully recovered from the effect of giving birth to that or any other child, or by reason of the effect of lactation, or by reason of any disorder consequent upon childbirth or lactation, to such an extent that she was insane, the jury shall return a special verdict of acquittal on account of insanity caused by childbirth.

    (4) If the jury returns a special verdict under subsection (3), the Judge must order that the woman be examined by 2 medical practitioners and the following provisions apply:

    • (c) unless each of the medical practitioners certifies in accordance with paragraph (b), sections 23 to 29 of the Criminal Procedure (Mentally Impaired Persons) Act 2003 apply, so far as they are applicable, as if the references in those sections to the court were references to the Judge.

    (5) If, under subsection (4)(c), the Judge makes an order that the woman be detained in a hospital as a special patient under the Mental Health (Compulsory Assessment and Treatment) Act 1992 or as a special care recipient under the Intellectual Disability (Compulsory Care and Rehabilitation) Act 2003, section 33 of the Criminal Procedure (Mentally Impaired Persons) Act 2003 applies.

    (6) [Repealed]

    (7) Nothing in this section shall affect the power of the jury, upon the trial of any woman for infanticide or for murder or manslaughter, to return a verdict, otherwise than under this section, of acquittal on account of insanity; and where any such verdict is returned the provisions of the Criminal Procedure (Mentally Impaired Persons) Act 2003 shall apply accordingly.

    (8) The fact that by virtue of this section any woman has not been or is not liable to be convicted of murder or manslaughter, whether or not she has been or is liable to be convicted of infanticide, shall not affect the question whether the homicide amounted to murder or manslaughter in the case of any other party to it.

    Compare: Infanticide Act 1938 s 1 (UK)

    Section 178(4): substituted, on 1 September 2004, by section 51 of the Criminal Procedure (Mentally Impaired Persons) Act 2003 (2003 No 115).

    Section 178(4)(a)(iii): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

    Section 178(5): substituted, on 1 September 2004, by section 51 of the Criminal Procedure (Mentally Impaired Persons) Act 2003 (2003 No 115).

    Section 178(6): repealed, on 1 September 2004, by section 51 of the Criminal Procedure (Mentally Impaired Persons) Act 2003 (2003 No 115).

    Section 178(7): amended, on 1 September 2004, by section 51 of the Criminal Procedure (Mentally Impaired Persons) Act 2003 (2003 No 115).

179 Aiding and abetting suicide
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who—

    • (a) incites, counsels, or procures any person to commit suicide, if that person commits or attempts to commit suicide in consequence thereof; or

    • (b) aids or abets any person in the commission of suicide.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 192

180 Suicide pact
  • (1) Every one who in pursuance of a suicide pact kills any other person is guilty of manslaughter and not of murder, and is liable accordingly.

    (2) Where 2 or more persons enter into a suicide pact, and in pursuance of it 1 or more of them kills himself, any survivor is guilty of being a party to a death under a suicide pact contrary to this subsection and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years; but he shall not be convicted of an offence against section 179.

    (3) For the purposes of this section the term suicide pact means a common agreement between 2 or more persons having for its object the death of all of them, whether or not each is to take his own life; but nothing done by a person who enters into a suicide pact shall be treated as done by him in pursuance of the pact unless it is done while he has the settled intention of dying in pursuance of the pact.

    (4) It shall be for the person charged to prove that by virtue of subsection (1) he is not liable to be convicted of murder, or that by virtue of subsection (2) he is not liable to be convicted of an offence against section 179.

    (5) The fact that by virtue of this section any person who in pursuance of a suicide pact has killed another person has not been or is not liable to be convicted of murder shall not affect the question whether the homicide amounted to murder in the case of a third person who is a party to the homicide and is not a party to the suicide pact.

    Compare: Homicide Act 1957 s 4 (UK)

181 Concealing dead body of child
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years who disposes of the dead body of any child in any manner with intent to conceal the fact of its birth, whether the child died before, or during, or after birth.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 194

Abortion

182 Killing unborn child
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who causes the death of any child that has not become a human being in such a manner that he would have been guilty of murder if the child had become a human being.

    (2) No one is guilty of any crime who before or during the birth of any child causes its death by means employed in good faith for the preservation of the life of the mother.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 220

182A Miscarriage defined
  • For the purposes of sections 183 to 187 the term miscarriage means—

    • (a) the destruction or death of an embryo or fetus after implantation; or

    • (b) the premature expulsion or removal of an embryo or fetus after implantation, otherwise than for the purpose of inducing the birth of a fetus believed to be viable or removing a fetus that has died.

    Section 182A: inserted, on 16 December 1977, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1977 (1977 No 113).

183 Procuring abortion by any means
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who, with intent to procure the miscarriage of any woman or girl, whether she is pregnant or not,—

    • (a) unlawfully administers to or causes to be taken by her any poison or any drug or any noxious thing; or

    • (b) unlawfully uses on her any instrument; or

    • (c) unlawfully uses on her any means other than any means referred to in paragraph (a) or paragraph (b).

    (2) The woman or girl shall not be charged as a party to an offence against this section.

    Section 183: substituted, on 16 December 1977, by section 4 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1977 (1977 No 113).

184 Procuring abortion by other means
  • [Repealed]

    Section 184: repealed, on 16 December 1977, by section 4 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1977 (1977 No 113).

185 Female procuring her own miscarriage
  • [Repealed]

    Section 185: repealed, on 16 December 1977, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1977 (1977 No 113).

186 Supplying means of procuring abortion
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who unlawfully supplies or procures any poison or any drug or any noxious thing, or any instrument or other thing, whether of a like nature or not, believing that it is intended to be unlawfully used to procure miscarriage.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 223

187 Effectiveness of means used immaterial
  • The provisions of section 183 to 186 shall apply whether or not the poison, drug, thing, instrument, or means administered, taken, used, supplied, or procured was in fact capable of procuring miscarriage.

187A Meaning of unlawfully
  • (1) For the purposes of sections 183 and 186, any act specified in either of those sections is done unlawfully unless, in the case of a pregnancy of not more than 20 weeks' gestation, the person doing the act believes—

    • (a) that the continuance of the pregnancy would result in serious danger (not being danger normally attendant upon childbirth) to the life, or to the physical or mental health, of the woman or girl; or

    • (aa) that there is a substantial risk that the child, if born, would be so physically or mentally abnormal as to be seriously handicapped; or

    • (b) that the pregnancy is the result of sexual intercourse between—

      • (i) a parent and child; or

      • (ii) a brother and sister, whether of the whole blood or of the half blood; or

      • (iii) a grandparent and grandchild; or

    • (c) that the pregnancy is the result of sexual intercourse that constitutes an offence against section 131(1); or

    • (d) that the woman or girl is severely subnormal within the meaning of section 138(2).

    (2) The following matters, while not in themselves grounds for any act specified in section 183 or section 186, may be taken into account in determining for the purposes of subsection (1)(a), whether the continuance of the pregnancy would result in serious danger to her life or to her physical or mental health:

    • (a) the age of the woman or girl concerned is near the beginning or the end of the usual child-bearing years:

    • (b) the fact (where such is the case) that there are reasonable grounds for believing that the pregnancy is the result of sexual violation.

    (3) For the purposes of sections 183 and 186, any act specified in either of those sections is done unlawfully unless, in the case of a pregnancy of more than 20 weeks' gestation, the person doing the act believes that the miscarriage is necessary to save the life of the woman or girl or to prevent serious permanent injury to her physical or mental health.

    (4) Where a medical practitioner, in pursuance of a certificate issued by 2 certifying consultants under section 33 of the Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion Act 1977, does any act specified in section 183 or section 186 of this Act, the doing of that act shall not be unlawful for the purposes of the section applicable unless it is proved that, at the time when he did that act, he did not believe it to be lawful in terms of subsection (1) or subsection (3), as the case may require.

    Section 187A: inserted, on 16 December 1977, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1977 (1977 No 113).

    Section 187A(1)(a): amended, on 10 July 1978, by section 2(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1978 (1978 No 6).

    Section 187A(1)(aa): inserted, on 10 July 1978, by section 2(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1978 (1978 No 6).

    Section 187A(2)(b): amended, on 1 February 1986, by section 7(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 1985 (1985 No 160).

    Section 187A(4): amended, on 18 September 2004, by section 175(1) of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 (2003 No 48).

Assaults and injuries to the person

188 Wounding with intent
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who, with intent to cause grievous bodily harm to any one, wounds, maims, disfigures, or causes grievous bodily harm to any person.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, with intent to injure anyone, or with reckless disregard for the safety of others, wounds, maims, disfigures, or causes grievous bodily harm to any person.

    (3) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 197(a); 1941 No 10 Schedule

    Section 188(3): repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(b) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

189 Injuring with intent
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who, with intent to cause grievous bodily harm to any one, injures any person.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who, with intent to injure any one, or with reckless disregard for the safety of others, injures any person.

    (3) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 204

    Section 189(3): repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(b) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

190 Injuring by unlawful act
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who injures any other person in such circumstances that if death had been caused he would have been guilty of manslaughter.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 206

191 Aggravated wounding or injury
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who with intent—

    • (a) to commit or facilitate the commission of any crime; or

    • (b) to avoid the detection of himself or of any other person in the commission of any crime; or

    • (c) to avoid the arrest or facilitate the flight of himself or of any other person upon the commission or attempted commission of any crime—

    wounds, maims, disfigures, or causes grievous bodily harm to any person, or stupefies or renders unconscious any person, or by any violent means renders any person incapable of resistance.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, with any such intent as aforesaid, injures any person.

    (3) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 195, 196; 1941 No 10 Schedule

    Section 191(3): repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(b) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

192 Aggravated assault
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who assaults any other person with intent—

    • (a) to commit or facilitate the commission of any crime; or

    • (b) to avoid the detection of himself or of any other person in the commission of any crime; or

    • (c) to avoid the arrest or facilitate the flight of himself or of any other person upon the commission or attempted commission of any crime.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who assaults any constable or any person acting in aid of any constable, or any person in the lawful execution of any process, with intent to obstruct the person so assaulted in the execution of his duty.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 209

193 Assault with intent to injure
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who, with intent to injure any one, assaults any person.

194 Assault on a child, or by a male on a female
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years who—

    • (a) assaults any child under the age of 14 years; or

    • (b) being a male, assaults any female.

    Compare: 1952 No 43 s 5

195 Ill-treatment or neglect of child or vulnerable adult
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who, being a person described in subsection (2), intentionally engages in conduct that, or omits to discharge or perform any legal duty the omission of which, is likely to cause suffering, injury, adverse effects to health, or any mental disorder or disability to a child or vulnerable adult (the victim) if the conduct engaged in, or the omission to perform the legal duty, is a major departure from the standard of care to be expected of a reasonable person.

    (2) The persons are—

    • (a) a person who has actual care or charge of the victim; or

    • (b) a person who is a staff member of any hospital, institution, or residence where the victim resides.

    (3) For the purposes of this section and section 195A, a child is a person under the age of 18 years.

    Section 195: replaced, on 19 March 2012, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 2011 (2011 No 79).

195A Failure to protect child or vulnerable adult
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who, being a person described in subsection (2), has frequent contact with a child or vulnerable adult (the victim) and—

    • (a) knows that the victim is at risk of death, grievous bodily harm, or sexual assault as the result of—

      • (i) an unlawful act by another person; or

      • (ii) an omission by another person to discharge or perform a legal duty if, in the circumstances, that omission is a major departure from the standard of care expected of a reasonable person to whom that legal duty applies; and

    • (b) fails to take reasonable steps to protect the victim from that risk.

    (2) The persons are—

    • (a) a member of the same household as the victim; or

    • (b) a person who is a staff member of any hospital, institution, or residence where the victim resides.

    (3) A person may not be charged with an offence under this section if he or she was under the age of 18 at the time of the act or omission.

    (4) For the purposes of this section,—

    • (a) a person is to be regarded as a member of a particular household, even if he or she does not live in that household, if that person is so closely connected with the household that it is reasonable, in the circumstances, to regard him or her as a member of the household:

    • (b) where the victim lives in different households at different times, the same household refers to the household in which the victim was living at the time of the act or omission giving rise to the risk of death, grievous bodily harm, or sexual assault.

    (5) In determining whether a person is so closely connected with a particular household as to be regarded as a member of that household, regard must be had to the frequency and duration of visits to the household and whether the person has a familial relationship with the victim and any other matters that may be relevant in the circumstances.

    Section 195A: inserted, on 19 March 2012, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 2011 (2011 No 79).

196 Common assault
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year who assaults any other person.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 210

197 Disabling
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who, wilfully and without lawful justification or excuse, stupefies or renders unconscious any other person.

    (2) [Repealed]

    Section 197(2): repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(b) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

198 Discharging firearm or doing dangerous act with intent
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who, with intent to do grievous bodily harm,—

    • (a) discharges any firearm, airgun, or other similar weapon at any person; or

    • (b) sends or delivers to any person, or puts in any place, any explosive or injurious substance or device; or

    • (c) sets fire to any property.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, with intent to injure, or with reckless disregard for the safety of others, does any of the acts referred to in subsection (1).

    (3) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 197(b), (c), (d), 198; 1941 No 10 Schedule

    Section 198(3): repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(b) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

198A Using any firearm against law enforcement officer, etc
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who uses any firearm in any manner whatever against any constable, or any traffic officer, or any prison officer, acting in the course of his or her duty knowing that, or being reckless whether or not, that person is a constable or a traffic officer or a prison officer so acting.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who uses any firearm in any manner whatever with intent to resist the lawful arrest or detention of himself or herself or of any other person.

    Section 198A: inserted, on 28 October 1986, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1986 (1986 No 71).

    Section 198A(1): amended, on 1 October 2008, pursuant to section 116(a)(ii) of the Policing Act 2008 (2008 No 72).

198B Commission of crime with firearm
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who,—

    • (a) in committing any crime, uses any firearm; or

    • (b) while committing any crime, has any firearm with him or her in circumstances that prima facie show an intention to use it in connection with that crime.

    (2) [Repealed]

    Section 198B: inserted, on 28 October 1986, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1986 (1986 No 71).

    Section 198B(2): repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(b) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

199 Acid throwing
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who, with intent to injure or disfigure any one, throws at or applies to any person any corrosive or injurious substance.

    (2) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 197(d)

    Section 199(2): repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(b) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

200 Poisoning with intent
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who, with intent to cause grievous bodily harm to any one, administers to or causes to be taken by any person any poison or other noxious substance.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who, with intent to cause inconvenience or annoyance to any one, or for any unlawful purpose, administers to, or causes to be taken by, any person any poison or other noxious substance.

    (3) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 203; Criminal Code (1954) s 217 (Canada)

    Section 200(3): repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(b) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

201 Infecting with disease
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who, wilfully and without lawful justification or excuse, causes or produces in any other person any disease or sickness.

    (2) [Repealed]

    Section 201(2): repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(b) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

202 Setting traps, etc
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who, with intent to injure, or with reckless disregard for the safety of others, sets or places or causes to be set or placed any trap or device that is likely to injure any person.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who, being in occupation or possession of any place where any such trap or device has been set or placed, knowingly and wilfully permits it to remain there in such a condition that any person is likely to be injured by it.

    (3) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 205

    Section 202(3): repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(b) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

202A Possession of offensive weapons or disabling substances
  • (1) In subsection (4)(a) offensive weapon means any article made or altered for use for causing bodily injury, or intended by the person having it with him for such use.

    (2) In subsection (4)(b) offensive weapon means any article capable of being used for causing bodily injury.

    (3) In this section disabling substance means any anaesthetising or other substance produced for use for disabling persons, or intended by any person having it with him for such use.

    (4) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years—

    • (a) who, without lawful authority or reasonable excuse, has with him in any public place any knife or offensive weapon or disabling substance; or

    • (b) who has in his possession in any place any offensive weapon or disabling substance in circumstances that prima facie show an intention to use it to commit an offence involving bodily injury or the threat or fear of violence.

    (5) It is a defence to a charge under subsection (4)(b) if the person charged proves that he did not intend to use the offensive weapon or disabling substance to commit an offence involving bodily injury or the threat or fear of violence.

    Compare: 1927 No 35 s 53A(1), (2), (8)–(10); 1976 No 157 s4(1)

    Section 202A: inserted, on 1 February 1982, by section 48(1) of the Summary Offences Act 1981 (1981 No 113).

    Section 202A(4): amended, on 19 March 2012, by section 8 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 2011 (2011 No 79).

    Section 202A(4)(a): amended, on 1 August 1987, by section 2(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1987 (1987 No 167).

202B Powers in respect of crime against section 202A
  • [Repealed]

    Section 202B: repealed, on 1 October 2012, by section 325(6) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

202BA Sentencing for second crime against section 202A(4)
  • Where—

    • (a) any person is convicted of a crime against paragraph (a) or paragraph (b) of section 202A(4); and

    • (b) that person has previously been convicted on at least 1 occasion within the preceding 2 years of a crime against either of those paragraphs,—

    the court shall impose a sentence of imprisonment (within the meaning of section 4(1) of the Sentencing Act 2002) on the offender unless the court is satisfied that, because of the special circumstances of the offence or of the offender, the offender should not be so sentenced.

    Section 202BA: inserted, on 1 August 1987, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1987 (1987 No 167).

    Section 202BA: amended, on 30 June 2002, by section 186 of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

202C Assault with weapon
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who,—

    • (a) in assaulting any person, uses any thing as a weapon; or

    • (b) while assaulting any person, has any thing with him or her in circumstances that prima facie show an intention to use it as a weapon.

    (2) [Repealed]

    Section 202C: inserted, on 28 October 1986, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1986 (1986 No 71).

    Section 202C(2): repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(b) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

203 Endangering transport
  • [Repealed]

    Section 203: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 8 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

204 Impeding rescue
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who, without lawful justification or excuse, prevents or impedes or attempts to prevent or impede any person who is attempting to save his own life or the life of any other person.

    (2) No one is guilty of an offence against this section who does any such act as aforesaid in the course of saving his own life or the life of any other person.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 201; Criminal Code (1954) s 227 (Canada)

Female genital mutilation

  • Heading: inserted, on 1 January 1996, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1995 (1995 No 49).

204A Female genital mutilation
  • (1) For the purposes of this section,—

    female genital mutilation means the excision, infibulation, or mutilation of the whole or part of the labia majora, labia minora, or clitoris of any person

    midwife means a health practitioner who is, or is deemed to be, registered with the Midwifery Council established by section 114(3) of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 as a practitioner of the profession of midwifery

    sexual reassignment procedure means any surgical procedure that is performed for the purposes of altering (whether wholly or partly) the genital appearance of a person to the genital appearance of a person of the opposite sex

    trainee health professional means any person who is receiving training or gaining experience under the supervision of—

    • (a) a medical practitioner for the purpose of gaining registration as a medical practitioner; or

    • (b) a midwife for the purpose of gaining registration as a midwife.

    (2) Subject to subsection (3), every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who performs, or causes to be performed, on any other person, any act involving female genital mutilation.

    (3) Nothing in subsection (2) applies in respect of—

    • (a) any medical or surgical procedure (including a sexual reassignment procedure) that is performed on any person—

      • (i) for the benefit of that person's physical or mental health; and

      • (ii) by a medical practitioner:

    • (b) any medical or surgical procedure that is performed on any person—

      • (i) while that person is in labour or immediately after that person gives birth; and

      • (ii) for the benefit of that person's health or the health of the child; and

      • (iii) by a medical practitioner or a midwife or a trainee health professional, or by any other person in any case where the case is urgent and no medical practitioner or midwife or trainee health professional is available.

    (4) In determining, for the purposes of subsection (3), whether or not any medical or surgical procedure is performed on any person for the benefit of that person's physical or mental health, no account shall be taken of the effect on that person of any belief on the part of that person or any other person that the procedure is necessary or desirable as, or as part of, a cultural, religious, or other custom or practice.

    (5) Nothing in subsection (3) limits or affects any enactment or rule of law relating to consent to any medical or surgical procedure or treatment.

    (6) It is no defence to a charge under this section that the person on whom the act involving female genital mutilation was performed consented to that act, or that the person charged believed that such consent had been given.

    (7) No person shall be charged as a party to an offence committed upon her against this section.

    Section 204A: inserted, on 1 January 1996, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1995 (1995 No 49).

    Section 204A(1) midwife: inserted, on 18 September 2004, by section 175(1) of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 (2003 No 48).

    Section 204A(1) registered midwife: repealed, on 18 September 2004, by section 175(1) of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 (2003 No 48).

    Section 204A(1) trainee health professional paragraph (b): amended, on 18 September 2004, by section 175(1) of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 (2003 No 48).

    Section 204A(3)(b)(iii): amended, on 18 September 2004, by section 175(1) of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 (2003 No 48).

204B Further offences relating to female genital mutilation
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, with intent that there be done, outside New Zealand, to or in relation to any child under the age of 17 years (being a child who is a New Zealand citizen or is ordinarily resident in New Zealand), any act which, if done in New Zealand, would be an offence against section 204A,—

    • (a) causes that child to be sent or taken out of New Zealand; or

    • (b) makes any arrangements for the purposes of causing that child to be sent or taken out of New Zealand.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, in New Zealand, aids, incites, counsels, or procures the doing, outside New Zealand, in relation to any person who is a New Zealand citizen or is ordinarily resident in New Zealand, of any act which, if done in New Zealand, would be an offence against section 204A, whether or not the act is in fact done.

    (3) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, in New Zealand, incites, counsels, procures, or induces any person who is a New Zealand citizen or is ordinarily resident in New Zealand—

    • (a) to submit, outside New Zealand, to any act which, if done in New Zealand, would be an offence against section 204A; or

    • (b) to acquiesce in the doing, outside New Zealand, on that person, of any such act; or

    • (c) to permit any such act to be done, outside New Zealand, on that person,—

    whether or not, in any case, the act is in fact done.

    (4) It is no defence to a charge under subsection (2) or subsection (3) that the person on whom the act was done consented to that act, or that the person charged believed that such consent had been given.

    (5) No person shall be charged as a party to an offence committed in relation to her against subsection (2) or subsection (3).

    Section 204B: inserted, on 1 January 1996, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1995 (1995 No 49).

Bigamy, feigned marriage

205 Bigamy defined
  • (1) Bigamy is—

    • (a) the act of a person who, being married, goes through form of marriage or civil union in New Zealand with a third person; or

    • (b) the act of a person who goes through a form of marriage in New Zealand with any other person whom he or she knows to be married or in a civil union; or

    • (c) the act of a New Zealand citizen, or a person ordinarily resident in New Zealand, who, being married or in a civil union, goes through a form of marriage with a third person anywhere outside New Zealand; or

    • (d) the act of a New Zealand citizen, or a person ordinarily resident in New Zealand, who goes through a form of marriage anywhere outside New Zealand with any other person whom he or she knows to be married or in a civil union; or

    • (e) the act of a person who, being in a civil union, goes through a form of civil union or marriage with a third person; or

    • (f) the act of a person who goes through a form of civil union with a person whom he or she knows to be in a civil union or to be married.

    (2) For the purposes of this section,—

    • (a) a form of marriage is any form of marriage recognised by the law of New Zealand, or by the law of the place where it is solemnised, as a valid form of marriage:

    • (b) a form of civil union is any form of civil union recognised under the Civil Union Act 2004 as a valid form of civil union under that Act:

    • (c) no form of marriage or civil union may be held to be an invalid form of marriage or civil union by reason of any act or omission of the person charged with bigamy, if it is otherwise a valid form.

    (3) It shall not be a defence to a charge of bigamy to prove that if the parties were unmarried or not in a civil union they would have been incompetent to contract marriage or enter into a civil union.

    (4) No person commits bigamy by going through a form of marriage or entering into a civil union if that person—

    • (a) has been continuously absent from his or her spouse or civil union partner (as the case may be) for 7 years then last past; and

    • (b) is not proved to have known that his or her spouse or civil union partner (as the case may be) was alive at any time during those 7 years.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 224

    Section 205(1)(a): amended, on 26 April 2005, by section 41(1)(a) of the Civil Union Act 2004 (2004 No 102).

    Section 205(1)(b): amended, on 26 April 2005, by section 41(1)(b) of the Civil Union Act 2004 (2004 No 102).

    Section 205(1)(c): amended, on 26 April 2005, by section 41(1)(c) of the Civil Union Act 2004 (2004 No 102).

    Section 205(1)(d): amended, on 26 April 2005, by section 41(1)(d) of the Civil Union Act 2004 (2004 No 102).

    Section 205(1)(e): added, on 26 April 2005, by section 41(2) of the Civil Union Act 2004 (2004 No 102).

    Section 205(1)(f): added, on 26 April 2005, by section 41(2) of the Civil Union Act 2004 (2004 No 102).

    Section 205(2)(b): substituted, on 26 April 2005, by section 41(3) of the Civil Union Act 2004 (2004 No 102).

    Section 205(2)(c): added, on 26 April 2005, by section 41(3) of the Civil Union Act 2004 (2004 No 102).

    Section 205(3): amended, on 26 April 2005, by section 41(4) of the Civil Union Act 2004 (2004 No 102).

    Section 205(4): amended, on 26 April 2005, by section 41(5)(a) of the Civil Union Act 2004 (2004 No 102).

    Section 205(4)(a): amended, on 26 April 2005, by section 41(5)(b) of the Civil Union Act 2004 (2004 No 102).

    Section 205(4)(b): amended, on 26 April 2005, by section 41(5)(b) of the Civil Union Act 2004 (2004 No 102).

206 Punishment of bigamy
  • Every one who commits bigamy is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years:

    provided that if the Judge is satisfied that the person with whom the offender went through the form of marriage or with whom the offender entered into a civil union, knew, at the time when the offence was committed, that the marriage or civil union would be void, the offender is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 225

    Section 206 proviso: amended, on 26 April 2005, by section 42(a) of the Civil Union Act 2004 (2004 No 102).

    Section 206 proviso: amended, on 26 April 2005, by section 42(b) of the Civil Union Act 2004 (2004 No 102).

207 Feigned marriage or feigned civil union
  • (1) Everyone is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who goes through a form of marriage or civil union with any other person, knowing that the marriage or civil union will be void for any reason other than that one of the parties is already married or in a civil union.

    (2) Provided that if the Judge is satisfied that that other person knew, at the time when the offence was committed, that the marriage or civil union would be void, the offender is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years.

    Section 207: substituted, on 26 April 2005, by section 43 of the Civil Union Act 2004 (2004 No 102).

Abduction, kidnapping

208 Abduction for purposes of marriage or sexual connection
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who unlawfully takes away or detains a person without his or her consent or with his or her consent obtained by fraud or duress,—

    • (a) with intent to marry him or her; or

    • (b) with intent to have sexual connection with him or her; or

    • (c) with intent to cause him or her to be married to or to have sexual connection with some other person.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 226

    Section 208: substituted, on 20 May 2005, by section 9 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

209 Kidnapping
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who unlawfully takes away or detains a person without his or her consent or with his or her consent obtained by fraud or duress,—

    • (a) with intent to hold him or her for ransom or to service; or

    • (b) with intent to cause him or her to be confined or imprisoned; or

    • (c) with intent to cause him or her to be sent or taken out of New Zealand.

    Compare: Criminal Code (1954) s 233 (Canada)

    Section 209: substituted, on 20 May 2005, by section 9 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

209A Young person under 16 cannot consent to being taken away or detained
  • For the purposes of sections 208 and 209, a person under the age of 16 years cannot consent to being taken away or detained.

    Section 209A: inserted, on 20 May 2005, by section 9 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

210 Abduction of young person under 16
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, with intent to deprive a parent or guardian or other person having the lawful care or charge of a young person of the possession of the young person, unlawfully takes or entices away or detains the young person.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who receives a young person, knowing that he or she has been unlawfully taken or enticed away or detained with intent to deprive a parent or guardian or other person having the lawful care or charge of him or her of the possession of him or her.

    (3) For the purposes of subsections (1) and (2),—

    • (a) it is immaterial whether the young person consents, or is taken or goes or is received at his or her own suggestion; and

    • (b) it is immaterial whether the offender believes the young person to be of or over the age of 16.

    (4) In this section young person means a person under the age of 16 years.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 229, 230; 1941 No 10 part Schedule; 1952 No 42 s 3

    Section 210: substituted, on 20 May 2005, by section 9 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

210A People claiming in good faith right to possession of young person under 16
  • A person who claims in good faith a right to the possession of a young person under the age of 16 years cannot be convicted of an offence against section 209 or section 210 because he or she gets possession of the young person.

    Section 210A: inserted, on 20 May 2005, by section 9 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2005 (2005 No 41).

Part 9
Crimes against reputation

[Repealed]

  • Part 9: repealed, on 1 February 1993, by section 56(2) of the Defamation Act 1992 (1992 No 105).

211 Criminal libel and publishing defined
  • [Repealed]

    Section 211: repealed, on 1 February 1993, by section 56(2) of the Defamation Act 1992 (1992 No 105).

212 Publishing upon invitation
  • [Repealed]

    Section 212: repealed, on 1 February 1993, by section 56(2) of the Defamation Act 1992 (1992 No 105).

213 No prosecution without leave of Judge
  • [Repealed]

    Section 213: repealed, on 1 February 1993, by section 56(2) of the Defamation Act 1992 (1992 No 105).

214 Plea of justification
  • [Repealed]

    Section 214: repealed, on 1 February 1993, by section 56(2) of the Defamation Act 1992 (1992 No 105).

215 Punishment of criminal libel
  • [Repealed]

    Section 215: repealed, on 1 February 1993, by section 56(2) of the Defamation Act 1992 (1992 No 105).

216 Criminal slander
  • [Repealed]

    Section 216: repealed, on 1 February 1993, by section 56(2) of the Defamation Act 1992 (1992 No 105).

Part 9A
Crimes against personal privacy

  • Part 9A: inserted, on 6 August 1979, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1979 (1979 No 5).

216A Interpretation
  • (1) In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires,—

    intercept, in relation to a private communication, includes hear, listen to, record, monitor, acquire, or receive the communication either—

    • (a) while it is taking place; or

    • (b) while it is in transit

    interception device

    • (a) means any electronic, mechanical, electromagnetic, optical, or electro-optical instrument, apparatus, equipment, or other device that is used or is capable of being used to intercept a private communication; but

    • (b) does not include—

      • (i) a hearing aid or similar device used to correct subnormal hearing of the user to no better than normal hearing; or

      • (ii) a device exempted from the provisions of this Part by the Governor-General by Order in Council, either generally or in such places or circumstances or subject to such other conditions as may be specified in the order

    private communication

    • (a) means a communication (whether in oral or written form or otherwise) made under circumstances that may reasonably be taken to indicate that any party to the communication desires it to be confined to the parties to the communication; but

    • (b) does not include such a communication occurring in circumstances in which any party ought reasonably to expect that the communication may be intercepted by some other person not having the express or implied consent of any party to do so.

    (2) Any Order in Council exempting a device from the provisions of this Part expires 2 years after it is made.

    (2) A reference in this Part to a party to a private communication is a reference to—

    • (a) any originator of the communication and any person intended by the originator to receive it; and

    • (b) a person who, with the express or implied consent of any originator of the communication or any person intended by the originator to receive it, intercepts the communication.

    Section 216A: inserted, on 6 August 1979, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1979 (1979 No 5).

    Section 216A(1): substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 9 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 216A first subsection (2): inserted, on 1 October 2003, by section 9 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

216B Prohibition on use of interception devices
  • (1) Subject to subsections (2) to (5), every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years who intentionally intercepts any private communication by means of an interception device.

    (2) Subsection (1) does not apply where the person intercepting the private communication—

    • (a) is a party to that private communication; or

    (3) [Repealed]

    (4) Subsection (1) does not apply to any monitoring of a prisoner call under section 113 of the Corrections Act 2004 or any interception of a private communication if the interception is authorised under section 189B of that Act.

    (5) Subsection (1) does not apply to the interception of private communications by any interception device operated by a person engaged in providing an Internet or other communication service to the public if—

    • (a) the interception is carried out by an employee of the person providing that Internet or other communication service to the public in the course of that person's duties; and

    • (b) the interception is carried out for the purpose of maintaining that Internet or other communication service; and

    • (c) the interception is necessary for the purpose of maintaining the Internet or other communication service; and

    • (d) the interception is only used for the purpose of maintaining the Internet or other communication service.

    (6) Information obtained under subsection (5) must be destroyed immediately if it is no longer needed for the purpose of maintaining the Internet or other communication service.

    (7) Any information held by any person that was obtained while assisting with the execution of a surveillance device warrant issued under the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 must, upon expiry of the warrant, be—

    • (a) destroyed immediately; or

    • (b) given to the agency executing the warrant.

    Section 216B: inserted, on 6 August 1979, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1979 (1979 No 5).

    Section 216B heading: amended, on 1 October 2003, by section 10(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 216B(1): amended, on 1 October 2003, by section 10(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 216B(1): amended, on 1 October 2003, by section 10(3) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 216B(1): amended, on 14 October 1999, by section 10(1) of the Penal Institutions Amendment Act 1999 (1999 No 114).

    Section 216B(2): substituted, on 1 February 1998, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1997 (1997 No 93).

    Section 216B(2)(b)(i): replaced, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(10) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

    Section 216B(2)(b)(ii): repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 10(4) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 216B(2)(b)(iiia): inserted, on 2 April 2003, by section 26(1) of the Government Communications Security Bureau Act 2003 (2003 No 9).

    Section 216B(2)(b)(iv): repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(11) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

    Section 216B(3): repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(12) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

    Section 216B(4): added, on 14 October 1999, by section 10(2) of the Penal Institutions Amendment Act 1999 (1999 No 114).

    Section 216B(4): amended, on 3 April 2009, by section 35(2)(a) of the Corrections Amendment Act 2009 (2009 No 3).

    Section 216B(4): amended, on 3 April 2009, by section 35(2)(b) of the Corrections Amendment Act 2009 (2009 No 3).

    Section 216B(4): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

    Section 216B(5): added, on 1 October 2003, by section 10(6) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 216B(6): added, on 1 October 2003, by section 10(6) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 216B(7): added, on 1 October 2003, by section 10(6) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 216B(7): amended, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(13) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

216C Prohibition on disclosure of private communications unlawfully intercepted
  • (1) Subject to subsection (2), where a private communication has been intercepted in contravention of section 216B, every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years who intentionally—

    • (a) discloses the private communication, or the substance, meaning, or purport of the communication, or any part of it; or

    • (b) discloses the existence of the private communication,—

    if he knows that it has come to his knowledge as a direct or indirect result of a contravention of section 216B.

    (2) Subsection (1) does not apply where the disclosure is made—

    • (a) to a party to the communication or with the express or implied consent of such a party; or

    • (b) in the course, or for the purpose, of—

      • (i) an investigation by the Police into an alleged offence against this section or section 216B; or

      • (ii) giving evidence in any civil or criminal proceedings relating to the unlawful interception of a private communication by means of an interception device or the unlawful disclosure of a private communication unlawfully intercepted by that means; or

      • (iii) giving evidence in any other civil or criminal proceeding where that evidence is not rendered inadmissible by the Evidence Act 2006 or section 25 of the Misuse of Drugs Amendment Act 1978 or any other enactment or rule of law; or

      • (iv) determining whether the disclosure is admissible in any civil or criminal proceedings.

    Section 216C: inserted, on 6 August 1979, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1979 (1979 No 5).

    Section 216C(2)(b)(ii): amended, on 1 October 2003, by section 11 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 216C(2)(b)(iii): amended, on 1 August 2007, by section 216 of the Evidence Act 2006 (2006 No 69).

216D Prohibition on dealing, etc, with interception devices
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years who—

    • (a) invites any other person to acquire from him; or

    • (b) offers or exposes for sale or supply to any other person; or

    • (c) agrees to sell or supply or sells or supplies to any other person; or

    • (d) has in his possession for the purpose of sale or supply to any other person,—

    any interception device—

    • (i) the sole or principal purpose of which he knows to be the surreptitious interception of private communications; or

    • (ii) that he holds out as being useful for the surreptitious interception of private communications (whether or not he also holds it out as being useful for any other purpose).

    (2) It is a defence to a charge under this section if the person charged proves either—

    • (a) that at the time he did any act referred to in any of paragraphs (a) to (d) of subsection (1) he believed that the other person referred to in the relevant paragraph was a constable, or an officer of the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service or the Government Communications Security Bureau, acting in the course of his official duties; or

    • (b) where the charge relates to the supply of an interception device otherwise than for valuable consideration, that—

      • (i) he supplied the interception device to the other person referred to in paragraph (c) or paragraph (d) of subsection (1) for the purpose of any proceeding or of any investigation or examination preliminary or incidental to any proceeding; or

      • (ii) being a constable or an officer of the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service or the Government Communications Security Bureau, he supplied the interception device in the course of his official duties to the other person referred to in the said paragraph (c) or the said paragraph (d) for any lawful purpose.

    Section 216D: inserted, on 6 August 1979, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1979 (1979 No 5).

    Section 216D heading: amended, on 1 October 2003, by section 12(a) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 216D(1): amended, on 1 October 2003, by section 12(b) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 216D(2)(a): amended, on 1 October 2008, pursuant to section 116(a)(ii) of the Policing Act 2008 (2008 No 72).

    Section 216D(2)(a): amended, on 2 April 2003, by section 26(2) of the Government Communications Security Bureau Act 2003 (2003 No 9).

    Section 216D(2)(b): amended, on 1 October 2003, by section 12(c) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 216D(2)(b)(i): amended, on 1 October 2003, by section 12(d) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 216B(2)(b)(ii): amended, on 1 October 2008, pursuant to section 116(a)(ii) of the Policing Act 2008 (2008 No 72).

    Section 216D(2)(b)(ii): amended, on 1 October 2003, by section 12(d) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 216D(2)(b)(ii): amended, on 2 April 2003, by section 26(2) of the Government Communications Security Bureau Act 2003 (2003 No 9).

216E Forfeiture
  • Where any person is convicted of a crime against section 216B or section 216D in respect of any interception devices the sole or principal purpose of which is the surreptitious interception of private communications, the court may, as part of the sentence, order that the interception devices shall be forfeited; and, in such a case, the interception devices shall thereupon become forfeited to the Crown accordingly, and may be disposed of in such manner as the Commissioner of Police directs.

    Section 216E: inserted, on 6 August 1979, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1979 (1979 No 5).

    Section 216E: amended, on 1 October 2003, by section 13 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

216F Unlawful disclosure
  • (1) An unlawful disclosure is the intentional and unauthorised disclosure of any information gained when undertaking maintenance of a communication service.

    (2) Despite anything in subsection (1), a person may disclose information to any constable if the information appears to relate to the commission of a crime that has caused or could cause serious harm to any person.

    (3) Every person who makes an unlawful disclosure is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years.

    Section 216F: inserted, on 1 October 2003, by section 14 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 216F(1): replaced, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(7) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

    Section 216F(2): amended, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(8) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

    Section 216F(2): amended, on 1 October 2008, pursuant to section 116(a)(ii) of the Policing Act 2008 (2008 No 72).

Intimate visual recordings

  • Heading: inserted, on 5 December 2006, by section 4 of the Crimes (Intimate Covert Filming) Amendment Act 2006 (2006 No 75).

216G Intimate visual recording defined
  • (1) In sections 216H to 216N, intimate visual recording means a visual recording (for example, a photograph, videotape, or digital image) that is made in any medium using any device without the knowledge or consent of the person who is the subject of the recording, and the recording is of—

    • (a) a person who is in a place which, in the circumstances, would reasonably be expected to provide privacy, and that person is—

      • (i) naked or has his or her genitals, pubic area, buttocks, or female breasts exposed, partially exposed, or clad solely in undergarments; or

      • (ii) engaged in an intimate sexual activity; or

      • (iii) engaged in showering, toileting, or other personal bodily activity that involves dressing or undressing; or

    • (b) a person's naked or undergarment-clad genitals, pubic area, buttocks, or female breasts which is made—

      • (i) from beneath or under a person's clothing; or

      • (ii) through a person's outer clothing in circumstances where it is unreasonable to do so.

    (2) In section 216H, intimate visual recording includes an intimate visual recording that is made and transmitted in real time without retention or storage in—

    • (a) a physical form; or

    • (b) an electronic form from which the recording is capable of being reproduced with or without the aid of any device or thing.

    Section 216G: inserted, on 5 December 2006, by section 4 of the Crimes (Intimate Covert Filming) Amendment Act 2006 (2006 No 75).

216H Prohibition on making intimate visual recording
  • Everyone is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who intentionally or recklessly makes an intimate visual recording of another person.

    Section 216H: inserted, on 5 December 2006, by section 4 of the Crimes (Intimate Covert Filming) Amendment Act 2006 (2006 No 75).

216I Prohibition on possessing intimate visual recording in certain circumstances
  • (1) Everyone is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who has in his or her possession an intimate visual recording—

    • (a) for the purpose of publishing, exporting or selling the intimate visual recording; and

    • (b) knowing it to be an intimate visual recording, or being reckless as to whether it is an intimate visual recording.

    (2) Everyone is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year who, without reasonable excuse, has in his or her possession an intimate visual recording knowing it to be an intimate visual recording.

    Section 216I: inserted, on 5 December 2006, by section 4 of the Crimes (Intimate Covert Filming) Amendment Act 2006 (2006 No 75).

216J Prohibition on publishing, importing, exporting, or selling intimate visual recording
  • (1) Everyone is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who, knowing that a visual recording is an intimate visual recording, or being reckless as to whether a visual recording is an intimate visual recording,—

    • (a) publishes in New Zealand the intimate visual recording:

    • (b) imports into New Zealand the intimate visual recording:

    • (c) exports from New Zealand the intimate visual recording:

    • (d) sells the intimate visual recording.

    (2) In this section, unless the context otherwise requires,—

    publishes means any of the following:

    • (a) displays by any means:

    • (b) sends to any person by any means:

    • (c) distributes by any means:

    • (d) conveys by electronic medium:

    • (e) stores electronically in a way that is accessible by any other person or persons

    sells means sells in a physical form or by electronic medium, and includes—

    • (a) offers for sale:

    • (b) agrees to sell.

    Section 216J: inserted, on 5 December 2006, by section 4 of the Crimes (Intimate Covert Filming) Amendment Act 2006 (2006 No 75).

216K Exceptions to prohibition in section 216J
  • (1) Nothing in section 216J(1)(a), (b), or (c) applies to anything done by any person in the course of, or in connection with, exercising or performing any powers, duties, or functions under any enactment.

    (2) Nothing in section 216J(1)(a) applies to any person by reason only of that person publishing an intimate visual recording to a person referred to in section 216N(1).

    (3) Nothing in section 216J applies to any person who, not knowing or suspecting that a visual recording is an intimate visual recording, facilitates access to that recording by reason only of providing some or all of the means necessary for—

    • (a) delivery of the recording in physical form (for example, by a postal operator or courier); or

    • (b) transmission (other than by broadcasting) of the recording (for example, by a network operator or service provider providing only a network or facility through which a recording is transmitted); or

    • (c) storage of the recording electronically in a way that is accessible by any other person or persons.

    (4) In subsection (3), unless the context otherwise requires,—

    courier means a person carrying on business as a courier

    network operator has the same meaning as in section 3(1) of the Telecommunications (Interception Capability) Act 2004

    postal operator has the same meaning as in section 2(1) of the Postal Services Act 1998

    public data network has the same meaning as in section 5 of the Telecommunications Act 2001

    service provider

    • (a) means a person providing Internet access, email access, or both of those facilities, by means of a public data network; but

    • (b) does not include a network operator.

    Section 216K: inserted, on 5 December 2006, by section 4 of the Crimes (Intimate Covert Filming) Amendment Act 2006 (2006 No 75).

216L Disposal and forfeiture
  • (1) Where any person is convicted of an offence against section 216H or section 216I or section 216J, the court may, in addition to or instead of passing any other sentence or making any other order in respect of the offence, order that the intimate visual recording be destroyed within 10 working days from the making of the order, and that the recording in the meantime be impounded.

    (2) Where any person is convicted of an offence against section 216H or section 216I or section 216J, the court may, in addition to or instead of passing any other sentence or making any other order in respect of the offence, order that any equipment, goods, or other thing used in respect of the commission of the offence be forfeited to the Crown; and anything so forfeited must be sold, destroyed, or otherwise disposed of as the Minister of Justice directs.

    (3) Before making an order under subsection (1) or subsection (2), the court must give the following persons an opportunity to be heard:

    • (a) the person convicted; and

    • (b) any other person who, in the opinion of the court, would be directly affected by the making of the order.

    (4) If the court is satisfied that the intimate visual recording that was the subject of the prosecution, or any equipment, goods, or other thing used in respect of the commission of the offence, should be delivered to a person other than the person convicted, it may so order.

    Section 216L: inserted, on 5 December 2006, by section 4 of the Crimes (Intimate Covert Filming) Amendment Act 2006 (2006 No 75).

216M Effect of appeal on order made under section 216L
  • (1) If any person is convicted of an offence against section 216H or section 216I or section 216J, and any order is made under section 216L, the operation of the order is suspended,—

    • (a) in any case, until the expiration of the time prescribed in the Summary Proceedings Act 1957 or this Act for the filing of a notice of appeal or an application for leave to appeal; and

    • (b) if a notice of appeal is filed within the time so prescribed, until the determination of the appeal; and

    • (c) if the application for leave to appeal is filed within the time so prescribed, until the application is determined, and, if leave to appeal is granted, until the determination of the appeal.

    (2) If the operation of any order is suspended until the determination of the appeal, the court determining the appeal may, by order, cancel or vary the order.

    Section 216M: inserted, on 5 December 2006, by section 4 of the Crimes (Intimate Covert Filming) Amendment Act 2006 (2006 No 75).

216N Protection from liability
  • (1) This section applies to the following persons:

    • (a) any constable; and

    • (b) any Customs officer; and

    • (c) any officer or employee of the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service; and

    • (d) any employee of the Department of Corrections and any other employee exercising powers or functions under the Corrections Act 2004; and

    • (e) any lawyer or agent—

      • (i) giving legal advice in relation to an intimate visual recording; or

      • (ii) giving legal advice, or making representations, in relation to any civil or criminal proceedings; and

    • (f) any other person or member of a class of persons prescribed in regulations made under this Act; and

    • (g) the person who is the subject of an intimate visual recording.

    (2) No person referred to in subsection (1)(g) commits an offence against section 216I or section 216J by possessing or publishing the intimate visual recording.

    (3) No other person to whom this section applies commits an offence against section 216H or section 216I or section 216J(1)(a) or (b) or (c) by making, possessing, or publishing any intimate visual recording for the purpose of, or in the course of, carrying out the functions set out in subsection (5).

    (4) Subsection (3) does not apply in respect of anything done in bad faith or without reasonable cause.

    (5) The functions referred to in subsection (3) are functions relating to—

    • (a) the prevention, detection, investigation, prosecution, or punishment of offences:

    • (b) the conduct of proceedings in any court or tribunal:

    • (c) security or safety.

    (6) Subsections (1) to (3) apply despite the fact that, but for this section, the act would have otherwise constituted an offence.

    (7) Where a person to whom subsection (1)(a) to (f) applies has in his or her possession an intimate visual recording, the recording must not be kept longer than is required for the purpose of carrying out the functions referred to in subsection (5), and must then either be—

    • (a) made available to the person who is the subject of the recording, if that person requests; or

    • (b) immediately destroyed if the person who is the subject of the recording makes no request under paragraph (a).

    Section 216N: inserted, on 5 December 2006, by section 4 of the Crimes (Intimate Covert Filming) Amendment Act 2006 (2006 No 75).

    Section 216N(1)(a): amended, on 1 October 2008, pursuant to section 116(a)(ii) of the Policing Act 2008 (2008 No 72).

Part 10
Crimes against rights of property

  • Part 10: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

Interpretation

  • Heading: inserted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

217 Interpretation
  • In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires,—

    dishonestly, in relation to an act or omission, means done or omitted without a belief that there was express or implied consent to, or authority for, the act or omission from a person entitled to give such consent or authority

    document means a document, or part of a document, in any form; and includes, without limitation,—

    • (a) any paper or other material used for writing or printing that is marked with matter capable of being read; or

    • (b) any photograph, or any photographic negative, plate, slide, film, or microfilm, or any photostatic negative; or

    • (c) any disc, tape, wire, sound track, card, or other material or device in or on which information, sounds, or other data are recorded, stored (whether temporarily or permanently), or embodied so as to be capable, with or without the aid of some other equipment, of being reproduced; or

    • (d) any material by means of which information is supplied, whether directly or by means of any equipment, to any device used for recording or storing or processing information; or

    • (e) any material derived, whether directly or by means of any equipment, from information recorded or stored or processed by any device used for recording or storing or processing information

    obtain, in relation to any person, means obtain or retain for himself or herself or for any other person.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 ss 217, 218, 263

    Section 217: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

Unlawful taking

  • Heading: inserted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

218 Matters of ownership
  • (1) For the purposes of this Part, a person is to be regarded as the owner of any property that is stolen if, at the time of the theft, that person has—

    • (a) possession or control of the property; or

    • (b) any interest in the property; or

    • (c) the right to take possession or control of the property.

    (2) An owner of any property may be guilty of theft against another owner of that property.

    (3) All living creatures wild by nature, such as are not commonly found in a condition of natural liberty in New Zealand, are, if kept in a state of confinement, capable of being stolen, not only while so confined, but after they have escaped from confinement.

    (4) All other living creatures wild by nature are, if kept in a state of confinement, capable of being stolen so long as they remain in confinement, or are being pursued upon escaping from confinement.

    (5) A wild living creature is in a state of confinement so long as it is in an enclosure designed to prevent escape, or otherwise secured, and to allow its owner to take possession of it when he or she pleases.

    (6) Shellfish of all types are capable of being stolen when in oyster beds, marine farms, layings, and fisheries that are the property of any person and that are sufficiently marked out or shown as such property.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 ss 219, 225

    Section 218: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

219 Theft or stealing
  • (1) Theft or stealing is the act of,—

    • (a) dishonestly and without claim of right, taking any property with intent to deprive any owner permanently of that property or of any interest in that property; or

    • (b) dishonestly and without claim of right, using or dealing with any property with intent to deprive any owner permanently of that property or of any interest in that property after obtaining possession of, or control over, the property in whatever manner.

    (2) An intent to deprive any owner permanently of property includes an intent to deal with property in such a manner that—

    • (a) the property cannot be returned to any owner in the same condition; or

    • (b) any owner is likely to be permanently deprived of the property or of any interest in the property.

    (3) In this section, taking does not include obtaining ownership or possession of, or control over, any property with the consent of the person from whom it is obtained, whether or not consent is obtained by deception.

    (4) For tangible property, theft is committed by a taking when the offender moves the property or causes it to be moved.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 220(1), (2), (5)

    Section 219: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

220 Theft by person in special relationship
  • (1) This section applies to any person who has received or is in possession of, or has control over, any property on terms or in circumstances that the person knows require the person—

    • (a) to account to any other person for the property, or for any proceeds arising from the property; or

    • (b) to deal with the property, or any proceeds arising from the property, in accordance with the requirements of any other person.

    (2) Every one to whom subsection (1) applies commits theft who intentionally fails to account to the other person as so required or intentionally deals with the property, or any proceeds of the property, otherwise than in accordance with those requirements.

    (3) This section applies whether or not the person was required to deliver over the identical property received or in the person's possession or control.

    (4) For the purposes of subsection (1), it is a question of law whether the circumstances required any person to account or to act in accordance with any requirements.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 ss 222, 223, 224

    Section 220: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

221 Theft of animals
  • Every one commits theft if he or she kills any animal that is the property of any other person with intent to steal the carcass, skin, or plumage, or any other part, of the animal.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 221

    Section 221: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

222 Theft by spouse or partner
  • A person may be convicted of theft of another person's property even though those persons were married to, or in a civil union or a de facto relationship with, each other at the time of the theft.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 226

    Section 222: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 222 heading: amended, on 26 April 2005, by section 7 of the Relationships (Statutory References) Act 2005 (2005 No 3).

    Section 222: amended, on 26 April 2005, by section 7 of the Relationships (Statutory References) Act 2005 (2005 No 3).

223 Punishment of theft
  • Every one who commits theft is liable as follows:

    • (a) in the case of any offence against section 220, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years; or

    • (b) if the value of the property stolen exceeds $1,000, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years; or

    • (c) if the value of the property stolen exceeds $500 but does not exceed $1,000, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year; or

    • (d) if the value of the property stolen does not exceed $500, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 months.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 227

    Section 223: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

224 Power of search for goods stolen or unlawfully obtained in transit
  • [Repealed]

    Section 224: repealed, on 1 October 2012, by section 325(6) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

225 Power to search vehicles for goods stolen or obtained by crimes involving dishonesty
  • [Repealed]

    Section 225: repealed, on 1 October 2012, by section 325(6) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

226 Conversion of vehicle or other conveyance
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, dishonestly and without claim of right, but not so as to be guilty of theft, takes or uses for his or her own purposes or another person's purposes—

    • (a) any vehicle, ship, or aircraft; or

    • (b) any part of any vehicle, ship, or aircraft; or

    • (c) any horse.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years who attempts to commit the offence in subsection (1) or who, dishonestly and without claim of right, interferes with, or gets into or upon, any vehicle, ship, or aircraft.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 228

    Section 226: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

227 Being in possession of instrument for conversion
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year who, without lawful authority or excuse, has in his or her possession any instrument capable of being used for taking or converting any vehicle, ship, or aircraft with intent to use it for such a purpose.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 229

    Section 227: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

227A Power of search for goods stolen or unlawfully obtained in transit
  • [Repealed]

    Section 227A: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

227B Power to search vehicles for goods stolen or obtained by crimes involving dishonesty
  • [Repealed]

    Section 227B: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

228 Dishonestly taking or using document
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, with intent to obtain any property, service, pecuniary advantage, or valuable consideration,—

    • (a) dishonestly and without claim of right, takes or obtains any document; or

    • (b) dishonestly and without claim of right, uses or attempts to use any document.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 229A

    Section 228: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

229 Criminal breach of trust
  • (1) Every one is guilty of a criminal breach of trust who, as a trustee of any trust, dishonestly and contrary to the terms of that trust, converts anything to any use not authorised by the trust.

    (2) Every trustee who commits a criminal breach of trust is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 230

    Section 229: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

229A Taking or dealing with certain documents with intent to defraud
  • [Repealed]

    Section 229A: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

230 Taking, obtaining, or copying trade secrets
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who, with intent to obtain any pecuniary advantage or to cause loss to any other person,—

    • (a) dishonestly and without claim of right, takes, obtains, or copies any document or any model or other depiction of any thing or process containing or embodying any trade secret, knowing that it contains or embodies a trade secret; or

    • (b) dishonestly and without claim of right, takes or obtains any copy of any document or any model or other depiction of any thing or process containing or embodying any trade secret, knowing that it contains or embodies a trade secret.

    (2) For the purposes of this section, trade secret means any information that—

    • (a) is, or has the potential to be, used industrially or commercially; and

    • (b) is not generally available in industrial or commercial use; and

    • (c) has economic value or potential economic value to the possessor of the information; and

    • (d) is the subject of all reasonable efforts to preserve its secrecy.

    Section 230: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

Burglary

  • Heading: inserted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

231 Burglary
  • (1) Every one commits burglary and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who—

    • (a) enters any building or ship, or part of a building or ship, without authority and with intent to commit a crime in the building or ship; or

    • (b) having entered any building or ship, remains in it without authority and with intent to commit a crime in the building or ship.

    (2) In this section and in section 232, building means any building or structure of any description, whether permanent or temporary; and includes a tent, caravan, or houseboat; and also includes any enclosed yard or any closed cave or closed tunnel.

    (3) For the purposes of this section and section 232,—

    • (a) entrance into a building or ship is made as soon as any part of the body of the person making the entrance, or any part of any instrument used by that person, is within the building or ship; and

    • (b) every one who gains entrance to a building or ship by any threat or artifice used for that purpose is to be treated as having entered without authority.

    Compare: 161 No 43 ss 240, 241, 242

    Section 231: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

232 Aggravated burglary
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who,—

    • (a) while committing burglary, has a weapon with him or her or uses any thing as a weapon; or

    • (b) having committed burglary, has a weapon with him or her, or uses any thing as a weapon, while still in the building or ship.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who is armed with a weapon with intent to commit burglary.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 ss 240A, 243

    Section 232: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

233 Being disguised or in possession of instrument for burglary
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who, without lawful authority or excuse,—

    • (a) has in his or her possession any instrument capable of being used for burglary with intent to use it for such a purpose; or

    • (b) has his or her face covered or is otherwise disguised with intent to commit any crime.

    (2) If any person is convicted of being in possession of an instrument for burglary, the court may, if it thinks fit, order the instrument to be forfeited to the Crown or disposed of as the court directs at the expense of the convicted person, and may order the person to pay any reasonable cost incurred by the Commissioner of Police in retaining the instrument.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 244; 1999 No 93 s 97(d)

    Section 233: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

Robbery and blackmail

  • Heading: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

234 Robbery
  • (1) Robbery is theft accompanied by violence or threats of violence, to any person or property, used to extort the property stolen or to prevent or overcome resistance to its being stolen.

    (2) Every one who commits robbery is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 234

    Section 234: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

235 Aggravated robbery
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who—

    • (a) robs any person and, at the time of, or immediately before or immediately after, the robbery, causes grievous bodily harm to any person; or

    • (b) being together with any other person or persons, robs any person; or

    • (c) being armed with any offensive weapon or instrument, or any thing appearing to be such a weapon or instrument, robs any other person.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 235

    Section 235: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

236 Assault with intent to rob
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who, with intent to rob any person,—

    • (a) causes grievous bodily harm to that person or any other person; or

    • (b) being armed with any offensive weapon or instrument, or any thing appearing to be such a weapon or instrument, assaults that person or any other person; or

    • (c) being together with any other person or persons, assaults that person or any other person.

    (2) Every one who assaults any person with intent to rob that person or any other person is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 ss 235(1), 237

    Section 236: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

237 Blackmail
  • (1) Every one commits blackmail who threatens, expressly or by implication, to make any accusation against any person (whether living or dead), to disclose something about any person (whether living or dead), or to cause serious damage to property or endanger the safety of any person with intent—

    • (a) to cause the person to whom the threat is made to act in accordance with the will of the person making the threat; and

    • (b) to obtain any benefit or to cause loss to any other person.

    (2) Every one who acts in the manner described in subsection (1) is guilty of blackmail, even though that person believes that he or she is entitled to the benefit or to cause the loss, unless the making of the threat is, in the circumstances, a reasonable and proper means for effecting his or her purpose.

    (3) In this section and in section 239, benefit means any benefit, pecuniary advantage, privilege, property, service, or valuable consideration.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 238

    Section 237: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

238 Punishment of blackmail
  • Every one who commits blackmail is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 238(1)

    Section 238: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

239 Demanding with intent to steal, etc
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who, without claim of right, by force or with any threat, compels any person to execute, make, accept, endorse, alter, or destroy any document capable of conferring a pecuniary advantage with intent to obtain any benefit.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, with menaces or by any threat, demands any property from any persons with intent to steal it.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 ss 236, 239

    Section 239: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

Crimes involving deceit

  • Heading: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

240 Obtaining by deception or causing loss by deception
  • (1) Every one is guilty of obtaining by deception or causing loss by deception who, by any deception and without claim of right,—

    • (a) obtains ownership or possession of, or control over, any property, or any privilege, service, pecuniary advantage, benefit, or valuable consideration, directly or indirectly; or

    • (b) in incurring any debt or liability, obtains credit; or

    • (c) induces or causes any other person to deliver over, execute, make, accept, endorse, destroy, or alter any document or thing capable of being used to derive a pecuniary advantage; or

    • (d) causes loss to any other person.

    (2) In this section, deception means—

    • (a) a false representation, whether oral, documentary, or by conduct, where the person making the representation intends to deceive any other person and—

      • (i) knows that it is false in a material particular; or

      • (ii) is reckless as to whether it is false in a material particular; or

    • (b) an omission to disclose a material particular, with intent to deceive any person, in circumstances where there is a duty to disclose it; or

    • (c) a fraudulent device, trick, or stratagem used with intent to deceive any person.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 ss 246, 247, 270

    Section 240: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

240A Aggravated burglary
  • [Repealed]

    Section 240A: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

241 Punishment of obtaining by deception or causing loss by deception
  • Every one who is guilty of obtaining by deception or causing loss by deception is liable as follows:

    • (a) if the loss caused or the value of what is obtained or sought to be obtained exceeds $1,000, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years:

    • (b) if the loss caused or the value of what is obtained or sought to be obtained exceeds $500 but does not exceed $1,000, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year:

    • (c) if the loss caused or the value of what is obtained or sought to be obtained does not exceed $500, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 months.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 246(2)

    Section 241: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

242 False statement by promoter, etc
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who, in respect of any body, whether incorporated or unincorporated and whether formed or intended to be formed, makes or concurs in making or publishes any false statement, whether in any prospectus, account, or otherwise, with intent—

    • (a) to induce any person, whether ascertained or not, to subscribe to any security within the meaning of the Securities Act 1978; or

    • (b) to deceive or cause loss to any person, whether ascertained or not; or

    • (c) to induce any person, whether ascertained or not, to entrust or advance any property to any other person.

    (2) In this section, false statement means any statement in respect of which the person making or publishing the statement—

    • (a) knows the statement is false in a material particular; or

    • (b) is reckless as to the whether the statement is false in a material particular.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 250

    Section 242: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

Money laundering

  • Heading: inserted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

243 Money laundering
  • (1) For the purposes of this section and sections 244 and 245,—

    conceal, in relation to property, means to conceal or disguise the property; and includes, without limitation,—

    • (a) to convert the property from one form to another:

    • (b) to conceal or disguise the nature, source, location, disposition, or ownership of the property or of any interest in the property

    deal with, in relation to property, means to deal with the property in any manner and by any means; and includes, without limitation,—

    • (a) to dispose of the property, whether by way of sale, purchase, gift, or otherwise:

    • (b) to transfer possession of the property:

    • (c) to bring the property into New Zealand:

    • (d) to remove the property from New Zealand

    interest, in relation to property, means—

    • (a) a legal or equitable estate or interest in the property; or

    • (b) a right, power, or privilege in connection with the property

    proceeds, in relation to a serious offence, means any property that is derived or realised, directly or indirectly, by any person from the commission of the offence

    property means real or personal property of any description, whether situated in New Zealand or elsewhere and whether tangible or intangible; and includes an interest in any such real or personal property

    serious offence means an offence punishable by imprisonment for a term of 5 years or more; and includes any act, wherever committed, that, if committed in New Zealand, would constitute an offence punishable by imprisonment for a term of 5 years or more.

    (2) Subject to sections 244 and 245, every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, in respect of any property that is the proceeds of a serious offence, engages in a money laundering transaction, knowing or believing that all or part of the property is the proceeds of a serious offence, or being reckless as to whether or not the property is the proceeds of a serious offence.

    (3) Subject to sections 244 and 245, every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who obtains or has in his or her possession any property (being property that is the proceeds of a serious offence committed by another person)—

    • (a) with intent to engage in a money laundering transaction in respect of that property; and

    • (b) knowing or believing that all or part of the property is the proceeds of a serious offence, or being reckless as to whether or not the property is the proceeds of a serious offence.

    (4) For the purposes of this section, a person engages in a money laundering transaction if, for the purpose of concealing any property or enabling another person to conceal any property, that person—

    • (a) deals with that property; or

    • (b) assists any other person, whether directly or indirectly, to deal with that property.

    (5) In any prosecution for an offence against subsection (2) or subsection (3),—

    • (a) it is not necessary for the prosecution to prove that the accused knew or believed that the property was the proceeds of a particular serious offence or a particular class of serious offence:

    • (b) it is no defence that the accused believed any property to be the proceeds of a particular serious offence when in fact the property was the proceeds of another serious offence.

    (6) Nothing in this section or in sections 244 or 245 limits or restricts the operation of any other provision of this Act or any other enactment.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 ss 233, 257A(1)–(5)

    Section 243: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

244 Defence of enforcement of enactment
  • It is a defence to a charge under section 243 if the person charged proves that the act to which the charge relates was done by that person, in good faith, for the purpose of, or in connection with,—

    • (a) the enforcement or intended enforcement of this section, any other provision of this Act, or any other enactment relating to a serious offence; or

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 257A(6)

    Section 244: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 244(b): amended, on 1 December 2009, by section 176 of the Criminal Proceeds (Recovery) Act 2009 (2009 No 8).

    Section 244(ba): inserted, on 17 October 2009, by section 161(2) of the Anti-Money Laundering and Countering Financing of Terrorism Act 2009 (2009 No 35).

245 Section 243 not to apply to certain acts committed outside New Zealand
  • (1) Subject to subsection (2), section 243 does not apply if—

    • (a) any property is alleged to be the proceeds of a serious offence; and

    • (b) the act that is alleged to constitute that serious offence was committed outside New Zealand; and

    • (c) the act was not, at the time of its commission, an offence under the law of the place where the act was done.

    (2) If a person is charged with an offence under this section and the act that is alleged to constitute the serious offence resulting in the proceeds was committed outside New Zealand, it is to be presumed, unless the person charged puts the matter at issue, that the act was an offence under the law of the place where the act was done.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 257A(6A), (6B)

    Section 245: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

Receiving

  • Heading: inserted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

246 Receiving
  • (1) Every one is guilty of receiving who receives any property stolen or obtained by any other crime, knowing that property to have been stolen or so obtained, or being reckless as to whether or not the property had been stolen or so obtained.

    (2) For the purposes of this section, property that was obtained by any act committed outside New Zealand that, if it had been committed in New Zealand, would have constituted a crime is, subject to subsection (5), to be regarded as having been obtained by a crime.

    (3) The act of receiving any property stolen or obtained by any other crime is complete as soon as the offender has, either exclusively or jointly with the thief or any other person, possession of, or control over, the property or helps in concealing or disposing of the property.

    (4) If—

    • (a) any property stolen or obtained by any other crime has been returned to the owner; or

    • (b) legal title to any such property has been acquired by any person,—

    a subsequent receiving of it is not an offence, even though the receiver may know that the property had previously been stolen or obtained by any other crime.

    (5) If a person is charged with an offence under this section and the property was obtained by an act committed outside New Zealand, it is to be presumed, unless the person charged puts the matter at issue, that the doing of the act by which the property was obtained was an offence under the law of the place where the act was done.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 ss 258(1), 260, 261

    Section 246: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

247 Punishment of receiving
  • Every person who is guilty of receiving is liable as follows:

    • (a) if the value of the property received exceeds $1,000, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years:

    • (b) if the value of the property received exceeds $500 but does not exceed the sum of $1,000, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year:

    • (c) if the value of the property received does not exceed $500, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 months.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 258(1)

    Section 247: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

Crimes involving computers

  • Heading: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

248 Interpretation
  • For the purposes of this section and sections 249 to 252,—

    access, in relation to any computer system, means instruct, communicate with, store data in, receive data from, or otherwise make use of any of the resources of the computer system

    authorisation includes an authorisation conferred on a person by or under an enactment or a rule of law, or by an order of a court or judicial process

    computer system

    • (a) means—

      • (i) a computer; or

      • (ii) 2 or more interconnected computers; or

      • (iii) any communication links between computers or to remote terminals or another device; or

      • (iv) 2 or more interconnected computers combined with any communication links between computers or to remote terminals or any other device; and

    • (b) includes any part of the items described in paragraph (a) and all related input, output, processing, storage, software, or communication facilities, and stored data.

    Section 248: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 248: amended, on 13 July 2011, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2011 (2011 No 29).

    Section 248 authorisation: inserted, on 13 July 2011, by section 4(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 2011 (2011 No 29).

249 Accessing computer system for dishonest purpose
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, directly or indirectly, accesses any computer system and thereby, dishonestly or by deception, and without claim of right,—

    • (a) obtains any property, privilege, service, pecuniary advantage, benefit, or valuable consideration; or

    • (b) causes loss to any other person.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who, directly or indirectly, accesses any computer system with intent, dishonestly or by deception, and without claim of right,—

    • (a) to obtain any property, privilege, service, pecuniary advantage, benefit, or valuable consideration; or

    • (b) to cause loss to any other person.

    (3) In this section, deception has the same meaning as in section 240(2).

    Section 249: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

250 Damaging or interfering with computer system
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who intentionally or recklessly destroys, damages, or alters any computer system if he or she knows or ought to know that danger to life is likely to result.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who intentionally or recklessly, and without authorisation, knowing that he or she is not authorised, or being reckless as to whether or not he or she is authorised,—

    • (a) damages, deletes, modifies, or otherwise interferes with or impairs any data or software in any computer system; or

    • (b) causes any data or software in any computer system to be damaged, deleted, modified, or otherwise interfered with or impaired; or

    • (c) causes any computer system to—

      • (i) fail; or

      • (ii) deny service to any authorised users.

    Section 250: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

251 Making, selling, or distributing or possessing software for committing crime
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years who invites any other person to acquire from him or her, or offers or exposes for sale or supply to any other person, or agrees to sell or supply or sells or supplies to any other person, or has in his or her possession for the purpose of sale or supply to any other person, any software or other information that would enable another person to access a computer system without authorisation—

    • (a) the sole or principal use of which he or she knows to be the commission of a crime; or

    • (b) that he or she promotes as being useful for the commission of a crime (whether or not he or she also promotes it as being useful for any other purpose), knowing or being reckless as to whether it will be used for the commission of a crime.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years who—

    • (a) has in his or her possession any software or other information that would enable him or her to access a computer system without authorisation; and

    • (b) intends to use that software or other information to commit a crime.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 ss 216D(1), 229, 244

    Section 251: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

252 Accessing computer system without authorisation
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years who intentionally accesses, directly or indirectly, any computer system without authorisation, knowing that he or she is not authorised to access that computer system, or being reckless as to whether or not he or she is authorised to access that computer system.

    (2) To avoid doubt, subsection (1) does not apply if a person who is authorised to access a computer system accesses that computer system for a purpose other than the one for which that person was given access.

    (3) [Repealed]

    Section 252: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 252(3): repealed, on 13 July 2011, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2011 (2011 No 29).

253 Qualified exemption to access without authorisation offence for New Zealand Security Intelligence Service
  • [Repealed]

    Section 253: repealed, on 13 July 2011, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2011 (2011 No 29).

254 Qualified exemption to access without authorisation offence for Government Communications Security Bureau
  • [Repealed]

    Section 254: repealed, on 13 July 2011, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2011 (2011 No 29).

Forgery and counterfeiting

  • Heading: inserted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

255 Interpretation
  • For the purposes of this section and sections 256 and 263,—

    bank note means any negotiable instrument used or intended for use as currency and issued by the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, or by any bank in any country other than New Zealand, or by the government of any such country, or by any other authority authorised by law to issue notes

    false document means a document—

    • (a) of which the whole or any material part purports to be made by any person who did not make it, or by a fictitious person; or

    • (b) of which the whole or any material part purports to be made by or on behalf of any person who did not authorise its making, or on behalf of a fictitious person; or

    • (c) of which the whole or any material part has been altered, whether by addition, insertion, deletion, obliteration, erasure, removal, or otherwise, and that purports to have been altered by or on behalf of a person who did not alter it or authorise its alteration, or by or on behalf of a fictitious person; or

    • (d) that is, in whole or in part, a reproduction of any other document, and that purports to have been made by or on behalf of a person who did not make it or authorise its making, or by or on behalf of a fictitious person; or

    • (e) that is made in the name of a person, either by that person or by that person's authority, with the intention that it should pass as being made by some other person who did not make it, or by a fictitious person.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 263

    Section 255: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

256 Forgery
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who makes a false document with the intention of using it to obtain any property, privilege, service, pecuniary advantage, benefit, or valuable consideration.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who makes a false document, knowing it to be false, with the intent that it in any way be used or acted upon, whether in New Zealand or elsewhere, as genuine.

    (3) Forgery is complete as soon as the document is made with the intent described in subsection (1) or with the knowledge and intent described in subsection (2).

    (4) Forgery is complete even though the false document may be incomplete, or may not purport to be such a document as would be binding or sufficient in law, if it is so made and is such as to indicate that it was intended to be acted upon as genuine.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 ss 264, 265

    Section 256: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

257 Using forged documents
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who, knowing a document to be forged,—

    • (a) uses the document to obtain any property, privilege, service, pecuniary advantage, benefit, or valuable consideration; or

    • (b) uses, deals with, or acts upon the document as if it were genuine; or

    • (c) causes any other person to use, deal with, or act upon it as if it were genuine.

    (2) For the purposes of this section, a document made or altered outside New Zealand in a manner that would have amounted to forgery if the making or alteration had been done in New Zealand is to be regarded as a forged document.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 266

    Section 257: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

257A Money laundering
  • [Repealed]

    Section 257A: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

257B Immunity from liability for disclosure of information
  • [Repealed]

    Section 257B: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

258 Altering, concealing, destroying, or reproducing documents with intent to deceive
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who, with intent to obtain by deception any property, privilege, service, pecuniary advantage, benefit, or valuable consideration, or to cause loss to any other person,—

    • (a) alters, conceals, or destroys any document, or causes any document to be altered, concealed, or destroyed; or

    • (b) makes a document or causes a document to be made that is, in whole or in part, a reproduction of any other document.

    (2) An offence against subsection (1) is complete as soon as the alteration or document is made with the intent referred to in that subsection, although the offender may not have intended that any particular person should—

    • (a) use or act upon the document altered or made; or

    • (b) act on the basis of the absence of the document concealed or destroyed; or

    • (c) be induced to do or refrain from doing anything.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 ss 231, 256, 266A

    Section 258: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

259 Using altered or reproduced document with intent to deceive
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who, knowing any document to have been made or altered in the manner and with the intent referred to in section 258, with intent to obtain by deception any property, privilege, service, pecuniary advantage, benefit, or valuable consideration, or to cause loss to any other person,—

    • (a) uses, or deals with, or acts upon, the document; or

    • (b) causes any person to use or deal with, or act upon, the document.

    (2) For the purposes of this section, it does not matter that the document was altered or made outside New Zealand.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 266B

    Section 259: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

260 False accounting
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who, with intent to obtain by deception any property, privilege, service, pecuniary advantage, benefit, or valuable consideration, or to deceive or cause loss to any other person,—

    • (a) makes or causes to be made, or concurs in the making of, any false entry in any book or account or other document required or used for accounting purposes; or

    • (b) omits or causes to be omitted, or concurs in the omission of, any material particular from any such book or account or other document; or

    • (c) makes any transfer of any interest in a stock, debenture, or debt in the name of any person other than the owner of that interest.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 ss 251–254

    Section 260: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

261 Counterfeiting public seals
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who—

    • (a) unlawfully makes or counterfeits—

      • (i) any public seal in use at any time in New Zealand or any other country; or

      • (ii) any seal or stamp used in New Zealand or any other country by any court, local authority, public body, or public officer; or

      • (iii) the impression of any such seal or stamp; or

    • (b) uses any such seal, stamp, or impression, knowing it to be counterfeit.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 267

    Section 261: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

262 Counterfeiting corporate seals
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who—

    • (a) unlawfully makes or counterfeits—

      • (i) any seal or stamp used in New Zealand or any other country by any company or other corporate body (not being a body to which section 261 applies), or by any other person; or

      • (ii) the impression of any such seal or stamp; or

    • (b) uses any such seal, stamp, or impression, knowing it to be counterfeit.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 268

    Section 262: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

263 Possessing forged bank notes
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, without lawful authority or excuse (the proof of the lawful authority or excuse lying on him or her), purchases or receives from any person, or has in his or her possession or under his or her control, any forged bank note, whether complete or not, knowing it to be forged.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 271

    Section 263: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

264 Paper or implements for forgery
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who, without lawful authority or excuse, has in his or her possession or under his or her control anything capable of being used to forge any document with intent to use it for such a purpose.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 274

    Section 264: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

265 Imitating authorised or customary marks
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who dishonestly counterfeits or imitates any mark, word, or description that is—

    • (a) impressed or otherwise made, or written upon, or affixed to, any chattel, or upon or to any thing containing or connected with any chattel; and

    • (b) a mark, word, or description that is by recognised practice understood to denote that the thing upon or to which it is impressed, made, written, or affixed has been examined and certified to be of a particular quality by any particular officer or other person.

    (2) Subsection (1) applies whether the officer or other person referred to in subsection (1)(b) is or is not expressly authorised by law to so certify.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 ss 280, 281

    Section 265: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

Coinage

  • Heading: inserted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

266 Offences involving coinage
  • (1) For the purposes of this section,—

    counterfeit coin includes any coin that has been altered in any manner so as to resemble any other coin

    current coin means coin of any substance lawfully current in New Zealand or in any other country.

    (2) For the purposes of this section,—

    • (a) a thing is treated as being in the possession of any person if that person has it in his or her personal custody or possession, or if that person knowingly has it in the actual custody or possession of any other person, or in some place (whether or not that person occupies the place), for the use or benefit of himself or herself or any other person:

    • (b) a coin is deemed to be made or counterfeited even though the making or counterfeiting has not been finished or perfected.

    (3) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who—

    • (a) makes or counterfeits any coin resembling any current coin with the intention that it be acted upon as genuine; or

    • (b) without lawful authority or excuse, has in his or her possession or under his or her control any thing intended to be used to make or counterfeit any coin resembling any current coin, with intent to use it for such a purpose.

    (4) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who, without lawful authority or excuse,—

    • (a) buys, sells, or receives, or offers to buy, sell, or receive, any counterfeit coin resembling any current coin at or for a lower rate or value than the counterfeit coin purports to be; or

    • (b) imports or receives into New Zealand any counterfeit coin resembling any current coin, knowing it to be counterfeit; or

    • (c) exports from New Zealand, or puts on board any ship or aircraft for the purpose of being exported, any counterfeit coin resembling any current coin, knowing it to be counterfeit.

    (5) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who—

    • (a) passes or attempts to pass any counterfeit coin knowing it to be counterfeit; or

    • (b) passes or attempts to pass as current coin any coin that is not current coin or any piece of metal or other substance, knowing that it is not current coin.

    (6) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year who has in his or her possession or under his or her control any counterfeit coin, knowing it to be counterfeit and intending to pass it as genuine.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 ss 282–286, 289–292

    Section 266: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

266A Altering or reproducing document with intent to defraud
  • [Repealed]

    Section 266A: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

266B Using altered or reproduced document with intent to defraud
  • [Repealed]

    Section 266B: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

Arson, damage, and waste

  • Heading: inserted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

267 Arson
  • (1) Every one commits arson and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who—

    • (a) intentionally or recklessly damages by fire or by means of any explosive any property if he or she knows or ought to know that danger to life is likely to ensue; or

    • (b) intentionally or recklessly, and without claim of right, damages by fire or by means of any explosive any immovable property, or any vehicle, ship, or aircraft, in which that person has no interest; or

    • (c) intentionally damages by fire or by means of any explosive any immovable property, or any vehicle, ship or aircraft, with intent to obtain any benefit, or to cause loss to any other person.

    (2) Every one commits arson and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who—

    • (a) intentionally or recklessly, and without claim of right, damages by fire or by means of any explosive any property in which that person has no interest (other than property referred to in subsection (1)); or

    • (b) intentionally or recklessly damages by fire or by means of any explosive any property (other than property referred to in subsection (1)) with intent to obtain any benefit, or with intent to cause loss to any other person.

    (3) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who intentionally damages by fire or by means of any explosive any property with reckless disregard for the safety of any other property.

    (4) In this section and in section 269, benefit means any benefit, pecuniary advantage, privilege, property, service, or valuable consideration.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 ss 294, 296

    Section 267: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

268 Attempted arson
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who attempts to commit arson in respect of any immovable property or any vehicle, ship, or aircraft.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 295

    Section 268: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

269 Intentional damage
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who intentionally or recklessly destroys or damages any property if he or she knows or ought to know that danger to life is likely to result.

    (2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who—

    • (a) intentionally or recklessly, and without claim of right, destroys or damages any property in which that person has no interest; or

    • (b) intentionally or recklessly, and without claim of right, destroys or damages any property with intent to obtain any benefit, or with intent to cause loss to any other person.

    (3) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who intentionally destroys or damages any property with reckless disregard for the safety of any other property.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 298

    Section 269: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

270 Endangering transport
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who, with intent to cause danger to persons or property or with reckless disregard for the safety of persons or property,—

    • (a) interferes with any transport facility; or

    • (b) does anything to any transport facility that is likely to cause danger to persons or property.

    (2) For the purposes of this section, transport facility means any vehicle, ship, or aircraft, and any property used in connection with the transportation of persons or goods; and includes equipment of any kind used in navigation or for the guidance of any vehicle, ship, or aircraft.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 ss 203, 300–303

    Section 270: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

271 Waste or diversion of electricity, gas, or water
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years who, without claim of right and with intent to cause loss or harm to any person, wastes or diverts any electricity, gas, or water, or causes it to be wasted or diverted.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 299

    Section 271: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

272 Providing explosive to commit crime
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years who knowingly has in his or her possession or makes any explosive substance, or any dangerous engine, instrument, or thing, with intent to use or enable another person to use the substance, dangerous engine, instrument, or thing, to commit a crime.

    Compare: 1961 No 43 s 305

    Section 272: substituted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

273 Using probate obtained by forgery or perjury
  • [Repealed]

    Section 273: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

274 Paper or implements for forgery
  • [Repealed]

    Section 274: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

275 Counterfeiting stamps
  • [Repealed]

    Section 275: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

276 Falsifying registers
  • [Repealed]

    Section 276: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

277 Falsifying extracts from registers
  • [Repealed]

    Section 277: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

278 Uttering false certificates
  • [Repealed]

    Section 278: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

279 Forging certificates
  • [Repealed]

    Section 279: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

280 Imitating authorised marks
  • [Repealed]

    Section 280: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

281 Imitating customary marks
  • [Repealed]

    Section 281: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

282 Interpretation
  • [Repealed]

    Section 282: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

283 Preparations for coining
  • [Repealed]

    Section 283: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

284 Counterfeiting coin
  • [Repealed]

    Section 284: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

285 Altering coin
  • [Repealed]

    Section 285: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

286 Impairing coin
  • [Repealed]

    Section 286: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

287 Defacing coin
  • [Repealed]

    Section 287: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

288 Melting coin
  • [Repealed]

    Section 288: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

289 Possessing counterfeit coin
  • [Repealed]

    Section 289: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

290 Uttering counterfeit coin
  • [Repealed]

    Section 290: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

291 Buying and selling counterfeit coin
  • [Repealed]

    Section 291: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

292 Importing and exporting counterfeit coin
  • [Repealed]

    Section 292: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

293 What constitutes criminal damage
  • [Repealed]

    Section 293: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

294 Arson
  • [Repealed]

    Section 294: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

295 Attempted arson
  • [Repealed]

    Section 295: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

296 Damage to other property by fire or explosive
  • [Repealed]

    Section 296: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

297 Attempt to damage property by fire or explosive
  • [Repealed]

    Section 297: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

298 Wilful damage
  • [Repealed]

    Section 298: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

298A Causing disease or sickness in animals
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who, without lawful justification or reasonable excuse, directly or indirectly causes or produces in an animal a disease or sickness that causes a situation of a kind described in subsection (2) to occur, either—

    • (a) intending a situation of that kind to occur; or

    • (b) being reckless as to whether a situation of that kind occurs.

    (2) A situation of a kind referred to in subsection (1) is a situation that—

    • (a) constitutes a serious risk to the health or safety of an animal population; and

    • (b) is likely, directly or indirectly, to cause major damage to the national economy of New Zealand.

    Section 298A: inserted, on 17 November 2003, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2003 (2003 No 105).

298B Contaminating food, crops, water, or other products
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who contaminates food, crops, water, or any other products, without lawful justification or reasonable excuse, and either knowing or being reckless as to whether the food, crops, water, or products are intended for human consumption, and—

    • (a) intending to harm a person or reckless as to whether any person is harmed; or

    • (b) intending to cause major economic loss to a person or reckless as to whether major economic loss is caused to any person; or

    • (c) intending to cause major damage to the national economy of New Zealand or reckless as to whether major damage is caused to the national economy of New Zealand.

    Section 298B: inserted, on 17 November 2003, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2003 (2003 No 105).

299 Wilful waste or diversion of water, gas, or electricity
  • [Repealed]

    Section 299: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

300 Interfering with means of transport
  • [Repealed]

    Section 300: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

301 Wrecking
  • [Repealed]

    Section 301: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

302 Attempting to wreck
  • [Repealed]

    Section 302: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

303 Interfering with signals, etc
  • [Repealed]

    Section 303: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

304 Interfering with mines
  • [Repealed]

    Section 304: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

305 Providing explosive to commit crime
  • [Repealed]

    Section 305: repealed, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

Part 11
Threatening, conspiring, and attempting to commit offences

306 Threatening to kill or do grievous bodily harm
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who—

    • (a) threatens to kill or do grievous bodily harm to any person; or

    • (b) sends or causes to be received, knowing the contents thereof, any letter or writing containing any threat to kill or do grievous bodily harm to any person.

    (2) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 342; 1941 No 10 Schedule

    Section 306(2): repealed, on 30 June 2002, by section 164(b) of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

307 Threatening to destroy property
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who sends or causes to be received, knowing the contents thereof, any letter or writing threatening to destroy or damage any property, or to destroy or injure any animal.

    (2) Nothing shall be an offence against subsection (1) unless it is done without lawful justification or excuse, and without claim of right.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 343; 1941 No 10 Schedule

    Section 307(2): amended, on 1 October 2003, by section 16 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

307A Threats of harm to people or property
  • (1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years if, without lawful justification or reasonable excuse, and intending to achieve the effect stated in subsection (2), he or she—

    • (a) threatens to do an act likely to have 1 or more of the results described in subsection (3); or

    • (b) communicates information—

      • (i) that purports to be about an act likely to have 1 or more of the results described in subsection (3); and

      • (ii) that he or she believes to be false.

    (2) The effect is causing a significant disruption of 1 or more of the following things:

    • (a) the activities of the civilian population of New Zealand:

    • (b) something that is or forms part of an infrastructure facility in New Zealand:

    • (c) civil administration in New Zealand (whether administration undertaken by the Government of New Zealand or by institutions such as local authorities, District Health Boards, or boards of trustees of schools):

    • (d) commercial activity in New Zealand (whether commercial activity in general or commercial activity of a particular kind).

    (3) The results are—

    • (a) creating a risk to the health of 1 or more people:

    • (b) causing major property damage:

    • (c) causing major economic loss to 1 or more persons:

    • (d) causing major damage to the national economy of New Zealand.

    (4) To avoid doubt, the fact that a person engages in any protest, advocacy, or dissent, or engages in any strike, lockout, or other industrial action, is not, by itself, a sufficient basis for inferring that a person has committed an offence against subsection (1).

    Section 307A: inserted, on 17 November 2003, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2003 (2003 No 105).

308 Threatening acts
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who, with intent to intimidate or annoy any person,—

    • (a) breaks or damages or threatens to break or damage any dwellinghouse; or

    • (b) by the discharge of firearms or otherwise, alarms or attempts to alarm any person in any dwellinghouse.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 344, 345

309 Conspiring to prevent collection of rates or taxes
  • Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years who conspires with any other person by force or intimidation to prevent the collection of any rates or taxes the levying and collection of which is authorised by law.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 346

310 Conspiring to commit offence
  • (1) Subject to the provisions of subsection (2), every one who conspires with any person to commit any offence, or to do or omit, in any part of the world, anything of which the doing or omission in New Zealand would be an offence, is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years if the maximum punishment for that offence exceeds 7 years' imprisonment, and in any other case is liable to the same punishment as if he had committed that offence.

    (2) This section shall not apply where a punishment for the conspiracy is otherwise expressly prescribed by this Act or by some other enactment.

    (3) Where under this section any one is charged with conspiring to do or omit anything anywhere outside New Zealand, it is a defence to prove that the doing or omission of the act to which the conspiracy relates was not an offence under the law of the place where it was, or was to be, done or omitted.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 347, 348

311 Attempt to commit or procure commission of offence
  • (1) Every one who attempts to commit any offence in respect of which no punishment for the attempt is expressly prescribed by this Act or by some other enactment is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years if the maximum punishment for that offence is imprisonment for life, and in any other case is liable to not more than half the maximum punishment to which he would have been liable if he had committed that offence.

    (2) Every one who incites, counsels, or attempts to procure any person to commit any offence, when that offence is not in fact committed, is liable to the same punishment as if he had attempted to commit that offence, unless in respect of any such case a punishment is otherwise expressly provided by this Act or by some other enactment.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 349, 350, 351; 1922 No 35 s 3

312 Accessory after the fact to crime
  • Every one who is accessory after the fact to any crime punishable by imprisonment, being a crime in respect of which no express provision is made by this Act or by some other enactment for the punishment of an accessory after the fact, is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years if the maximum punishment for that crime is imprisonment for life, and not exceeding 5 years if such maximum punishment is imprisonment for 10 or more years; and in any other case is liable to not more than half the maximum punishment to which he would have been liable if he had committed the crime.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 352, 353

Part 11A
Obtaining evidence by interception devices

[Repealed]

  • Part 11A: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

Interpretation

[Repealed]

  • Heading: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312A Interpretation
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312A: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

Applications for interception warrants in relation to organised criminal enterprises

[Repealed]

  • Heading: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312B Application by Police for warrant to intercept private communications
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312B: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312C Matters on which Judge must be satisfied in respect of applications
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312C: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

Applications for interception warrants in relation to serious violent offences

[Repealed]

  • Heading: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312CA Application by Police for warrant to intercept private communications in relation to serious violent offences
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312CA: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312CB Matters on which Judge must be satisfied in respect of applications relating to serious violent offences
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312CB: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312CC Application by Police for warrant to intercept private communications relating to terrorist offences
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312CC: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312CD Matters of which Judge must be satisfied in respect of applications relating to terrorist offences
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312CD: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

General provisions

[Repealed]

  • Heading: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312D Contents and term of warrant
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312D: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312E Effect of warrant
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312E: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312F Renewal of warrants
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312F: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312G Emergency permits
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312G: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312H Security of applications
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312H: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312I Destruction of irrelevant records made by use of interception device
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312I: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312J Destruction of relevant records made by use of interception device
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312J: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312K Prohibition on disclosure of private communications lawfully intercepted
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312K: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312L Notice to be given of intention to produce evidence of private communication
  • Section 312L: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312M Inadmissibility of evidence of private communications unlawfully intercepted
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312M: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312N Restriction on admissibility of evidence of private communications lawfully intercepted
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312N: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312O Privileged evidence
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312O: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312P Report to be made to Judge on use of warrant or permit
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312P: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

312Q Commissioner of Police to give information to Parliament
  • [Repealed]

    Section 312Q: repealed, on 18 April 2012, by section 325(9) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

Part 12
Procedure

313 General provisions as to procedure
  • (1) This Part shall be read subject to any special provisions of this Act or of any other enactment relating to the procedure in any particular case.

    (2) Subject as aforesaid, the procedure, from information to committal for trial or sentence, shall be as prescribed by the Summary Proceedings Act 1957.

    (3) Except as otherwise provided in this Act, there shall be 1 uniform procedure in respect of all offences for which the offender is proceeded against by indictment.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 356, 364

314 Procedure where prior consent to prosecution required
  • Where any one is charged with any offence in respect of which the leave or consent or certificate of a Judge or of the Attorney-General or of any other person to the laying of an information is required, the leave or consent or certificate may be endorsed on the information or set out in a memorandum, and the endorsement or memorandum shall be accepted by the court as proof that the leave or consent or certificate has been given.

    Compare: 1953 No 120 s 5(2)

    Section 314: amended, on 1 January 1981, by section 4(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1980 (1980 No 63).

General power to stop vehicles to exercise statutory search powers

[Repealed]

  • Heading: repealed, on 1 October 2012, by section 325(6) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

314A Statutory search power
  • [Repealed]

    Section 314A: repealed, on 1 October 2012, by section 325(6) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

314B General power to stop vehicles
  • [Repealed]

    Section 314B: repealed, on 1 October 2012, by section 325(6) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

314C Powers incidental to stopping vehicles under section 314B
  • [Repealed]

    Section 314C: repealed, on 1 October 2012, by section 325(6) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

314D Offences relating to stopping vehicles under section 314B
  • [Repealed]

    Section 314D: repealed, on 1 October 2012, by section 325(6) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

Arrest

315 Arrest without warrant
  • (1) No one shall be arrested without warrant except pursuant to the provisions of—

    • (a) this Act; or

    • (b) some other enactment expressly giving power to arrest without warrant.

    (2) Any constable, and all persons whom he calls to his assistance, may arrest and take into custody without a warrant—

    • (a) any person whom he finds disturbing the public peace or committing any offence punishable by imprisonment:

    • (b) any person whom he has good cause to suspect of having committed a breach of the peace or any offence punishable by imprisonment:

    • (c) [Repealed]

    • (d) [Repealed]

    • (e) [Repealed]

    (3) The foregoing provisions of this section shall be read subject to the express provisions of any enactment imposing any limitations, restrictions, or conditions on the exercise of any power to arrest without warrant conferred on any constable by that enactment in respect of any specified offence or class of offences.

    (4) Where under any enactment other than this Act any officer or person, not being a constable, has power to arrest any other person without warrant, any constable may exercise that power in the same cases and in the same manner as that officer or person.

    (5) Nothing in this section shall limit or affect any of the provisions of Part 3 (which relates to matters of justification or excuse).

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 358, 359, 360; 1927 No 35 ss 3D(2), 73; 1952 No 42 s 11; 1958 No 87 s 2(2); 1960 No 119 s 2(1)

    Section 315(2)(a): amended, on 26 December 1989, by section 3(5) of the Abolition of the Death Penalty Act 1989 (1989 No 119).

    Section 315(2)(b): amended, on 26 December 1989, by section 3(5) of the Abolition of the Death Penalty Act 1989 (1989 No 119).

    Section 315(2)(c): repealed, on 1 February 1982, by section 51(1) of the Summary Offences Act 1981 (1981 No 113).

    Section 315(2)(d): repealed, on 1 February 1982, by section 51(1) of the Summary Offences Act 1981 (1981 No 113).

    Section 315(2)(e): repealed, on 1 February 1982, by section 51(1) of the Summary Offences Act 1981 (1981 No 113).

316 Duty of persons arresting
  • (1) It is the duty of every one arresting any other person to inform the person he is arresting, at the time of the arrest, of the act or omission for which the person is being arrested, unless it is impracticable to do so, or unless the reason for the arrest is obvious in the circumstances. The act or omission need not be stated in technical or precise language, and may be stated in any words sufficient to give that person notice of the true reason for his arrest.

    (2) It is the duty of every one who arrests any other person pursuant to any process or warrant—

    • (a) if he or she has the process or warrant, or a copy of it, in his or her possession at the time of the arrest, to produce it if required by that person to do so:

    • (b) if he or she does not have the process or warrant, or a copy of it, in his or her possession at the time of the arrest, to show it to the arrested person as soon as practicable after the arrest, if that person so requires.

    (3) Where under any enactment any person other than a constable has, by virtue of his office, a power of arrest without warrant, he shall, whenever he arrests any other person pursuant to that power,—

    • (a) if he has evidence of his appointment to that office in his possession at the time of the arrest, produce it if required by that person to do so:

    • (b) if he does not have evidence of his appointment in his possession at the time of the arrest, show it to the arrested person as soon as practicable after the arrest, if that person so requires.

    (4) A failure to fulfil any of the duties mentioned in the foregoing provisions of this section shall not of itself deprive the person arresting, or his assistants, of protection from criminal responsibility, but shall be relevant to the inquiry whether the arrest might not have been effected, or the process or warrant executed, by reasonable means in a less violent manner.

    (5) Every person who is arrested on a charge of any offence shall be brought before a court, as soon as possible, to be dealt with according to law.

    (6) Nothing in this section shall limit or affect the express provisions of any enactment whereby—

    • (a) the burden of proving the absence of reasonable or probable cause, or the absence of justification, for any arrest is on any person:

    • (b) any person having, by virtue of his office, a power of arrest without warrant is entitled, in any specified circumstances, to exercise that power without the production of evidence of his appointment to that office, or is required, in exercising the power, to comply with any specified conditions or restrictions in addition to or instead of producing evidence of his appointment.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 61

    Section 316(2)(a): replaced, on 5 March 2012 (applying to the execution of any warrant of arrest on or after that date even if the warrant was issued before that date), by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 4) 2011 (2011 No 85).

    Section 316(2)(b): replaced, on 5 March 2012 (applying to the execution of any warrant of arrest on or after that date even if the warrant was issued before that date), by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 4) 2011 (2011 No 85).

317 Power to enter premises to arrest offender or prevent offence
  • [Repealed]

    Section 317: repealed, on 1 October 2012, by section 325(6) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

317A Power to stop vehicles for purpose of arrest
  • [Repealed]

    Section 317A: repealed, on 1 October 2012, by section 325(6) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

317AA Powers incidental to stopping vehicles under section 317A
  • [Repealed]

    Section 317AA: repealed, on 1 October 2012, by section 325(6) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

317AB Offences relating to stopping vehicles under section 317A
  • [Repealed]

    Section 317AB: repealed, on 1 October 2012, by section 325(6) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

317B Road blocks
  • [Repealed]

    Section 317B: repealed, on 1 October 2012, by section 325(6) of the Search and Surveillance Act 2012 (2012 No 24).

Bail

[Repealed]

  • Heading: repealed, on 1 January 2001, pursuant to section 74(2) of the Bail Act 2000 (2000 No 38).

318 When bail not allowable
  • [Repealed]

    Section 318: repealed, on 1 January 2001, by section 74(2) of the Bail Act 2000 (2000 No 38).

319 Rules as to granting bail
  • [Repealed]

    Section 319: repealed, on 1 January 2001, by section 74(2) of the Bail Act 2000 (2000 No 38).

319A Detention while bail bond prepared and signed
  • [Repealed]

    Section 319A: repealed, on 1 January 2001, by section 74(2) of the Bail Act 2000 (2000 No 38).

319B Variation of conditions of bail
  • [Repealed]

    Section 319B: repealed, on 1 January 2001, by section 74(2) of the Bail Act 2000 (2000 No 38).

320 Arrest of absconder
  • [Repealed]

    Section 320: repealed, on 1 January 2001, by section 74(2) of the Bail Act 2000 (2000 No 38).

320A Person on bail may be arrested without warrant in certain circumstances
  • [Repealed]

    Section 320A: repealed, on 1 January 2001, by section 74(2) of the Bail Act 2000 (2000 No 38).

320B Failure to answer bail
  • [Repealed]

    Section 320B: repealed, on 1 January 2001, by section 74(2) of the Bail Act 2000 (2000 No 38).

320C Non-performance of condition of bail bond to be certified by Judge
  • [Repealed]

    Section 320C: repealed, on 1 January 2001, by section 74(2) of the Bail Act 2000 (2000 No 38).

Plea of guilty after committal for trial

321 Person committed for trial may plead guilty before trial
  • (1) Where any person charged with any crime has been committed for trial, and, at any time before the commencement of the sittings to which he is committed for trial, desires to plead guilty to the crime, he shall sign a request in that behalf in form 3 of Schedule 2.

    (2) The request shall be sent to the Registrar of the court in the place to which the accused was committed for trial, and he shall as soon as practicable be brought before a Judge sitting in open court to be dealt with under this section.

    (3) If the accused is not in custody, notice shall be given to him of the time and place for attendance before the Judge.

    (4) On his attendance the accused shall be called upon to plead either guilty or not guilty to the crime for which he was committed for trial or, if the Judge so directs, to any other crime for which an indictment could have been filed against him following his committal for trial.

    (5) Before the accused is called upon to plead, the charge to which he is required to plead shall be read over to him.

    (6) If the accused then pleads guilty, the Judge shall have the same powers of sentencing or otherwise dealing with him, and of finally disposing of the charge to which the accused has pleaded guilty and of all incidental matters, as the Judge would have had if the accused on arraignment at any criminal sittings of the court had pleaded guilty to the charge on an indictment duly presented.

    (7) If the accused does not plead guilty as aforesaid, or if he does not attend in accordance with the notice given under subsection (3), or if it is not practicable for him to be dealt with by a Judge under this section before the commencement of the sittings to which he was committed for trial, he shall be treated in all respects as if he had not made any request to plead guilty in accordance with this section, and no comment shall be made at his trial for the crime charged on the fact that such a request has been made, nor shall the request be admissible in evidence against him.

    (8) Any bail bond entered into by any person in respect of the crime for which the accused was committed for trial shall cease to have effect when the accused, after pleading guilty, has been sentenced or otherwise dealt with under this section.

    Compare: 1936 No 58 s 41; 1954 No 50 s 56

    Section 321 heading: amended, on 1 May 1981, by section 5 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1980 (1980 No 85).

    Section 321(1): amended, on 1 May 1981, by section 5(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1980 (1980 No 85).

    Section 321(2): amended, on 1 May 1981, by section 5(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1980 (1980 No 85).

    Section 321(4): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

Change of venue

322 Changing venue or sitting
  • (1) Where any person is committed for any crime to appear at any sitting of the High Court or of a District Court (hereinafter referred to as the court of committal), and it appears to a Judge or a District Court Judge (as the case may require) that it is expedient for the ends of justice that the person should be tried for that crime—

    • (a) where the High Court is the court of committal, at some place or at some sitting other than the place or sitting for trial to which he was committed, or at which he would in the ordinary course of law be tried; or

    • (b) where a District Court is the court of committal, at some District Court or at some sitting of the court of committal other than the court or sitting to which he was committed, or at which he would in the ordinary course of law be tried,—

    the Judge, either of his own motion, or on application made by or on behalf of the prosecutor or the person charged, may by order, either before or after an indictment is filed, direct that the person shall be tried at such place and sitting of the court, or (as the case may require) by such court and at such sitting of that court (hereinafter referred to as the substituted court), as he thinks fit.

    (2) Any application for an order as aforesaid may be made to a Judge when sitting in court or in chambers; and it shall not be necessary for the person charged to be brought or appear in person before the Judge, either upon the making or the determination of the application, or to plead to any such indictment in the court of committal.

    (3) The Judge may make any such order subject to such conditions concerning bail and the payment of the costs of the prosecutor and witnesses, and of the removal of the indictment, and of the removal of the person charged, and concerning the publication of any report or account of the proceedings in connection with the making of the order, and concerning any other matter or thing whatsoever, as the Judge in his discretion thinks fit.

    (4) After any such order has been made, no indictment shall be filed to or at the court of committal against that person for the crime.

    (5) If the indictment has not been filed when the order is made, the indictment may be filed at the substituted court.

    (6) If the indictment has been filed when the order is made, the Registrar of the court of committal shall forthwith transmit to the Registrar of the substituted court the indictment and any bail bond, depositions, examinations, informations, or other documents relating to the alleged crime.

    (7) On the making of an order under subsection (1), the Registrar shall forthwith give notice of the order to the prison manager of any prison in which the person charged is then held.

    (8) Where any person is committed to the High Court for trial (otherwise than pursuant to an order for the transfer of the proceedings made under section 28J of the District Courts Act 1947), and before he is given in charge to the jury a Judge of that court is satisfied that every charge that is contained or that might lawfully be contained in the indictment discloses an offence within the jurisdiction of a District Court presided over by a Judge, he may make an order under this section directing that the person be tried at such sitting of a District Court (hereinafter referred to as the substituted court) as he thinks fit; and the provisions of this section and of sections 323 to 327 shall apply accordingly.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 370

    Section 322 heading: amended, on 1 May 1981, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1980 (1980 No 85).

    Section 322(1): substituted, on 1 May 1981, by section 6(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1980 (1980 No 85).

    Section 322(1): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 322(4): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 322(5): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 322(6): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 322(7): amended, on 1 June 2005, by section 206 of the Corrections Act 2004 (2004 No 50).

    Section 322(8): added, on 1 May 1981, by section 6(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1980 (1980 No 85).

323 Powers of court of committal as to custody or bail of accused
  • [Repealed]

    Section 323: repealed, on 1 January 2001, by section 74(2) of the Bail Act 2000 (2000 No 38).

324 Attendance of witnesses at substituted court
  • Where any witness has been summoned to give evidence at the trial, or has been served with a notice to attend under section 184V of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957, the Registrar of the court of committal may give notice in writing to that witness of the change in the place of trial; and service of that notice on the witness shall have the same effect as if it were a summons to give evidence at the substituted court.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 372

    Section 324: amended, on 29 June 2009, by section 18 of the Summary Proceedings Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 41).

325 Powers of substituted court to compel attendance
  • (1) For the purposes of the trial before the substituted court, the Judge of that court may issue any process for apprehending the person to be tried, and may compel the attendance of witnesses, or of the person to be tried, in the same manner as if the indictment were originally filed at the substituted court.

    (2) The Judge of the substituted court shall also have in respect of the person charged the same powers as the Judge of the court of committal has under section 323, and the provisions of that section shall apply accordingly, with all necessary modifications.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 373, 375

    Section 325(1): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

326 Trial in substituted court
  • (1) Where an indictment is transmitted or removed to, or filed at, a substituted court, the charge may be dealt with, tried, and determined, and a verdict and judgment given, by and before that court in all respects as if the person charged had been originally committed for trial or the indictment had been filed at that court.

    (2) Except as provided in section 379A, it shall not be lawful for any person, by himself or by his counsel, to take any objection either in the court of committal or in the substituted court, or in the Court of Appeal, to any order of a Judge, or to any other proceeding under which an indictment is transmitted or removed to, or a trial ordered to be had at, the substituted court, or to any matter or thing set out or appearing on the face of the record, except to the indictment alone.

    (3) It shall not be necessary for any purpose to prove that an indictment has been duly transmitted or removed to the substituted court, but every such indictment shall be presumed to have been duly removed and transmitted upon production of it in the substituted court by the Registrar, and no evidence or proof to the contrary shall be admitted.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 ss 370(5), (6), 380, 381, 382

    Section 326(1): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 326(2): amended, on 1 May 1981, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1980 (1980 No 85).

    Section 326(2): amended, on 1 January 1967, by section 8(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1966 (1966 No 98).

327 Witnesses' expenses where indictment removed at instance of the Crown
  • Where on the application of the prosecutor an order is made for the trial of any person at a substituted court, any Judge may issue a certificate, upon the production of which there may be paid, out of money appropriated by Parliament for the payment of witnesses, such sum as the Minister of the Crown who is responsible for the Ministry of Justice may approve to enable that person to defray the expenses of the attendance of his witnesses.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 383

    Section 327: amended, on 1 October 2003, pursuant to section 14(1) of the State Sector Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 41).

    Section 327: amended, on 1 July 1995, by section 10(1) of the Department of Justice (Restructuring) Act 1995 (1995 No 39).

Indictments

328 Form of indictment
  • (1) Every indictment shall be in form 4 of Schedule 2, or to the like effect.

    (2) Any mistake in the heading shall upon being discovered be forthwith amended, and whether amended or not shall be immaterial.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 386

329 Contents of counts
  • (1) Every count of an indictment shall contain and shall be sufficient if it contains in substance a statement that the accused has committed either some crime therein specified or, except where the indictment contains a count specifying a crime for which an offender may be proceeded against only by indictment, some offence therein specified that is punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 3 months; and for the purposes of this section and of sections 330 to 344 the term crime shall be deemed to include any such offence as aforesaid.

    (2) The statement may be made in popular language, without any technical averments or any allegations of matter not essential to be proved.

    (3) The statement may be in the words of the enactment describing the crime or declaring the matter charged to be a crime, or in any words sufficient to give the accused notice of the crime with which he is charged.

    (4) Every count shall contain so much detail of the circumstances of the alleged crime as is sufficient to give the accused reasonable information concerning the act or omission to be proved against him, and to identify the transaction referred to; but the absence or insufficiency of such details shall not vitiate the count.

    (5) A count may refer to any section or subsection of any enactment creating the crime charged therein, and in estimating the sufficiency of any such count the court shall have regard to such reference.

    (6) Every count shall in general apply only to a single transaction.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 387

    Section 329(1): amended, on 23 October 1963, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1963 (1963 No 120).

330 Crimes may be charged in the alternative
  • (1) A count shall not be deemed objectionable on the ground that it charges in the alternative several different matters, acts, or omissions which are stated in the alternative in the enactment describing any crime, or declaring the matters, acts, or omissions charged to be a crime, or on the ground that it is double or multiple.

    (2) The accused may at any stage of the trial apply to the court to amend or divide any such count on the ground that it is so framed as to embarrass him in his defence.

    (3) The court, if satisfied that the ends of justice require it, may order any count to be amended, or divided into 2 or more counts; and on the order being made that count shall be so divided or amended, and thereupon a formal commencement may be inserted before each of the counts into which it is divided.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 388

331 Certain objections not to vitiate counts
  • No count shall be deemed objectionable or insufficient on the ground—

    • (a) that it does not contain the name of any person injuriously affected; or

    • (b) that it does not state who is the owner of any property therein mentioned; or

    • (c) that it charges an intent to defraud, without naming or describing the person whom it was intended to defraud; or

    • (d) that it does not set out any document which may be the subject of the charge; or

    • (e) that it does not set out the words used, where words used are the subject of the charge; or

    • (f) that it does not specify the means by which the crime was committed; or

    • (g) that it does not name or describe with precision any person or thing:

    provided that the court may, if satisfied that it is necessary for a fair trial, order that further particulars in writing of any such document, words, means, person, or thing be furnished by the prosecutor.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 389

332 Indictment for perjury or fraud
  • (1) No count charging perjury, the making of a false oath or of a false statement, or the fabrication of evidence, or procuring the commission of any of those crimes, shall be deemed insufficient on the ground that it does not state the nature or the authority of the tribunal before which the oath or statement was taken or made, or the subject of the inquiry, or the words used, or the evidence fabricated, or that it does not expressly negative the truth of the words used; but the court may order that the prosecutor shall furnish further particulars in writing of what is relied on in support of the charge.

    (2) No count charging any false pretence, or any fraud, or any attempt or conspiracy by fraudulent means, shall be deemed insufficient because it does not set out in detail in what the false pretence, or the fraud, or the fraudulent means consisted; but the court may order that the prosecutor shall furnish further particulars in writing of those matters, or any of them.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 390(1), (2)

333 General provisions as to counts not affected
  • None of the foregoing provisions of this Act as to matters that are not to render any count objectionable or insufficient shall be construed as restricting or limiting in any way the general provisions of this Part relating to the form and contents of counts.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 390(3)

334 Further particulars
  • (1) When any further particulars are delivered pursuant to the foregoing provisions of this Act, a copy shall be given without charge to the accused or his solicitor.

    (2) The further particulars shall be entered in or attached to the Crown Book; and the trial shall proceed in all respects as if the indictment had originally contained the further particulars.

    (3) In determining whether further particulars are required or not, and whether a defect in the indictment is material to the substantial justice of the case or not, the court may have regard to the depositions.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 391

335 Variance and amendment
  • (1) If on the trial of an indictment there appears to be a variance between the proof and the charge in any count of the indictment either as filed or as amended, or as it would have been if amended in conformity with any such further particulars, the court before which the case is tried, or the Court of Appeal, may amend the indictment, or any count in it, so as to make it conformable with the proof.

    (2) If the court is of opinion that the accused has not been misled or prejudiced in his defence by such variance it shall make the amendment.

    (3) If it appears that the indictment has been filed under some other enactment instead of under this Act, or under this Act instead of under some other enactment, or that there is in the indictment or in any count in it an omission to state or a defective statement of anything requisite to constitute the crime, or an omission to negative any exception that ought to be negatived, but that the matter omitted is proved by the evidence, the court before which the trial takes place, or the Court of Appeal, if of opinion that the accused has not been misled or prejudiced in his defence by the error or omission, shall amend the indictment or count as may be necessary.

    (4) In any such case the trial or the appeal may then proceed in all respects as if the indictment or count had been originally framed as amended.

    (5) If the court is of opinion that the accused has been misled or prejudiced in his defence by any such variance, error, omission, or defective statement as aforesaid, but that the effect of his being misled or prejudiced might be removed by adjourning or postponing the trial, the court may in its discretion make the amendment and adjourn the trial to a future day in the same sittings, or discharge the jury and postpone the trial to the next sittings of the court, on such terms as it thinks just.

    (6) Where an amendment of any indictment or count is made under this section by the Court of Appeal, that court may in its discretion, in making the amendment, either affirm the sentence or direct a new trial.

    (7) In determining whether the accused has been misled or prejudiced in his defence, the court that has to determine the question shall consider the contents of the depositions, as well as the other circumstances of the case.

    (8) The propriety of making or refusing to make any such amendment shall be deemed a question for the court, and the decision of the court upon it may be reserved for the Court of Appeal, or may be brought on appeal before the Court of Appeal, in the same manner as any other decision on a point of law.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 392

    Section 335(1): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 335(3): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

336 Indictment for treason
  • (1) Every indictment for treason must state overt acts, and no evidence shall be admitted of any overt act not stated unless it is otherwise relevant as tending to prove some overt act stated.

    (2) The power of the court to amend an indictment under section 335 shall not extend to authorise the court to add to the overt acts stated in the indictment.

    (3) Nothing in subsection (2) limits anything in section 345C.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 393

    Section 336(2): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 336(3): added, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

337 Attempt proved when crime is charged
  • Where the commission of the crime charged is not proved, but the evidence establishes an attempt to commit the crime, the accused may be convicted of the attempt.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 394

338 Crime proved when attempt is charged
  • (1) Where an attempt to commit a crime is charged, but the evidence establishes the commission of the full crime, the accused may be convicted of the attempt.

    (2) After a conviction for that attempt the accused shall not be liable to be tried again for the crime which he was charged with attempting to commit.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 395

339 Part of charge proved
  • (1) Every count shall be deemed divisible; and if the commission of the crime charged, as described in the enactment creating the crime or as charged in the count, includes the commission of any other crime, the person accused may be convicted of any crime so included which is proved, although the whole crime charged is not proved; or he may be convicted of an attempt to commit any crime so included.

    (2) On a count charging murder, the jury may—

    • (a) in accordance with section 337, find the accused guilty of an attempt to commit murder; or

    • (b) if the evidence proves manslaughter but does not prove murder, find the accused guilty of manslaughter—

    but shall not on that count, except in accordance with subsection (2) of section 178 (which relates to infanticide) find the accused guilty of any other offence.

    (3) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 396

    Section 339(2): substituted, on 1 January 1974, by section 8 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1973 (1973 No 118).

    Section 339(3): repealed, on 1 February 1986, by section 4 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 1985 (1985 No 160).

340 Joinder of counts
  • (1) Any number of counts for any crimes whatever may be joined in the same indictment, and shall be distinguished in the manner shown in form 4 of Schedule 2, or to the like effect.

    (2) Where there are more counts than 1 in an indictment each count may be treated as a separate indictment.

    (3) If the court thinks it conducive to the ends of justice to do so it may order that the accused shall be tried upon any 1 or more of such counts separately.

    (4) Any such order may be made either before or in the course of the trial, and if it is made in the course of the trial the jury shall be discharged from giving a verdict on the counts on which the trial is not to proceed.

    (5) The counts in the indictment which are not then tried shall be proceeded upon in all respects as if they had been filed in a separate indictment.

    (6) Unless there are special reasons, no order shall be made preventing the trial at the same time of any number of crimes involving dishonesty not exceeding 5, alleged to have been committed within 6 months from the first to the last of such crimes, whether committed against the same person or not.

    (7) If 1 sentence is passed upon any verdict of guilty on more counts than 1 the sentence shall be good if any of those counts would have justified the sentence.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 397

    Section 340(1) proviso: repealed, on 1 January 1974, by section 9 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1973 (1973 No 118).

    Section 340(5): amended, on 1 March 1995, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

341 Charge of previous conviction
  • (1) Where any count contains an allegation that the accused has been previously convicted, the following provisions shall apply:

    • (a) he shall not at the time of his arraignment be required to plead to that allegation, unless he pleads guilty to the rest of that count and to the rest of the indictment:

    • (b) if he pleads not guilty to the rest of that count, or to any other count in the indictment, the allegation shall not be mentioned to the jury when he is given in charge to them:

    • (c) if he pleads guilty to or is convicted on any count, then, before he is called upon to say why sentence should not be passed upon him, he shall be asked whether or not he has been previously convicted as alleged, and if he says that he has not, or does not say that he has been so convicted, the jury shall be charged to inquire into the matter, as in other cases.

    (2) Notwithstanding anything in subsection (1), where at the trial of the accused evidence of his good character is given on the part of the accused, the prosecutor, in answer to that evidence, may prove the previous conviction.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 398

342 Objections to indictment
  • (1) No objection to an indictment shall be taken by way of demurrer, but if an indictment does not state in substance a crime the prosecutor or the accused may move the court to amend it, or the accused may move the court to quash it or in arrest of judgment, as provided in this section.

    (2) If the motion is made before the accused pleads, the court shall in its discretion either quash the indictment or amend it.

    (3) If the defect in the indictment appears to the court during the trial the court may if it thinks fit amend it, or may in its discretion quash the indictment or leave the objection to be taken in arrest of judgment.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 399

343 Indictment of parties
  • Every one who is a party to any crime may be convicted either upon a count charging him with having committed that crime, where the nature of the crime charged will admit of such course, or upon a count alleging how he became a party to it.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 400

344 Accessories after the fact, and receivers
  • (1) Every one charged with being an accessory after the fact to any crime, or with receiving property knowing it to have been dishonestly obtained, may be indicted, whether the principal offender or other party to the crime or the person by whom the property was so obtained has or has not been indicted or convicted, or is or is not amenable to justice; and the accessory may be indicted either alone, as for a substantive crime, or jointly with the principal or other offender or person by whom the property was dishonestly obtained.

    (2) Where any property has been dishonestly obtained, any number of receivers at different times of that property, or of any part or parts thereof, may be charged with substantive crimes, and may be tried together, whether the person by whom the property was so obtained is or is not indicted with them, or is or is not in custody or amenable to justice.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 401

344AA Money launderers
  • (1) Every one charged with an offence (in this section referred to as a money laundering offence) against subsection (2) or subsection (3) of section 243 or subsection (2) or subsection (3) of section 12B of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975 (which sections relate to money laundering and laundering the proceeds of offences) in respect of any property that is the proceeds of a serious offence—

    • (a) may be indicted whether or not the person who committed that serious offence has been indicted or convicted or is amenable to justice; and

    • (b) either—

      • (i) may be indicted alone in respect of that money laundering offence; or

      • (ii) may be charged jointly with that other person in 1 indictment in which each is charged in a separate count with the respective offence alleged to have been committed by that person, in which case those persons may be tried together.

    (2) Where any property is the proceeds of a serious offence, any number of persons who are alleged to have committed, at different times, a money laundering offence in respect of that property, or any part or parts of that property,—

    • (a) may be charged jointly in 1 indictment in which each is charged in a separate count with the respective offence alleged to have been committed by that person; and

    • (b) may be tried together.

    (3) For the purposes of this section, the terms proceeds, property, and serious offence have the same meanings as they have in section 243 of this Act and in section 12B of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975, respectively.

    Section 344AA: inserted, on 1 September 1995, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1995 (1995 No 49).

    Section 344AA(1): amended, on 1 October 2003, by section 32 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 344AA(1): amended, on 12 May 1998, by section 13 of the Misuse of Drugs Amendment Act 1998 (1998 No 14).

    Section 344AA(3): amended, on 1 October 2003, by section 32 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

    Section 344AA(3): amended, on 12 May 1998, by section 13 of the Misuse of Drugs Amendment Act 1998 (1998 No 14).

Evidence

  • Heading: inserted, on 1 January 1981, by section 3(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1980 (1980 No 63).

344A Interlocutory order relating to admissibility of evidence
  • (1) Where any person is committed for trial and—

    • (a) the prosecutor or the accused wishes to adduce any particular evidence at the trial; and

    • (b) he believes that the admissibility of that evidence may be challenged,—

    he may at any time before the trial apply to a Judge of the court by or before which the indictment is to be tried for an order to the effect that the evidence is admissible.

    (2) The Judge shall give each party an opportunity to be heard in respect of the application before deciding whether or not to make the order.

    (3) The Judge may make an order under this section on such terms and subject to such conditions as he thinks fit.

    (4) Nothing in this section nor in any order made under this section shall affect the right of the prosecutor or the accused to seek to adduce evidence that he claims is admissible during the trial, nor the discretion of the trial Judge to allow or exclude any evidence in accordance with any rule of law.

    Section 344A: inserted, on 1 January 1981, by section 3(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1980 (1980 No 63).

Identification evidence

  • Heading: inserted, on 11 December 1982, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1982 (1982 No 46).

344B Attendance at identification parade voluntary
  • (1) No person charged with an offence shall be compelled to attend an identification parade.

    (2) If any person charged with an offence does attend an identification parade, he shall be entitled to have his solicitor present.

    (3) Where a person charged with an offence has refused to attend an identification parade, no comment adverse to the person charged shall be made thereon.

    Section 344B: inserted, on 11 December 1982, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1982 (1982 No 46).

344C Information relating to identification witness to be supplied to defendant
  • (1) In this section identification witness, in relation to the trial of a person accused of any offence, means a person who claims to have seen the offender in the circumstances of the offence.

    (2) Subject to subsection (3), at any time after a person has been charged with an offence, the prosecutor shall, on request by or on behalf of that person, supply to that person—

    • (a) the name and address of each identification witness known to the prosecutor, whether or not the prosecutor intends to call that witness to give evidence at the trial; and

    • (b) a statement of any description of the offender given by each such witness to the Police or the prosecutor; and

    • (c) a copy of any identikit picture or other drawing made by any such witness or from information supplied by him.

    (3) A Judge may, on the application of the prosecutor, make an order excusing the prosecutor from disclosing to the defendant any information referred to in subsection (2)(a) if he is satisfied that such an order is necessary to protect the identification witness or any other person.

    Section 344C: inserted, on 11 December 1982, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1982 (1982 No 46).

344D Jury to be warned where principal evidence relates to identification
  • [Repealed]

    Section 344D: repealed, on 1 August 2007, by section 215 of the Evidence Act 2006 (2006 No 69).

Filing indictment

  • Heading: amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(3) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

345 Presenting indictment
  • (1) Where any person is committed for trial, or any 2 or more persons are so committed, whether jointly or severally, an indictment may be filed in the High Court or in a District Court (as the case may require) for any charge or charges founded on the evidence disclosed in any depositions taken against such person or persons.

    (2) An indictment under subsection (1) may be filed by the Attorney-General or a Crown Solicitor in any case, or by the informant in the case of a private prosecution.

    (3) Notwithstanding anything in subsection (1), the Attorney-General, or any one with the written consent of a Judge of the High Court or of the Attorney-General, may file an indictment for any offence.

    (4) It shall not be necessary to specify any such consent as aforesaid in the indictment; and any objection to an indictment for want of such consent shall be taken by motion to quash the indictment before the accused is given in charge to the jury.

    (5) Except where an indictment is filed under subsection (3), the accused may, at any time before he is given in charge to the jury, apply to the court to quash any count in the indictment, on the ground that it is not founded on the evidence disclosed in the depositions; and the court shall quash that count if satisfied that it is not so founded.

    (6) If at any time during the trial it appears to the court that any count is not so founded, and that injustice has been or is likely to be done to the accused in consequence of that count remaining in the indictment, the court may quash that count and discharge the jury from finding any verdict on it; but the court shall not do so unless it is satisfied that justice requires it.

    (7) No indictment shall be filed except as hereinbefore provided.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 407

    Section 345(1): substituted, on 23 October 1963, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1963 (1963 No 120).

    Section 345(1): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 345(1): amended, on 1 May 1981, by section 8 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1980 (1980 No 85).

    Section 345(1): amended, on 1 April 1980, pursuant to section 12 of the Judicature Amendment Act 1979 (1979 No 124).

    Section 345(2): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 345(3): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 345(3): amended, on 1 April 1980, pursuant to section 12 of the Judicature Amendment Act 1979 (1979 No 124).

    Section 345(5): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 345(7): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

345A Time for filing indictment
  • (1) Unless an extension is obtained under section 345B, an indictment shall be filed not later than 42 days after the date on which the accused is committed for trial.

    (2) In reckoning the period referred to in subsection (1), the period commencing on 24 December and ending with the close of 15 January shall be disregarded.

    (3) If the time for filing an indictment expires on any day on which the office of the court is closed and it is not possible for the indictment to be filed on that day by reason of that closure, the indictment shall be filed on the next day on which that office is open if it has not already been filed.

    (4) If an indictment is filed, the prosecutor shall forthwith forward a copy of the indictment,—

    • (a) if the accused is known by the prosecutor to be represented by counsel or a solicitor, to that counsel or solicitor; or

    • (b) in any other case, to the accused at his or her last known address.

    (5) The accused is entitled to uplift a copy of the indictment from the Registrar at any time after it has been filed.

    Section 345A: inserted, on 1 March 1996, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

345B Extension of time for filing indictment
  • (1) If, upon application, it appears to a trial Judge that it is in the interests of justice to extend the 42-day period referred to in section 345A for filing an indictment, he or she may order that the time be extended for such further period or periods as he or she thinks fit.

    (2) Without limiting the generality of subsection (1), in considering an application under this section, the trial Judge may have regard to the following matters:

    • (a) the number of offences which will or may be counts in the indictment:

    • (b) the nature of the offence or offences which will or may be counts in the indictment:

    • (c) the complexity of the issues likely to arise in the proceedings:

    • (d) whether the accused is charged jointly with any other person:

    • (e) whether further or ongoing inquiries are being conducted by or for the prosecution in relation to the subject-matter of the trial.

    (3) An application under this section may be made before or on or after the expiration of the period allowed for filing the indictment, and any period extended under this section may, in like manner, be further extended.

    (4) An application under this section shall, unless a trial Judge otherwise directs,—

    • (a) be in writing; and

    • (b) include a statement of the reasons for seeking an extension; and

    • (c) specify the period for which the extension is sought; and

    • (d) give notice of intention (if any) to apply for an order under section 345C(1).

    (5) An application under this section shall, unless a trial Judge otherwise directs, be served by the prosecutor on the accused at least 4 working days before the date fixed for the hearing of the application,—

    • (a) if the accused was represented by counsel at the committal proceedings for of the charge or charges, or is known by the prosecutor to be represented by counsel or a solicitor, by leaving a copy of the application at the office of the counsel or solicitor or sending a registered letter addressed to the counsel or solicitor at his or her office:

    • (b) in any other case, by delivering a copy of the application personally to the accused or in such other manner as a trial Judge may direct.

    (6) Any application under this section may be made to a trial Judge when sitting in court or in chambers, and if the accused is represented by counsel, it is not necessary for the accused to be brought or appear before the trial Judge on the hearing of the application.

    (7) A Registrar may exercise the power conferred by subsection (1) if—

    • (a) the period of extension sought does not exceed 1 month; and

    • (b) the accused has consented to the extension, whether personally or by his or her counsel or solicitor.

    Section 345B: inserted, on 1 March 1996, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 345B(5)(a): amended, on 29 June 2009, by section 18 of the Summary Proceedings Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 41).

345C Trial Judge may excuse disclosure of information relating to Police investigations
  • (1) A trial Judge may, upon application, order that the prosecution be excused from disclosing to the accused any details relating to the nature or the purpose of investigations referred to in the application.

    (2) An order shall not be made under this section in any case unless—

    • (a) an application has been made under section 345B in relation to the same case; and

    • (b) the reason for that application is that further or continuing investigations in respect of the subject-matter of the trial in that case or any other matter that may affect the trial are being or are to be made by or for the prosecutor; and

    • (c) the disclosure of the information will or may prejudice the investigations referred to in the application under this section; and

    • (d) it is not contrary to the interests of justice to withhold the information.

    (3) At the hearing of an application under this section, any evidence to be adduced by the prosecutor shall be tendered to the trial Judge in affidavit form and shall not be disclosed to the accused or to his or her counsel or solicitor unless the trial Judge otherwise directs after considering the evidence and hearing from the prosecutor.

    (4) If an order is made under subsection (1), the Registrar shall, at the conclusion of the hearing, hold all evidence adduced by the prosecutor secure against search until the order is discharged by the court.

    (5) A trial Judge may, at any time after an order under subsection (1) has been made, either of his or her own motion or upon application by the accused or the prosecutor, discharge the order if the trial Judge is satisfied, after hearing from the prosecutor, that—

    • (a) the investigations which were the subject of the order have been completed; or

    • (b) disclosure of the information referred to in the order is necessary in the interests of justice.

    Section 345C: inserted, on 1 March 1996, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

345D Leave to file amended indictments
  • (1) A trial Judge may, at any time before the commencement of the trial, upon application by the prosecutor, grant leave to allow the prosecutor to file an amended indictment if it appears to the trial Judge that the filing of an amended indictment would be conducive to the ends of justice.

    (2) Without limiting the generality of subsection (1), leave may be granted under that subsection to allow the filed indictment to be amended by—

    • (a) amending any particulars; or

    • (b) removing or adding or substituting charges; or

    • (c) adding or removing the name of any accused.

    (3) An application under this section shall, unless a trial Judge otherwise directs,—

    • (a) be in writing; and

    • (b) include a statement of the reasons why an amendment to the filed indictment is necessary or be accompanied by a copy of the amended indictment in respect of which leave is sought.

    (4) An application under this section shall, unless a trial Judge otherwise directs, be served by the prosecutor on the accused at least 4 working days before the date fixed for the hearing of the application,—

    • (a) if the accused was represented by counsel at the committal proceedings for the charge or charges, or is known by the prosecutor to be represented by counsel or a solicitor, by leaving a copy of the application at the office of the counsel or solicitor or sending a registered letter addressed to the counsel or solicitor at his or her office:

    • (b) in any other case, by delivering a copy of the application personally to the accused or in such other manner as a trial Judge may direct.

    (5) Any application under this section may be made to a trial Judge when sitting in court or in chambers, and if the accused is represented by counsel, it is not necessary for the accused to be brought or appear before the trial Judge on the hearing of the application.

    (6) A Registrar may exercise the power conferred by subsection (1) if the accused has consented to the filing of an amended indictment, whether personally or by his or her counsel or solicitor.

    Section 345D: inserted, on 1 March 1996, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 345D(4)(a): amended, on 29 June 2009, by section 18 of the Summary Proceedings Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 41).

346 Failure of prosecutor to file indictment
  • (1) If the prosecutor does not file an indictment within the 42-day period referred to in section 345A or within such further time as may be allowed under section 345B, the court may direct that the accused be discharged.

    (2) A discharge under this section shall be deemed to be an acquittal.

    (3) In such a case involving a private prosecution, the court may order the prosecution to pay the costs of the accused.

    Section 346: substituted, on 1 March 1996, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

347 Power to discharge accused
  • (1) Where any person is committed for trial, the Judge may, in his discretion,—

    • (a) of his own motion or on the application of the prosecutor or the accused; and

    • (b) after giving both the prosecutor and the accused reasonable opportunity to be heard on the matter; and

    • (c) after perusal of the depositions and consideration of such other evidence and other matters as are submitted for his consideration by the prosecutor or the accused—

    direct that no indictment shall be filed, or, if an indictment has been filed, direct that the accused shall not be arraigned thereon; and in either case direct that the accused be discharged.

    (2) Where an indictment is filed by the Attorney-General, or by any one with the consent of the Attorney-General, under subsection (3) of section 345, the Judge may in his discretion, after perusal of the statements of the witnesses for the prosecution, or after hearing those witnesses, direct that the accused shall not be arraigned on the indictment, and direct that he be discharged.

    (3) The Judge may in his discretion, at any stage of any trial, whether before or after verdict, direct that the accused be discharged.

    (3A) Every direction under this section shall be given in open court.

    (4) A discharge under this section shall be deemed to be an acquittal.

    (5) The provisions of section 106(3) of the Sentencing Act 2002 shall extend and apply to a discharge under this section.

    (6) Nothing in this section shall affect the power of the court to convict and discharge any person.

    Compare: 1954 No 50 s 42(3), (4), (6); 1960 No 116 s 10

    Section 347(1): substituted, on 17 December 1976, by section 19(1) of the Summary Proceedings Amendment Act 1976 (1976 No 169).

    Section 347(1): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 347(2): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 347(3A): inserted, on 17 December 1976, by section 19(2) of the Summary Proceedings Amendment Act 1976 (1976 No 169).

    Section 347(5): amended, on 30 June 2002, by section 186 of the Sentencing Act 2002 (2002 No 9).

348 Copy of indictment
  • After the indictment is filed, every one charged therein shall be entitled to have a copy thereof, free of charge, from the Registrar.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 410

    Section 348: amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

349 Special provisions in case of treason
  • [Repealed]

    Section 349: repealed, on 26 December 1989, by section 3(1)(a) of the Abolition of the Death Penalty Act 1989 (1989 No 119).

Trial and sentence

350 Bench warrant
  • [Repealed]

    Section 350: repealed, on 1 January 2001, by section 74(2) of the Bail Act 2000 (2000 No 38).

351 Failure of witness to attend
  • (1) If any witness who has been summoned to give evidence at any trial, or who has been served with a notice to attend under section 184V of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957, fails to attend at the time and place appointed, the court may issue a warrant to arrest him and bring him before the court, and may adjourn the trial.

    (2) The court may impose on any such witness who fails to attend as aforesaid a fine not exceeding $500.

    Section 351(1): amended, on 29 June 2009, by section 18 of the Summary Proceedings Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 41).

    Section 351(2): amended, on 1 May 1981, by section 10 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1980 (1980 No 85).

352 Refusal of witness to give evidence
  • (1) If any witness, without offering any just excuse, refuses to give evidence when required, or refuses to be sworn, or having been sworn refuses to answer such questions concerning the charge as are put to him, the court may order that, unless he sooner consents to give evidence or to be sworn or to answer the questions put to him, as the case may be, he be detained in custody for any period not exceeding 7 days, and may issue a warrant for his arrest and detention in accordance with the order.

    (2) If the person so detained, on being brought up again at the trial, again refuses to give evidence or to be sworn or, having been sworn, to answer the questions put to him, the court, if it thinks fit, may again direct that the witness be detained in custody for the like period, and so again from time to time until he consents to give evidence or to be sworn or to answer as aforesaid.

    (3) Nothing in this section limits or affects any power or authority of the court to punish any witness for contempt of court.

    Section 352(3): substituted, on 3 June 1998, by section 4 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1998 (1998 No 35).

353 Record of proceedings
  • (1) It shall not in any case be necessary to draw up any formal record of the proceedings on a trial for a crime; but the Registrar of the court before which the trial takes place shall cause to be preserved all indictments and all depositions transmitted to him. He shall keep a book to be called the Crown Book, which shall be the property of the court and shall be deemed a record thereof, and its contents shall be provable by a certified copy or extract without production of the original.

    (2) The Registrar shall cause to be entered in the Crown Book a statement of the following particulars:

    • (a) the name or names of the committing District Court Judge or Justices or Community Magistrate or Community Magistrates, and the charge on which the accused was committed, or, if the accused was not committed, the name of the prosecutor:

    • (b) if the indictment is filed by leave, the name of the court or other authority granting such leave:

    provided that the absence of such a statement, or any mistake therein, shall not be a ground of objection to the proceedings; but the court to which the Crown Book belongs may, and shall on the application at any time of either the prosecutor or the accused, order a statement of those particulars to be entered, or amend the statement where it is erroneous or defective.

    (3) In the Crown Book there shall also be entered the name of the Judge of the court, and a memorandum of the substance of all proceedings at every trial and of the result of every trial.

    (4) Such entries, or a certified copy thereof or of so much thereof as is material, may be referred to in any proceeding by way of appeal.

    (5) A certificate of any indictment, trial, conviction, or acquittal, or of the substance thereof, made up from the memorandum in the Crown Book, shall be received in evidence for the same purpose and to the same extent as certificates of records, or the substantial parts thereof, are receivable.

    (6) Any erroneous or defective entry in the Crown Book may at any time be amended by the Judge who presided at the trial or, if that Judge is not available, by any Judge.

    (7) If the trial takes place before any court other than that to which the accused was committed for trial, or before which the indictment was filed, a statement shall be made in the Crown Book of the order under which the trial is held, and by whom or where it was made.

    (8) Nothing in this section shall dispense with the taking of notes by the Judge presiding at the trial.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 414

    Section 353(2)(a): amended, on 30 June 1998, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1998 (1998 No 79).

    Section 353(2)(a): amended, on 1 April 1980, pursuant to section 18(2) of the District Courts Amendment Act 1979 (1979 No 125).

    Section 353(2)(b): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 353(7): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

354 Right to be defended
  • Every person accused of any crime may make his full defence thereto by himself or by counsel.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 415

355 Arraignment
  • Every accused person shall, upon being called upon to plead, be entitled to have the indictment on which he is to be tried read over to him, if he so requires.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 417

356 Plea
  • (1) When the accused is called upon to plead he may plead either guilty or not guilty, or such special pleas as are hereinafter provided for.

    (2) If the accused wilfully refuses to plead, or will not answer directly, the court may, if it thinks fit, order the Registrar to enter a plea of not guilty.

    (3) If the accused pleads not guilty, or specially pleads, or if the court has ordered the entry of a plea of not guilty, the accused may, if he expressly declares his desire to do so, alter his plea to one of guilty, notwithstanding that he may have been given in charge to the jury; and if he does so the court shall discharge the jury from giving a verdict.

    (4) If pursuant to subsection (3) the accused pleads guilty, the Judge shall have the same powers of sentencing or otherwise dealing with him, and of finally disposing of the charge to which the accused has pleaded guilty and of all incidental matters, as the Judge would have had if on arraignment the accused had pleaded guilty to the charge.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 419

    Section 356(3): added, on 1 January 1974, by section 10 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1973 (1973 No 118).

    Section 356(4): added, on 1 January 1974, by section 10 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1973 (1973 No 118).

357 Special pleas
  • (1) The following special pleas, and no others, may be pleaded according to the provisions hereinafter contained—that is to say, a plea of previous acquittal, a plea of previous conviction, and a plea of pardon.

    (2) All other grounds of defence may be relied on under the plea of not guilty.

    (3) The pleas of previous acquittal, or previous conviction, and pardon may be pleaded together, and if pleaded shall be disposed of by the Judge, without a jury, before the accused is called on to plead further; and, if every such plea is disposed of against the accused, he shall be allowed to plead not guilty.

    (4) In any plea of previous acquittal or previous conviction it shall be sufficient for the accused to state that he has been lawfully acquitted or convicted, as the case may be, of the offence charged in the count or counts to which that plea is pleaded.

    (5) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 402; Criminal Code (1954) s 516(3) (Canada)

    Section 357(5): repealed, on 1 February 1993, by section 56(2) of the Defamation Act 1992 (1992 No 105).

358 Pleas of previous acquittal and conviction
  • (1) On the trial of an issue on a plea of previous acquittal or conviction to any count, if it appears that the matter on which the accused was formerly charged is the same in whole or in part as that on which it is proposed to give him in charge, and that he might on the former trial, if all proper amendments had been made that might then have been made, have been convicted of all the offences of which he may be convicted on any count to which that plea is pleaded, the court shall give judgment that he be discharged from that count.

    (2) If it appears that the accused might on the former trial have been convicted of any offence of which he might be convicted on the count to which that plea is pleaded, but that he may be convicted on that count of some offence of which he could not have been convicted on the former trial, the court shall direct that he shall not be convicted on that count of any offence of which he might have been convicted on the former trial, but that he shall plead over as to any other offence charged.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 403

359 Second accusation
  • (1) Where an indictment charges substantially the same offence as that with which the accused was formerly charged, but adds a statement of intention or circumstances of aggravation tending if proved to increase the punishment, the previous acquittal or conviction shall be a bar to the indictment.

    (2) A previous conviction or acquittal on an indictment for murder or manslaughter or infanticide shall be a bar to a second indictment for the same homicide charging it as any one of those crimes.

    (3) If on the trial of an issue on a plea of previous acquittal or conviction to an indictment for murder or manslaughter or infanticide it appears that the former trial was for an offence against the person alleged to have been now killed, and that the death of that person is now alleged to have been caused by the offence previously charged, but that the death happened after the trial on which the accused was acquitted or convicted, as the case may be, then, if it appears that on the former trial the accused might if convicted have been sentenced to imprisonment for 3 years or upwards, the court shall direct that the accused be discharged from the indictment before it. If it does not so appear the court shall direct that he plead over.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 404

360 Evidence of former trial
  • (1) On the trial of an issue on a plea of previous acquittal or conviction on indictment in the High Court or in a District Court, the depositions transmitted to the court on the former trial, together with a copy of the Judge's notes, if available, certified by the Registrar, and the depositions transmitted to the court on the subsequent charge, shall be admissible in evidence to prove or disprove the identity of the charges.

    (2) On the trial of an issue on a plea of previous acquittal or conviction following a summary hearing in a District Court, a copy of the entry in the Criminal Record Book, and a copy of the information or charge sheet, and a copy of any notes made by the District Court Judge or Justices or Community Magistrate or Community Magistrates, if available, certified by the Registrar of the District Court, shall be admissible in evidence to prove or disprove the identity of the charges.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 405

    Section 360(1): amended, on 1 May 1981, by section 11(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1980 (1980 No 85).

    Section 360(2): amended, on 30 June 1998, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1998 (1998 No 79).

    Section 360(2): amended, on 1 May 1981, by section 11(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1980 (1980 No 85).

    Section 360(2): amended, on 1 April 1980, pursuant to section 18(2) of the District Courts Amendment Act 1979 (1979 No 125).

361 Plea on behalf of corporation
  • (1) Where an indictment is filed against a corporation in respect of any indictable offence the corporation may, on arraignment, enter a plea in writing by its representative.

    (2) If the corporation either does not appear by a representative or, though it does so appear, fails to enter any plea as aforesaid, the court shall order a plea of not guilty to be entered, and the trial shall proceed as if the corporation had duly entered a plea of not guilty.

    (3) In this section, the term representative means a person duly appointed by the corporation to represent it for the purposes of this section; but a person so appointed shall not, by virtue only of being so appointed, be qualified to act on behalf of the corporation before the court for any other purpose.

    (4) A representative for the purposes of this section need not be appointed under the seal of the corporation; and a statement in writing purporting to be signed by a managing director of the corporation, or by any person (by whatever name he is called) having, or being one of the persons having, the management of the affairs of the corporation, to the effect that the person named in the statement has been appointed as the representative of the corporation for the purposes of this section shall be admissible without further proof as prima facie evidence that that person has been so appointed.

    Compare: 1936 No 58 s 42(3), (6), (7)

    Section 361(1): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

361A Trial before a Judge with a jury general rule
  • (1) Every accused person shall be tried before a Judge with a jury.

    (2) Subsection (1) is subject to sections 361B to 361E.

    Section 361A: inserted, on 14 December 1979, by section 2(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1979 (1979 No 127).

    Section 361A(1): amended, on 25 December 2008, by section 4(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 37).

    Section 361A(2): added, on 25 December 2008, by section 4(3) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 37).

361B Accused may apply for trial before a Judge without a jury
  • (1) Subject to the succeeding provisions of this section, where any accused person is committed to the High Court or to a District Court Judge exercising jurisdiction under section 28A of the District Courts Act 1947 for trial for any offence other than one referred to in subsection (5), he may, within 28 days after the date on which he is so committed, give written notice to the Registrar of the High Court or of the District Court, as the case may require, at the place to which he is so committed of his wish to be tried before a Judge of that court without a jury.

    (2) Where a Registrar receives such a notice under subsection (1), he shall forthwith give a copy of the notice to the prosecutor.

    (3) Where the accused, within the period prescribed by subsection (1), gives notice in accordance with that subsection of his desire to be tried before a Judge without a jury, the Registrar shall refer the matter to a Judge of the court (who may or may not be the Judge before whom the trial is to be held).

    (4) The Judge to whom any matter is referred under subsection (3) shall order that the accused be tried before a Judge without a jury unless, having regard to the interests of justice, the Judge considers that the accused should be tried before a Judge with a jury, in which case he shall order accordingly.

    (5) No one shall be entitled to apply to be tried by a Judge without a jury if he is charged with an offence for which the maximum penalty is imprisonment for life or imprisonment for a term of 14 years or more.

    (6) Where 2 or more persons are to be tried together, they shall be tried before a Judge with a jury unless each of them applies to be tried by a Judge without a jury.

    (7) Any notice purporting to be given under this section on behalf of the accused by his counsel or solicitor shall, unless the contrary is proved, be deemed to be given with the authority of the accused.

    (8) Notwithstanding anything in subsection (1), an accused person may give notice under that subsection before or immediately after the person is committed for trial.

    Section 361B: inserted, on 14 December 1979, by section 2(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1979 (1979 No 127).

    Section 361B(1): amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 361B(1): amended, on 1 April 1980, pursuant to section 12 of the Judicature Amendment Act 1979 (1979 No 124).

    Section 361B(5): amended, on 26 December 1989, by section 3(7) of the Abolition of the Death Penalty Act 1989 (1989 No 119).

    Section 361B(8): amended, on 29 June 2009, by section 18 of the Summary Proceedings Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 41).

361C Judge may order trial without a jury in certain cases
  • (1) Without limiting anything in section 361B but subject to the succeeding provisions of this section, where any person is committed for trial for any offence other than one referred to in section 361B(5), he may, at any time before he is given in charge to the jury, with leave of the Judge apply to the Judge for an order that he be tried before the Judge without a jury.

    (2) The Judge shall not grant leave under subsection (1) unless he is satisfied—

    • (a) that the accused was not given notice, in accordance with section 184S of the Summary Proceedings Act 1957, of his right to apply under section 361B of this Act to be tried before a Judge without a jury; or

    • (b) that there were good and sufficient reasons why the accused did not exercise that right in accordance with the said section 361B; or

    • (c) that it is in the interests of justice that leave be granted.

    (3) No such leave shall be granted in any case where a Judge has, pursuant to section 361B(4), ordered that the accused shall be tried before a Judge with a jury.

    (4) Where 2 or more persons are to be tried together, no leave shall be granted under subsection (1) unless each of them seeks such leave.

    (5) Where the Judge grants leave, he shall order that the accused be tried before the Judge without a jury unless, having regard to the interests of justice, the Judge considers that the accused should be tried before the Judge with a jury, in which case he shall order accordingly.

    Section 361C: inserted, on 14 December 1979, by section 2(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1979 (1979 No 127).

    Section 361C(2)(a): amended, on 29 June 2009, by section 18 of the Summary Proceedings Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 41).

361D Judge may order trial without jury in certain cases that are likely to be long and complex
  • (1) This section applies only to a person (the accused person) who is committed for trial for an offence that is not—

    • (a) an offence for which the maximum penalty is imprisonment for life or imprisonment for 14 years or more; or

    • (b) an offence of attempting or conspiring to commit, or of being a party to the commission of, or of being an accessory after the fact to, an offence referred to in paragraph (a).

    (2) The Judge may, on a written application for the purpose made by the prosecutor to the Judge and served on the accused person before the accused person is given in charge to the jury, order that the accused person be tried for the offence before the Judge without a jury.

    (3) However, the Judge may make an order under subsection (2) only if the prosecution and the accused person have been given an opportunity to be heard in relation to the application, and following such hearing, the Judge is satisfied—

    • (a) that all reasonable procedural orders (if any), and all other reasonable arrangements (if any), to facilitate the shortening of the trial, have been made, but the duration of the trial still seems likely to exceed 20 days; and

    • (b) that, in the circumstances of the case, the accused person's right to trial by jury is outweighed by the likelihood that potential jurors will not be able to perform their duties effectively.

    (4) In considering, for the purposes of subsection (3)(b), the circumstances of the case, the Judge must take into account the following matters:

    • (a) the number and nature of the offences with which the accused person is charged:

    • (b) the nature of the issues likely to be involved:

    • (c) the volume of evidence likely to be presented:

    • (d) the imposition on potential jurors of sitting for the likely duration of the trial:

    • (e) any other matters the Judge considers relevant.

    (5) If the accused person is one of 2 or more persons to be tried together, all of them must be tried before a Judge with a jury unless an order under subsection (2) for all of them to be tried by a Judge without a jury is applied for and made.

    (6) This section does not limit section 361B or 361C or 361E.

    Section 361D: inserted, on 25 December 2008, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 37).

361E Judge may order trial without jury in cases involving intimidation of juror or jurors
  • (1) The Judge may, on a written application for the purpose made by the prosecutor before an accused person is given in charge to the jury, order that the accused person be tried for the offence before the Judge without a jury.

    (2) However, the Judge may make an order under subsection (1) only if satisfied that there are reasonable grounds to believe—

    • (a) that intimidation of any person or persons who may be selected as a juror or jurors has occurred, is occurring, or may occur; and

    • (b) that the effects of that intimidation can be avoided effectively only by making an order under subsection (1).

    (3) If the accused person is one of 2 or more persons to be tried together, all of them must be tried before a Judge with a jury unless an order under subsection (1) for all of them to be tried by a Judge without a jury is applied for and made.

    (4) This section does not limit sections 361B to 361D.

    Section 361E: inserted, on 25 December 2008, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 37).

362 Challenging the array
  • [Repealed]

    Section 362: repealed, on 1 May 1982, by section 37(1) of the Juries Act 1981 (1981 No 23).

363 Challenges and directions to stand by
  • [Repealed]

    Section 363: repealed, on 1 May 1982, by section 37(1) of the Juries Act 1981 (1981 No 23).

364 Caution to accused when undefended
  • Where on arraignment any accused person who is not defended by counsel pleads not guilty, the court shall cause to be handed to him, before the evidence for the prosecution is heard, a written statement in the following words, or in words to the like effect, that is to say:

    When the evidence against you has been heard, you will be asked whether you wish to give evidence yourself or to call witnesses. You are not obliged to give or call evidence but, if you do, that evidence may be used against you. You should consider in particular whether evidence which you can give is relevant and will assist you in your defence. If you do not give evidence no person other than the Judge and yourself may comment on that fact.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 422

    Section 364: amended, on 1 January 1967, by section 4(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1966 (1966 No 98).

365 Question to accused when undefended
  • Where any accused person is not defended by counsel, then, on the completion of the examination of the witnesses on the part of the prosecution, the following question, or words to the like effect, shall be addressed to him by or under the direction of the court, that is to say:

    Do you wish to give or call evidence?

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 422

366 Comment on failure to give evidence
  • (1) [Repealed]

    (2) Where a person charged with an offence refrains from calling his wife or her husband, as the case may be, as a witness, no comment adverse to the person charged shall be made thereon.

    Section 366: substituted, on 1 January 1967, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1966 (1966 No 98).

    Section 366(1): repealed, on 1 August 2007, by section 215 of the Evidence Act 2006 (2006 No 69).

366A Unsworn statement prohibited
  • (1) No accused person shall be entitled to make an unsworn statement of fact at his trial.

    (2) Nothing in this section shall limit the provisions of section 369.

    Section 366A: inserted, on 1 January 1967, by section 5(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1966 (1966 No 98).

367 Evidence and addresses
  • (1) Upon the trial of any accused person, counsel for the prosecution may open his case and after such opening (if any) shall be entitled to call such witnesses as he thinks fit; and the accused person, whether he is defended by counsel or not, shall be allowed at the end of the case for the prosecution, if he thinks fit, to open his case, and after such opening (if any) shall be entitled to call such witnesses as he thinks fit.

    (1A) Without limiting subsection (1), the court may give an accused person leave to make an opening statement, after any opening by the prosecution and before any evidence is adduced, for the purposes only of identifying the issue or issues at the trial.

    (1B) Nothing in an opening statement made under subsection (1A) limits the rights of an accused person to raise any other issue or issues at the trial.

    (1C) The court may give an accused person (whether defended by counsel or not) leave to call 1 or more expert witnesses immediately after counsel for the prosecution has called 1 or more expert witnesses.

    (1D) Leave under subsection (1C) overrides subsection (1), but does not affect the calling of expert or other witnesses who are not the subject of the leave, or prevent cross-examination or re-examination of any expert witness.

    (2) When all the evidence (including any evidence given on cross-examination, re-examination, or in rebuttal) is concluded, counsel for the prosecution may make a closing address to the jury.

    (3) After the closing address (if any) on behalf of the prosecution the accused or his counsel may make a closing address to the jury and the prosecution shall have no right of reply in any case.

    Section 367: substituted, on 1 January 1967, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1966 (1966 No 98).

    Section 367(1): amended, on 26 June 2008, by section 5(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 37).

    Section 367(1A): inserted, on 15 November 2000, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2000 (2000 No 57).

    Section 367(1B): inserted, on 15 November 2000, by section 3 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2000 (2000 No 57).

    Section 367(1C): inserted, on 26 June 2008, by section 5(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 37).

    Section 367(1D): inserted, on 26 June 2008, by section 5(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 37).

367A Notice of alibi
  • (1) [Repealed]

    (2) [Repealed]

    (3) [Repealed]

    (4) Any evidence tendered to disprove an alibi may, subject to any directions by the court as to the time when it is to be given, be given before or after evidence is given in support of the alibi.

    (5) [Repealed]

    (6) [Repealed]

    (7) [Repealed]

    (8) In this section, the expression evidence in support of an alibi means evidence tending to show that by reason of the presence of the accused at a particular place or in a particular area at a particular time he was not, or was unlikely to have been, at the place where the offence is alleged to have been committed at the time of its alleged commission.

    Compare: Criminal Justice Act 1967 s 11 (UK)

    Section 367A: inserted, on 1 January 1974, by section 11(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1973 (1973 No 118).

    Section 367A(1): repealed, on 29 June 2009, by section 40(1) of the Criminal Disclosure Act 2008 (2008 No 38).

    Section 367A(2): repealed, on 29 June 2009, by section 40(1) of the Criminal Disclosure Act 2008 (2008 No 38).

    Section 367A(3): repealed, on 29 June 2009, by section 40(1) of the Criminal Disclosure Act 2008 (2008 No 38).

    Section 367A(5): repealed, on 29 June 2009, by section 40(1) of the Criminal Disclosure Act 2008 (2008 No 38).

    Section 367A(6): repealed, on 29 June 2009, by section 40(1) of the Criminal Disclosure Act 2008 (2008 No 38).

    Section 367A(7): repealed, on 29 June 2009, by section 40(1) of the Criminal Disclosure Act 2008 (2008 No 38).

368 Adjourning trial for witnesses
  • (1) If the court is of opinion that the accused is taken by surprise, in a manner likely to be prejudicial to his defence, by the production on behalf of the prosecutor of a witness who has not made any deposition, and of the intention to produce whom the accused has not had sufficient notice, the court may, on the application of the accused, either adjourn the further hearing of the case or discharge the jury from giving a verdict, and postpone the trial.

    (2) If the court is of opinion that any witness who is not called for the prosecution ought to be so called, it may require the prosecutor to call him, and, if the witness is not in attendance, make an order that his attendance shall be procured; and the court may, if it thinks proper, adjourn the further hearing of the case to some other time during the sittings until that witness attends.

    (3) If in such case the court is of opinion that it would be conducive to the ends of justice to do so, it may, on the application of the accused, discharge the jury and postpone the trial.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 425

369 Admissions
  • [Repealed]

    Section 369: repealed, on 1 August 2007, by section 215 of the Evidence Act 2006 (2006 No 69).

369A Prosecution may withdraw in certain cases
  • (1) Where, on an application under section 109(1)(d) of the Evidence Act 2006, leave is granted to the accused to put any question relating to the identity of a witness called by the prosecutor, the prosecutor may forthwith inform the Judge that the prosecution does not intend to proceed with the indictment, or with any particular count in the indictment.

    (2) In such a case the court shall give judgment that the accused be discharged from the indictment or from that count, and every such judgment shall be deemed to be an acquittal.

    Section 369A: inserted, on 30 September 1986, by section 2 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 1986 (1986 No 75).

    Section 369A(1): amended, on 1 August 2007, by section 216 of the Evidence Act 2006 (2006 No 69).

370 Jury retiring to consider verdict
  • [Repealed]

    Section 370: repealed, on 29 June 2009, by section 19(2) of the Juries Amendment Act 2008 (2008 No 40).

371 Motion in arrest of judgment. Sentence
  • (1) If the jury find the accused guilty, or if the accused pleads guilty, it shall be the duty of the Registrar to ask him whether he has anything to say why sentence should not be passed upon him according to law; but the omission so to ask shall have no effect on the validity of the proceedings.

    (2) The accused may, at any time before sentence, move in arrest of judgment on the ground that the indictment does not (after any amendment has been made therein that the court is willing and has power to make) state any crime.

    (3) The court may in its discretion either hear and determine the matter during the same sitting, or reserve the matter for the Court of Appeal.

    (4) If the court decides in favour of the accused he shall be discharged from that indictment.

    (5) If no such motion is made, or if the court decides against the accused on any such motion, the court may, during the sitting of the court, sentence the accused or deal with him in any other manner authorised by law.

    (6) If the accused is not sentenced or dealt with during the sitting, section 65 of the Bail Act 2000 applies.

    (7) In any such case, any Judge of the court may, at a subsequent sitting, sentence the accused or deal with the accused in any other manner authorised by law.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 428; 1954 No 50 s 54(2)

    Section 371(6): substituted, on 1 January 2001, by section 74(2) of the Bail Act 2000 (2000 No 38).

    Section 371(7): added, on 1 January 2001, by section 74(2) of the Bail Act 2000 (2000 No 38).

372 Correction of erroneous sentence
  • (1) If any sentence is one that could not by law be passed, or if the Judge does not pass a sentence that is required by law to be passed, either party may apply to the Judge to pass a proper sentence.

    (2) If the Judge who passed the sentence is not available, an application under this section may be made to any other Judge.

    (3) If the Judge considers that the sentence is one that could not by law be passed, or that a sentence required by law to be passed has not been passed, he may pass such sentence as ought to have been passed.

    (4) Any Judge to whom an application is made under this section may by order remove the application into the Court of Appeal, which may deal with it as if it were an appeal on a question of law reserved under section 380.

    (5) If the Judge to whom an application is made under this section passes a new sentence, the time for appeal against conviction or sentence or both shall run from the date of the new sentence.

    (6) In this section, sentence includes—

    • (a) an order, and references to the passing of a sentence include references to the making of an order:

    • (b) a record of first warning (within the meaning of section 86A of the Sentencing Act 2002) and a record of final warning (within the meaning of that section), and references to the passing of a sentence include references to the giving and recording of a warning of either kind.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 443(6); 1920 No 15 s 3

    Section 372(4): amended, on 1 May 1981, by section 12 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1980 (1980 No 85).

    Section 372(6): substituted, on 1 June 2010, by section 13 of the Sentencing and Parole Reform Act 2010 (2010 No 33).

373 Discretion to keep jury together
  • (1) From the time when the accused is given in charge to the jury the trial shall proceed continuously, subject to the power of the court to adjourn it.

    (2) Upon every such adjournment the court may, if it thinks fit, direct that during the adjournment the jury shall be kept together, and that proper provision be made for preventing the jury from holding communication with any one on the subject of the trial, but, if no such direction is given, the jury shall be permitted to separate.

    (3) [Repealed]

    (4) [Repealed]

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 430

    Section 373 heading: substituted, on 1 January 1967, by section 7 of the Crimes Amendment Act 1966 (1966 No 98).

    Section 373(2): amended, on 1 January 1967, by section 7(2) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1966 (1966 No 98).

    Section 373(3): repealed, on 1 January 1967, by section 7(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1966 (1966 No 98).

    Section 373(4): repealed, on 1 January 1967, by section 7(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1966 (1966 No 98).

374 Discharge of juror or jury
  • Nothing in this Act affects the powers of a court or Judge or Registrar to discharge a juror or jury for a criminal case under section 22 or 22C of the Juries Act 1981.

    Section 374: substituted, on 25 December 2008, by section 16(1) of the Juries Amendment Act 2008 (2008 No 40).

375 Power to clear court and forbid report of proceedings
  • [Repealed]

    Section 375: repealed, on 1 October 1985, by section 11(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1985 (1985 No 121).

375A Special provisions in cases of sexual nature
  • [Repealed]

    Section 375A: repealed, on 5 March 2012 (applying in relation to a proceeding for an offence that was committed before that date in accordance with the provisions of sections 397 and 399–401 of the Criminal Procedure Act 2011), by section 393 of the Criminal Procedure Act 2011 (2011 No 81).

376 Presence of the accused
  • (1) Every accused person shall be entitled to be present in court during the whole of his trial, unless he misconducts himself by so interrupting the proceedings as to render their continuance in his presence impracticable.

    (2) The court may permit the accused to be out of court during the whole or any part of any trial on such terms as it thinks proper.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 433

377 Proceedings on Sunday
  • The taking of the verdict of the jury or other proceeding of the court shall not be invalid by reason of its happening on Sunday.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 434

378 Stay of proceedings
  • The Attorney-General may at any time after any person has been committed for trial or for sentence, or after an indictment has been filed against any person for any crime, and before judgment is given, direct that an entry be made in the Crown Book that the proceedings are stayed by his direction, and on that entry being made the proceedings shall be stayed accordingly.

    Compare: 1908 No 32 s 435; 1946 No 40 s 20

    Section 378: amended, on 1 March 1996, by section 4(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 68).

    Section 378: amended, on 1 May 1981, by section 14 of the Crimes Amendment (No 2) Act 1980 (1980 No 85).

Retrials of previously acquitted persons

  • Heading: inserted, on 26 June 2008, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 37).

378A Order for retrial may be granted if acquittal tainted
  • (1) In this section,—

    acquittal

    • (a) includes—

      • (i) the dismissal of an information on the merits; and

      • (iii) the setting aside of a conviction on appeal, without an order for a retrial; and

    • (b) does not include a discharge without conviction

    acquitted person means a person who has previously been acquitted of a specified offence, and who has, since that acquittal, been convicted of an administration of justice offence

    administration of justice offence means an offence against any of sections 101, 104, 109, 113, 116, and 117

    prosecution means—

    • (a) an informant acting with the prior consent of the Solicitor-General; or

    • (b) the Solicitor-General

    retrial includes, in relation to any summary proceedings that led to an acquittal, a rehearing of those proceedings

    specified offence, in relation to an acquitted person,—

    • (a) means an offence that is punishable by a term of imprisonment and for which the person has previously been acquitted; and

    • (b) includes any offence for which the person may not be tried because of that acquittal.

    (2) The High Court may, on the application of the prosecution made in accordance with rules of court, order that an acquitted person be retried for a specified offence, if the High Court is satisfied that—

    • (a) it is more likely than not that the commission of the administration of justice offence was a significant contributing factor in the person's acquittal for the specified offence; and

    • (b) no appeal or application in relation to the administration of justice offence is pending before any court; and

    • (c) the retrial is in the interests of justice.

    (3) In determining whether the retrial sought by the prosecution is in the interests of justice, the High Court is to have particular regard to the following matters:

    • (a) the length of time since the acquitted person is alleged to have committed the specified offence:

    • (b) whether the prosecution acted with reasonable speed since discovering evidence of the administration of justice offence:

    • (c) the interests of any victim of the specified offence alleged to have been committed:

    • (d) whether the retrial for which leave is sought can be conducted fairly.

    (4) If the prosecution makes an application under this section,—

    • (a) the prosecution must take all reasonable steps to serve a copy of the application on the acquitted person, and must file in the office of the court notice that the copy has been served or that a copy has not been served but all reasonable steps to do so have been taken:

    • (b) the defendant is entitled to be heard at the hearing of the application, which must not be held less than 14 days after notice is filed in the office of the court under paragraph (a):

    • (c) if the application is granted, and the acquitted person is again acquitted at the retrial, the prosecution may not make any further application for an order for the retrial of the acquitted person for the specified offence that was the subject of the application.

    (5) This section does not apply if the acquitted person was acquitted of the specified offence before the commencement of this section.

    Section 378A: inserted, on 26 June 2008, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 37).

378B Meaning of terms used in sections 378C and 378D
  • (1) In sections 378C and 378D,—

    acquittal

    • (a) includes—

      • (ii) the setting aside of a conviction on appeal, without an order for retrial; and

    • (b) does not include a discharge without conviction

    acquitted person means a person who has previously been acquitted of a specified serious offence

    specified serious offence, in relation to an acquitted person,—

    • (a) means an offence that is punishable by a term of imprisonment of 14 years or more and for which the person has previously been acquitted; and

    • (b) includes any offence for which the person may not be tried because of that acquittal.

    (2) For the purposes of sections 378C and 378D, evidence is new if—

    • (a) it was not given in the proceedings that resulted in the acquittal of the acquitted person; and

    • (b) it could not, with the exercise of reasonable diligence, have been given in those proceedings.

    (3) For the purposes of sections 378C and 378D, evidence is compelling if—

    • (a) it is a reliable and substantial addition to the evidence given in the proceedings that resulted in the acquittal of the acquitted person; and

    • (b) it implicates the acquitted person with a high degree of probability in the commission of the specified serious offence.

    Section 378B: inserted, on 26 June 2008, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 37).

378C Consent of Solicitor-General required in certain circumstances for exercise of powers in relation to acquitted person
  • (1) Subsection (2) applies if a constable has good cause to suspect that information obtained, or likely to be obtained as a result of an investigation, will tend to implicate an acquitted person in the commission of a specified serious offence.

    (2) If this subsection applies, a constable may exercise any of the powers referred to in subsection (3) in the course of a further investigation of whether the acquitted person has committed a specified serious offence only if a constable first obtains the consent of the Solicitor-General.

    (3) The powers in respect of which subsection (2) applies are the following:

    • (a) questioning the acquitted person or any other person:

    • (b) searching the acquitted person or any other person:

    • (c) searching any premises or vehicles:

    • (d) seizing any thing:

    • (e) taking fingerprints or samples:

    • (f) conducting or commissioning forensic tests or analyses.

    (4) The acquitted person does not need to be notified of any proposal to seek the Solicitor-General's consent under subsection (2) or of the fact that the consent is being, or has been, sought.

    (5) The Solicitor-General may consent under subsection (2) only if he or she has reasonable grounds to believe that there is, or that a further investigation is likely to reveal, or confirm the existence of, new and compelling evidence to implicate the acquitted person in the commission of the specified serious offence.

    (6) This section does not prevent a constable from taking any action if—

    • (a) the action is necessary as a matter of urgency to prevent substantial prejudice to an investigation or to the administration of justice; and

    • (b) it is not reasonably practicable to obtain the consent of the Solicitor-General; and

    • (c) the Solicitor-General's consent is sought as soon as reasonably practicable after the action is taken.

    Section 378C: inserted, on 26 June 2008, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 37).

    Section 378C(1): amended, on 1 October 2008, pursuant to section 116(a)(ii) of the Policing Act 2008 (2008 No 72).

    Section 378C(2): amended, on 1 October 2008, pursuant to section 116(a)(ii) of the Policing Act 2008 (2008 No 72).

    Section 378C(6): amended, on 1 October 2008, pursuant to section 116(a)(ii) of the Policing Act 2008 (2008 No 72).

378D Order for retrial may be granted by Court of Appeal if new and compelling evidence discovered
  • (1) The Court of Appeal may, on the application of the Solicitor-General made in accordance with rules of court, order that an acquitted person be retried for a specified serious offence, if the Court of Appeal is satisfied that—

    • (a) there is new and compelling evidence to implicate the acquitted person in the commission of the specified serious offence; and

    • (b) a further trial of the acquitted person is in the interests of justice.

    (2) In determining whether a retrial of the acquitted person is in the interests of justice, the Court of Appeal is to have particular regard to the following matters:

    • (a) whether before or during the proceedings that led to the acquittal of the acquitted person for the specified serious offence all reasonable efforts were made to obtain and present all relevant evidence then available:

    • (b) the length of time since the acquitted person is alleged to have committed the specified serious offence:

    • (c) whether the Police and the Solicitor-General acted with reasonable speed in making the application after obtaining new evidence against the acquitted person:

    • (d) the interests of any victim of the specified serious offence alleged to have been committed:

    • (e) whether the retrial for which leave is sought can be conducted fairly.

    (3) The Court of Appeal may, if it thinks it just to do so, exclude from its consideration any evidence against the acquitted person that has been obtained in contravention of section 378C.

    (4) The Solicitor-General may apply under this section only if satisfied of the matters stated in subsection (1)(a) and (b).

    (5) If the Solicitor-General makes an application under this section,—

    • (a) the Solicitor-General must take all reasonable steps to serve a copy of the application on the acquitted person, and must file in the office of the court notice that the copy has been served or that a copy has not been served but all reasonable steps to do so have been taken:

    • (b) the defendant is entitled to be heard at the hearing of the application, which must not be held less than 14 days after notice is filed in the office of the court under paragraph (a):

    • (c) if the application is granted, and the acquitted person is again acquitted, the Solicitor-General may not make any further application for an order for the retrial of the person for the specified serious offence that was the subject of the application.

    (6) This section does not apply if the acquitted person was acquitted of the specified serious offence before the commencement of this section.

    Section 378D: inserted, on 26 June 2008, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 37).

378E Orders to safeguard fairness of retrial
  • (1) An order for a retrial under section 378A or 378D may be granted subject to—

    • (a) any conditions that the court considers are required to safeguard the fairness of the retrial:

    • (b) any other directions as to the conduct of the retrial.

    (2) A court may, if it considers that the interests of justice so require, exclude any person from the hearing of an application under section 378A or 378D, or forbid any report or account of any evidence given or referred to at such a hearing or prohibit the publication of the name of the acquitted person or of any other person connected with a retrial for which leave is sought or has been granted.

    (3) For the purposes of subsection (2), subpart 3 of Part 5 of the Criminal Procedure Act 2011, so far as it is applicable, applies with the necessary modifications.

    Section 378E: inserted, on 26 June 2008, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 37).

    Section 378E(3): replaced, on 5 March 2012 (applying in relation to a proceeding for an offence that was committed before that date in accordance with the provisions of sections 397 and 399–401 of the Criminal Procedure Act 2011), by section 393 of the Criminal Procedure Act 2011 (2011 No 81).

378F Effect of order for retrial
  • (1) If an order for a retrial is granted under section 378A or 378D,—

    • (a) the order of the court must be certified by the Judge or, as the case requires, the presiding Judge to the Registrar of the court before which the person was tried, and the order must be carried into effect:

    • (b) the acquitted person may be arrested or summoned to appear before a court:

    • (c) the retrial must be conducted in the same manner as a retrial ordered following a successful appeal by a defendant against conviction:

    • (d) the provisions of any enactment that enable a defendant who successfully appeals against conviction but in respect of whom a retrial is ordered, to be arrested, summoned to appear, remanded in custody, or released on bail, pending his or her retrial, apply with any necessary modifications to the acquitted person.

    (2) Subsection (1) overrides sections 357 to 359 and any other enactment or rule of law.

    (3) In this section, retrial includes, in relation to summary proceedings that led to an acquittal, a rehearing of those proceedings.

    Section 378F: inserted, on 26 June 2008, by section 6 of the Crimes Amendment Act (No 2) 2008 (2008 No 37).

Part 13
Appeals

379 Interpretation
  • In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires,—

    appellant includes a person who has been convicted and desires to appeal under this Part

    Court of Appeal means the Court of Appeal of New Zealand constituted under Part 2 of the Judicature Act 1908

    rules of court means rules made under section 409 of this Act and section 51C of the Judicature Act 1908

    sentence includes any order of the court made on conviction; and the power of the Court of Appeal to pass a sentence includes a power to make any such order of the court.

    Compare: 1945 No 23 s 2(1)

    Section 379 rules of court: amended, on 10 December 2001, by section 3 of the Crimes (Criminal Appeals) Amendment Act 2001 (2001 No 92).

Appeal on matters arising before trial

  • Heading: inserted, on 1 January 1967, by section 8(1) of the Crimes Amendment Act 1966 (1966 No 98).

379A Right of appeal in certain cases
  • (1) At any time before the trial, or as the case may require a later retrial, either the prosecutor or the accused person, with the leave of the court appealed to, may appeal to the Court of Appeal or the Supreme Court against any of the following orders (whether made in relation to the trial or a later retrial of charges), namely,—

    • (a) against a refusal to make an order under subsection (1) of section 322:

    • (aa) against the making of an order under section 344A, or against the refusal of a Judge to make such an order:

    • (b) against the making of an order under subsection (3) of section 330 or under subsection (3) of section 340, or against a refusal to make any such order:

    • (ba) against the making of an order under section 200, 202, or 205 of the Criminal Procedure Act 2011, or the refusal to make any such order:

    • (c) against the quashing or amendment of the indictment under subsection (2) of section 342, or against a refusal to quash or amend the indictment under that subsection:

    • (ca) against an order under section 345B extending the period allowed for filing an indictment or refusing to do so:

    • (cb) against an order under section 345C excusing the prosecution from the obligation to disclose certain information:

    • (cc) against an order under section 345D granting or refusing leave to file an amended indictment:

    • (cd) against an order under section 346 discharging or refusing to discharge an accused:

    • (d) against the making of an order directing separate trials of persons jointly charged, or against a refusal to make such an order:

    • (da) against the making of an order under section 361D(2) (Judge may order trial without a jury in certain cases that are likely to be long and complex), or against a refusal to make such an order:

    • (db) against the making of an order under section 361E(1) (Judge may order trial without a jury in cases involving intimidation of jurors), or against a refusal to make such an order:

    • (e) against the granting of leave on an application under section 109(1)(d) of the Evidence Act 2006 relating to the identity of a witness, or against the refusal of a Judge to grant such leave:

    • (f) against the making of an anonymity order under sections 112 and 113 of the Evidence Act 2006, or against the refusal of a Judge to make an anonymity order under that section:

    • (g) against the making of an order under section 44 of the Evidence Act 2006 relating to the cross-examination of a complainant, or against the refusal to make such an order:

    • (ga) against the making of an order under section 378A for a person to be retried or against the refusal to make such an order.

    (2) At any time before the trial, the accused person, with the leave of the court appealed to, may appeal to the Court of Appeal or the Supreme Court—

    • (a) against the making of an order under subsection (1) of section 322, or against the imposition by a Judge of any condition under subsection (3) of that section