Crimes Act 1961

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Reprint as at 19 August 2013

Crimes Act 1961

Public Act1961 No 43
Date of assent1 November 1961
Commencementsee section 1(2)


Changes authorised by subpart 2 of Part 2 of the Legislation Act 2012 have been made in this reprint.

Note 4 at the end of this reprint provides a list of the amendments incorporated.

This Act is administered by the Ministry of Justice.



1 Short Title, commencement, etc

2 Interpretation

3 Meaning of convicted on indictment [Repealed]

4 Meaning of ordinarily resident in New Zealand

Part 1

5 Application of Act

6 Persons not to be tried in respect of things done outside New Zealand

7 Place of commission of offence

7A Extraterritorial jurisdiction in respect of certain offences with transnational aspects

7B Attorney-General's consent required where jurisdiction claimed under section 7A

8 Jurisdiction in respect of crimes on ships or aircraft beyond New Zealand

8A Jurisdiction in respect of certain persons with diplomatic or consular immunity

9 Offences not to be punishable except under New Zealand Acts

10 Offence under more than 1 enactment

10A Criminal enactments not to have retrospective effect

10B Period of limitation [Repealed]

11 Construction of other Acts [Repealed]

12 Summary jurisdiction [Repealed]

Part 2

13 Powers of courts under other Acts not affected



14 Form of sentence in capital cases [Repealed]

15 Sentence of death not to be passed on pregnant woman [Repealed]

16 Sentence of death not to be passed on person under 18 years of age [Repealed]


17 No sentence of solitary confinement to be passed

Putting under bond


18 Putting under bond [Repealed]


19 Enforcement of fines by High Court

Part 3
Matters of justification or excuse

20 General rule as to justifications


21 Children under 10

22 Children between 10 and 14


23 Insanity


24 Compulsion

Ignorance of law

25 Ignorance of law

Sentence or process

26 Execution of sentence, process, or warrant

27 Execution of erroneous sentence or process

28 Sentence or process without jurisdiction

29 Irregular warrant or process


30 Arresting the wrong person

31 Arrest by constable pursuant to statutory powers

32 Arrest by constable of person believed to have committed offence

33 Arrest by other officers or persons pursuant to statutory powers

34 Persons assisting constable or officer in arrest

35 Arrest of persons found committing certain crimes

36 Arrest of person believed to be committing crime by night

37 Arrest after commission of certain crimes

38 Arrest during flight

Use of force

39 Force used in executing process or in arrest

40 Preventing escape or rescue

41 Prevention of suicide or certain offences

Breach of the peace

42 Preventing breach of the peace

43 Suppression of riot

44 Suppression of riot by Police

45 Suppression of riot by persons acting under lawful orders

46 Suppression of riot by persons without orders

47 Protection of members of New Zealand forces

Defence against assault

48 Self-defence and defence of another

49 Self-defence against provoked assault [Repealed]

50 Provocation defined [Repealed]

51 Defence of person under protection [Repealed]

Defence of property

52 Defence of movable property against trespasser

53 Defence of movable property with claim of right

54 Defence of movable property without claim of right

55 Defence of dwellinghouse

56 Defence of land or building

Peaceable entry

57 Assertion of right to land or building

58 Exercise of right of way, etc

Powers of discipline

59 Parental control

60 Discipline on ship or aircraft

Surgical operations

61 Surgical operations

61A Further provisions relating to surgical operations

General provisions

62 Excess of force

63 Consent to death

64 Obedience to de facto law

65 Other enactments not affected

Part 4
Parties to the commission of offences

66 Parties to offences

67 Conspiracy between spouses or civil union partners

68 Party to murder outside New Zealand

69 Party to any other crime outside New Zealand

70 Offence committed other than offence intended

71 Accessory after the fact

72 Attempts

Part 5
Crimes against public order

Treason and other crimes against the Sovereign and the State

73 Treason

74 Punishment for treason or attempted treason

75 Evidence of treason

76 Punishment for being party to treason

77 Inciting to mutiny

78 Espionage

78A Wrongful communication, retention, or copying of official information

78B Consent of Attorney-General to proceedings in relation to espionage or wrongful communication, retention, or copying of official information

78C Questions of law in relation to espionage or wrongful communication of information

78D Search without warrant [Repealed]

79 Sabotage

Offence of oath to commit offence

80 Oath to commit offence

81 Seditious offences defined [Repealed]

82 Seditious conspiracy [Repealed]

83 Seditious statements [Repealed]

84 Publication of seditious documents [Repealed]

85 Use of apparatus for making seditious documents or statements [Repealed]

Unlawful assemblies, riots, and breaches of the peace

86 Unlawful assembly

87 Riot

88 Reading the Riot Act [Repealed]

89 Failure of rioters to disperse [Repealed]

90 Riotous damage

91 Forcible entry and detainer


92 Piracy

93 Piratical acts

94 Punishment of piratical acts

95 Attempt to commit piracy

96 Conspiring to commit piracy

97 Accessory after the fact to piracy

Slave dealing

98 Dealing in slaves

98AA Dealing in people under 18 for sexual exploitation, removal of body parts, or engagement in forced labour

Participation in organised criminal group

98A Participation in organised criminal group

Smuggling and trafficking in people

98B Terms used in sections 98C to 98F

98C Smuggling migrants

98D Trafficking in people by means of coercion or deception

98E Aggravating factors

98F Attorney-General's consent to prosecutions required

Part 6
Crimes affecting the administration of law and justice

Bribery and corruption

99 Interpretation

100 Judicial corruption

101 Bribery of judicial officer, etc

102 Corruption and bribery of Minister of the Crown

103 Corruption and bribery of member of Parliament

104 Corruption and bribery of law enforcement officer

105 Corruption and bribery of official

105A Corrupt use of official information

105B Use or disclosure of personal information disclosed in breach of section 105A

105C Bribery of foreign public official

105D Bribery outside New Zealand of foreign public official

105E Exception for acts lawful in country of foreign public official

106 Restrictions on prosecution

Contravention of statute

107 Contravention of statute

Misleading justice

108 Perjury defined

109 Punishment of perjury

110 False oaths

111 False statements or declarations

112 Evidence of perjury, false oath, or false statement

113 Fabricating evidence

114 Use of purported affidavit or declaration

115 Conspiring to bring false accusation

116 Conspiring to defeat justice

117 Corrupting juries and witnesses

Escapes and rescues

118 Assisting escape of prisoners of war or internees

119 Breaking prison

120 Escape from lawful custody

121 Assisting escape from lawful custody

122 Assisting escape of mentally impaired person detained for offence

Part 7
Crimes against religion, morality, and public welfare

Crime against religion

123 Blasphemous libel

Crimes against morality and decency

124 Distribution or exhibition of indecent matter

125 Indecent act in public place

126 Indecent act with intent to insult or offend

Sexual crimes

127 No presumption because of age

128 Sexual violation defined

128A Allowing sexual activity does not amount to consent in some circumstances

128B Sexual violation

129 Attempted sexual violation and assault with intent to commit sexual violation

129A Sexual conduct with consent induced by certain threats

130 Incest

131 Sexual conduct with dependent family member

131A Dependent family member defined

131B Meeting young person following sexual grooming, etc

132 Sexual conduct with child under 12

133 Indecency with girl under 12 [Repealed]

134 Sexual conduct with young person under 16

134A Defence to charge under section 134

135 Indecent assault

136 Conspiracy to induce sexual intercourse [Repealed]

137 Inducing sexual intercourse under pretence of marriage [Repealed]

138 Sexual exploitation of person with significant impairment

139 Indecent act between woman and girl [Repealed]

140 Indecency with boy under 12 [Repealed]

140A Indecency with boy between 12 and 16 [Repealed]

141 Indecent assault on man or boy [Repealed]

142 Anal intercourse [Repealed]

142A Compelling indecent act with animal

143 Bestiality

144 Indecency with animal

Sexual offences outside New Zealand

144A Sexual conduct with children and young people outside New Zealand

144B Consent of Attorney-General required

144C Organising or promoting child sex tours

Crimes against public welfare

145 Criminal nuisance

146 Keeping place of resort for homosexual acts [Repealed]

147 Brothel-keeping [Repealed]

148 Living on earnings of prostitution [Repealed]

149 Procuring for prostitution [Repealed]

149A Being client in act of prostitution by person under 18 years of age [Repealed]

150 Misconduct in respect of human remains

Part 8
Crimes against the person

Duties tending to the preservation of life

150A Standard of care applicable to persons under legal duties or performing unlawful acts

151 Duty to provide necessaries and protect from injury

152 Duty of parent or guardian to provide necessaries and protect from injury

153 Duty of employers to provide necessaries

154 Abandoning child under 6

155 Duty of persons doing dangerous acts

156 Duty of persons in charge of dangerous things

157 Duty to avoid omissions dangerous to life


158 Homicide defined

159 Killing of a child

160 Culpable homicide

161 Procuring death by false evidence [Repealed]

162 Death must be within a year and a day

163 Killing by influence on the mind

164 Acceleration of death

165 Causing death that might have been prevented

166 Causing injury the treatment of which causes death

Murder, manslaughter, etc

167 Murder defined

168 Further definition of murder

169 Provocation [Repealed]

170 Illegal arrest may be evidence of provocation [Repealed]

171 Manslaughter

172 Punishment of murder

173 Attempt to murder

174 Counselling or attempting to procure murder

175 Conspiracy to murder

176 Accessory after the fact to murder

177 Punishment of manslaughter

178 Infanticide

179 Aiding and abetting suicide

180 Suicide pact

181 Concealing dead body of child


182 Killing unborn child

182A Miscarriage defined

183 Procuring abortion by any means

184 Procuring abortion by other means [Repealed]

185 Female procuring her own miscarriage [Repealed]

186 Supplying means of procuring abortion

187 Effectiveness of means used immaterial

187A Meaning of unlawfully

Assaults and injuries to the person

188 Wounding with intent

189 Injuring with intent

190 Injuring by unlawful act

191 Aggravated wounding or injury

192 Aggravated assault

193 Assault with intent to injure

194 Assault on a child, or by a male on a female

195 Ill-treatment or neglect of child or vulnerable adult

195A Failure to protect child or vulnerable adult

196 Common assault

197 Disabling

198 Discharging firearm or doing dangerous act with intent

198A Using any firearm against law enforcement officer, etc

198B Commission of crime with firearm

199 Acid throwing

200 Poisoning with intent

201 Infecting with disease

202 Setting traps, etc

202A Possession of offensive weapons or disabling substances

202B Powers in respect of crime against section 202A [Repealed]

202BA Sentencing for second crime against section 202A(4)

202C Assault with weapon

203 Endangering transport [Repealed]

204 Impeding rescue

Female genital mutilation

204A Female genital mutilation

204B Further offences relating to female genital mutilation

Bigamy, feigned marriage

205 Bigamy defined

206 Punishment of bigamy

207 Feigned marriage or feigned civil union

Abduction, kidnapping

208 Abduction for purposes of marriage or sexual connection

209 Kidnapping

209A Young person under 16 cannot consent to being taken away or detained

210 Abduction of young person under 16

210A People claiming in good faith right to possession of young person under 16

Part 9
Crimes against reputation


211 Criminal libel and publishing defined [Repealed]

212 Publishing upon invitation [Repealed]

213 No prosecution without leave of Judge [Repealed]

214 Plea of justification [Repealed]

215 Punishment of criminal libel [Repealed]

216 Criminal slander [Repealed]

Part 9A
Crimes against personal privacy

216A Interpretation

216B Prohibition on use of interception devices

216C Prohibition on disclosure of private communications unlawfully intercepted

216D Prohibition on dealing, etc, with interception devices

216E Forfeiture

216F Unlawful disclosure

Intimate visual recordings

216G Intimate visual recording defined

216H Prohibition on making intimate visual recording

216I Prohibition on possessing intimate visual recording in certain circumstances

216J Prohibition on publishing, importing, exporting, or selling intimate visual recording

216K Exceptions to prohibition in section 216J

216L Disposal and forfeiture

216M Effect of appeal on order made under section 216L

216N Protection from liability

Part 10
Crimes against rights of property


217 Interpretation

Unlawful taking

218 Matters of ownership

219 Theft or stealing

220 Theft by person in special relationship

221 Theft of animals

222 Theft by spouse or partner

223 Punishment of theft

224 Power of search for goods stolen or unlawfully obtained in transit [Repealed]

225 Power to search vehicles for goods stolen or obtained by crimes involving dishonesty [Repealed]

226 Conversion of vehicle or other conveyance

227 Being in possession of instrument for conversion

228 Dishonestly taking or using document

229 Criminal breach of trust

230 Taking, obtaining, or copying trade secrets


231 Burglary

232 Aggravated burglary

233 Being disguised or in possession of instrument for burglary

Robbery and blackmail

234 Robbery

235 Aggravated robbery

236 Assault with intent to rob

237 Blackmail

238 Punishment of blackmail

239 Demanding with intent to steal, etc

Crimes involving deceit

240 Obtaining by deception or causing loss by deception

241 Punishment of obtaining by deception or causing loss by deception

242 False statement by promoter, etc

Money laundering

243 Money laundering

243A Charges for money laundering

244 Defence of enforcement of enactment

245 Section 243 not to apply to certain acts committed outside New Zealand


246 Receiving

247 Punishment of receiving

Crimes involving computers

248 Interpretation

249 Accessing computer system for dishonest purpose

250 Damaging or interfering with computer system

251 Making, selling, or distributing or possessing software for committing crime

252 Accessing computer system without authorisation

253 Qualified exemption to access without authorisation offence for New Zealand Security Intelligence Service [Repealed]

254 Qualified exemption to access without authorisation offence for Government Communications Security Bureau [Repealed]

Forgery and counterfeiting

255 Interpretation

256 Forgery

257 Using forged documents

258 Altering, concealing, destroying, or reproducing documents with intent to deceive

259 Using altered or reproduced document with intent to deceive

260 False accounting

261 Counterfeiting public seals

262 Counterfeiting corporate seals

263 Possessing forged bank notes

264 Paper or implements for forgery

265 Imitating authorised or customary marks


266 Offences involving coinage

Arson, damage, and waste

267 Arson

268 Attempted arson

269 Intentional damage

270 Endangering transport

271 Waste or diversion of electricity, gas, or water

272 Providing explosive to commit crime

273 Using probate obtained by forgery or perjury [Repealed]

274 Paper or implements for forgery [Repealed]

275 Counterfeiting stamps [Repealed]

276 Falsifying registers [Repealed]

277 Falsifying extracts from registers [Repealed]

278 Uttering false certificates [Repealed]

279 Forging certificates [Repealed]

280 Imitating authorised marks [Repealed]

281 Imitating customary marks [Repealed]

282 Interpretation [Repealed]

283 Preparations for coining [Repealed]

284 Counterfeiting coin [Repealed]

285 Altering coin [Repealed]

286 Impairing coin [Repealed]

287 Defacing coin [Repealed]

288 Melting coin [Repealed]

289 Possessing counterfeit coin [Repealed]

290 Uttering counterfeit coin [Repealed]

291 Buying and selling counterfeit coin [Repealed]

292 Importing and exporting counterfeit coin [Repealed]

293 What constitutes criminal damage [Repealed]

294 Arson [Repealed]

295 Attempted arson [Repealed]

296 Damage to other property by fire or explosive [Repealed]

297 Attempt to damage property by fire or explosive [Repealed]

298 Wilful damage [Repealed]

298A Causing disease or sickness in animals

298B Contaminating food, crops, water, or other products

299 Wilful waste or diversion of water, gas, or electricity [Repealed]

300 Interfering with means of transport [Repealed]

301 Wrecking [Repealed]

302 Attempting to wreck [Repealed]

303 Interfering with signals, etc [Repealed]

304 Interfering with mines [Repealed]

305 Providing explosive to commit crime [Repealed]

Part 11
Threatening, conspiring, and attempting to commit offences

306 Threatening to kill or do grievous bodily harm

307 Threatening to destroy property

307A Threats of harm to people or property

308 Threatening acts

309 Conspiring to prevent collection of rates or taxes

310 Conspiring to commit offence

311 Attempt to commit or procure commission of offence

312 Accessory after the fact to crime

Part 11A
Obtaining evidence by interception devices


Part 12

313 General provisions as to procedure [Repealed]

314 Procedure where prior consent to prosecution required [Repealed]

General power to stop vehicles to exercise statutory search powers


314A Statutory search power [Repealed]

314B General power to stop vehicles [Repealed]

314C Powers incidental to stopping vehicles under section 314B [Repealed]

314D Offences relating to stopping vehicles under section 314B [Repealed]


315 Arrest without warrant

316 Duty of persons arresting

317 Power to enter premises to arrest offender or prevent offence [Repealed]

317A Power to stop vehicles for purpose of arrest [Repealed]

317AA Powers incidental to stopping vehicles under section 317A [Repealed]

317AB Offences relating to stopping vehicles under section 317A [Repealed]

317B Road blocks [Repealed]



318 When bail not allowable [Repealed]

319 Rules as to granting bail [Repealed]

319A Detention while bail bond prepared and signed [Repealed]

319B Variation of conditions of bail [Repealed]

320 Arrest of absconder [Repealed]

320A Person on bail may be arrested without warrant in certain circumstances [Repealed]

320B Failure to answer bail [Repealed]

320C Non-performance of condition of bail bond to be certified by Judge [Repealed]

Plea of guilty after committal for trial


321 Person committed for trial may plead guilty before trial [Repealed]

Change of venue


322 Changing venue or sitting [Repealed]

323 Powers of court of committal as to custody or bail of accused [Repealed]

324 Attendance of witnesses at substituted court [Repealed]

325 Powers of substituted court to compel attendance [Repealed]

326 Trial in substituted court [Repealed]

327 Witnesses' expenses where indictment removed at instance of the Crown [Repealed]



328 Form of indictment [Repealed]

329 Contents of counts [Repealed]

330 Crimes may be charged in the alternative [Repealed]

331 Certain objections not to vitiate counts [Repealed]

332 Indictment for perjury or fraud [Repealed]

333 General provisions as to counts not affected [Repealed]

334 Further particulars [Repealed]

335 Variance and amendment [Repealed]

336 Indictment for treason [Repealed]

337 Attempt proved when crime is charged [Repealed]

338 Crime proved when attempt is charged [Repealed]

339 Part of charge proved [Repealed]

340 Joinder of counts [Repealed]

341 Charge of previous conviction [Repealed]

342 Objections to indictment [Repealed]

343 Indictment of parties [Repealed]

344 Accessories after the fact, and receivers [Repealed]

344AA Money launderers [Repealed]



344A Interlocutory order relating to admissibility of evidence [Repealed]

Identification evidence

344B Attendance at identification parade voluntary

344C Information relating to identification witness to be supplied to defendant [Repealed]

344D Jury to be warned where principal evidence relates to identification [Repealed]

Filing indictment


345 Filing indictment [Repealed]

345A Time for filing indictment [Repealed]

345B Extension of time for filing indictment [Repealed]

345C Trial Judge may excuse disclosure of information relating to Police investigations [Repealed]

345D Leave to file amended indictments [Repealed]

346 Failure of prosecutor to file indictment [Repealed]

347 Power to discharge accused [Repealed]

348 Copy of indictment [Repealed]

349 Special provisions in case of treason [Repealed]

Trial and sentence


350 Bench warrant [Repealed]

351 Failure of witness to attend [Repealed]

352 Refusal of witness to give evidence [Repealed]

353 Record of proceedings [Repealed]

354 Right to be defended [Repealed]

355 Arraignment [Repealed]

356 Plea [Repealed]

357 Special pleas [Repealed]

358 Pleas of previous acquittal and conviction [Repealed]

359 Second accusation [Repealed]

360 Evidence of former trial [Repealed]

361 Plea on behalf of corporation [Repealed]

361A Trial before a Judge with a jury general rule [Repealed]

361B Accused may apply for trial before a Judge without a jury [Repealed]

361C Judge may order trial without a jury in certain cases [Repealed]

361D Judge may order trial without jury in certain cases that are likely to be long and complex [Repealed]

361E Judge may order trial without jury in cases involving intimidation of juror or jurors [Repealed]

362 Challenging the array [Repealed]

363 Challenges and directions to stand by [Repealed]

364 Caution to accused when undefended [Repealed]

365 Question to accused when undefended [Repealed]

366 Comment on failure to give evidence [Repealed]

366A Unsworn statement prohibited [Repealed]

367 Evidence and addresses [Repealed]

367A Notice of alibi [Repealed]

368 Adjourning trial for witnesses [Repealed]

369 Admissions [Repealed]

369A Prosecution may withdraw in certain cases [Repealed]

370 Jury retiring to consider verdict [Repealed]

371 Motion in arrest of judgment. Sentence [Repealed]

372 Correction of erroneous sentence [Repealed]

373 Discretion to keep jury together [Repealed]

374 Discharge of juror or jury [Repealed]

375 Power to clear court and forbid report of proceedings [Repealed]

375A Special provisions in cases of sexual nature [Repealed]

376 Presence of the accused [Repealed]

377 Proceedings on Sunday [Repealed]

378 Stay of proceedings [Repealed]

Retrials of previously acquitted persons


378A Order for retrial may be granted if acquittal tainted [Repealed]

378B Meaning of terms used in sections 378C and 378D [Repealed]

378C Consent of Solicitor-General required in certain circumstances for exercise of powers in relation to acquitted person [Repealed]

378D Order for retrial may be granted by Court of Appeal if new and compelling evidence discovered [Repealed]

378E Orders to safeguard fairness of retrial [Repealed]

378F Effect of order for retrial [Repealed]

Part 13


379 Interpretation [Repealed]

Appeal on matters arising before trial


379A Right of appeal in certain cases [Repealed]

379AB Appeal against decision of Court of Appeal on appeal against certain orders [Repealed]

Appeal on question of bail


379B Appeal from decision of High Court relating to bail [Repealed]

379C Procedural provisions relating to appeal on question of bail [Repealed]

379CA Appeal against order in respect of costs [Repealed]

379D Execution of decision of Court of Appeal [Repealed]

Appeal on question of law


380 Reserving question of law

381 Appeal where no question reserved [Repealed]

381A Question of law arising out of discharge under section 347 or stay of prosecution may be referred to Court of Appeal [Repealed]

382 Powers of Court of Appeal where appeal is on question of law [Repealed]

Appeal against conviction or sentence


383 Right of appeal against conviction or sentence [Repealed]

383A Appeal against decision of Court of Appeal on appeal against conviction or sentence [Repealed]

384 Right of appeal against sentence or conviction for contempt of court [Repealed]

384A Jurisdiction in certain cases where appeals lie to different courts [Repealed]

385 Determination of appeals in ordinary cases [Repealed]

386 Powers of appellate courts in special cases [Repealed]

387 Revesting and restitution of property on conviction [Repealed]

388 Time for appealing [Repealed]

389 Supplemental powers of appellate courts [Repealed]

390 Duty of Solicitor-General [Repealed]

391 Costs of appeal [Repealed]

392 Duties of Registrar with respect to notices of appeal, etc [Repealed]

General provisions as to appeals


392A Decision about mode of hearing [Repealed]

392B Hearings on the papers [Repealed]

393 Certain powers exercisable by 1 Judge [Repealed]

394 Evidence for appellate courts [Repealed]

395 Right of appellant to be represented, and restriction on attendance [Repealed]

396 Power to forbid report of proceedings, etc [Repealed]

397 Granting of bail to appellant, and custody pending appeal [Repealed]

398 Judgment of Court of Appeal [Repealed]

399 Intermediate effects of appeal [Repealed]

Part 14
Miscellaneous provisions

400 Consent of Attorney-General to certain prosecutions

401 Contempt of court [Repealed]

402 Costs [Repealed]

403 Compensation for loss of property [Repealed]

404 Restitution of property [Repealed]

405 Civil remedy not suspended

406 Prerogative of mercy

406A Appeals against decisions made on references

407 Effect of free pardon

408 Act to bind the Crown

409 Rules of court [Repealed]

410 Regulations

411 Consequential amendments

412 Repeals and savings

413 Enactment creating offence is repealed and replaced or consolidated

414 Repealed enactment continues to have effect

415 Inconsistency with other enactment or rule of law

Schedule 1
Carrying out of sentence of death


Schedule 2


Schedule 3
Enactments amended

Schedule 4
United Kingdom enactments ceasing to have effect in New Zealand

Schedule 5
New Zealand enactments repealed

Schedule 6
Interception warrant


Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 1985

Homosexual Law Reform Act 1986

Crimes (Bribery of Foreign Public Officials) Amendment Act 2001

Prostitution Reform Act 2003

Crimes Amendment Act 2005

Crimes Amendment Act (No 3) 2011

Reprint notes

An Act to consolidate and amend the Crimes Act 1908 and certain other enactments of the Parliament of New Zealand relating to crimes and other offences

  • Title: amended, on 1 January 1987, pursuant to section 29(2) of the Constitution Act 1986 (1986 No 114).