Ngati Awa Claims Settlement Act 2005

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Ngati Awa Claims Settlement Act 2005

Public Act2005 No 28
Date of assent24 March 2005

Contents

Jurisdiction of courts, etc, removed

Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 amended

Protections no longer apply

Perpetuities

Date when actions or matters must occur

General provisions

Noting of certain protocols

Vesting of cultural redress properties

Provisions relating to vesting of cultural redress properties

Statutory acknowledgements

Deeds of recognition

Application of statutory acknowledgements and deeds of recognition in relation to rivers

General provisions

Amendment to Resource Management Act 1991

Membership of joint advisory committee

Procedures of joint advisory committee

Funding provisions

Change in ownership of retained sites

Exercise of powers by Minister

Membership of joint management committee

Procedures of joint management committee

Funding provisions

Exercise of powers by Minister

Right to extract hangi stones from Moutohora (Whale Island) Wildlife Management Reserve

Obligations relating to Nohoanga entitlements

Suspension and termination of Nohoanga entitlement

Rights not affected or created

Application of other enactments

Right of access over redress licensed land

Protected land

Evidence of proper direction

Application of other enactments to protected land

Amendment to Crown Minerals Act 1991

Termination of Pukaahu governance entity

Legislative history


  • Preamble

    Kupu Whakataki

    • (1) Kua whakatakotoria te Tiriti o Waitangi, tona tauira reo Maori tona tauira reo Pakeha hoki, i roto i te Wahanga 1 o te Ture Tiriti o Waitangi 1975. I hainatia te Tiriti nei i te tau 1840:

    • (2) Ma nga whiti (3) ki (53) o tenei Kupu Whakataki ka kitea he whakarapopototanga o nga korero o muri i te kereme o nehe o Ngati Awa kua whakatakotoria ki roto i te whakaaetanga whakataunga i whakamanahia i waenga i a Ngati Awa raua ko te Karauna:

    Te hitori o te Whakataunga

    • (3) Mai i te wa o te raupatu i 1866, kua whakaturia nga tono paremata a Ngati Awa ki te Karauna mo ana mahi he, tae rawa ki te raupatu. Kua hikina nga taumahatanga mo nga takahitanga i te Tiriti o Waitangi e tena, e tena whakatipuranga o Ngati Awa i roto i nga tau, tane mai, wahine mai. Whai muri iho o nga petihana me nga kawenga korero o nga tau tomuri o te rau tau 1800, me era o te tekau tau 1920, tae rawa ki te tekau tau 1960, ko te nekehanga nui, ko te whakatunga e nga kaumatua o Ngati Awa penei i a Eruera Manuera, i a Hare Reneti, i a Aniheta Ratene me Matarena Reneti, i te Poari o Ngati Awa i te tau 1980 i Puawairua, te marae o Ngati Hikakino. I whakaturia te Poari e nga hapu o Ngati Awa hei kawe whakamua i nga kaupapa mo te iwi, penei i te take raupatu (tae rawa ki te muru i nga whenua, te noho manene o nga hapu me te riro o te tino rangatiratanga), te whakatu pakari ano o te wharenui Mataatua, te whakahokinga mai o te pamu teihana o Ngati Awa me te maunga Putauaki ki nga ringaringa o te iwi. I whakarapopotongia nga whainga matua nei e Aniheta Ratene i roto i tana korero mo te Moenga, te Paraikete me te Urunga—ko te Moenga, koia tera ko nga whenua o Ngati Awa i raupatuhia, ko te Paraikete, ko te pamu teihana tera o Ngati Awa, a, ko te Urunga, koia tera ko nga kereme a Ngati Awa mo Kawerau:

    • (4) I te tau 1988, whai muri o tetahi whakahounga o Te Ture mo Te Tiriti o Waitangi 1975 e tarea ai te rongohia o nga kereme mai i 1840, i whakatakotoria e Ngati Awa tana kereme ki mua i te aroaro o Te Ropu Whakamana i te Tiriti kia rangahaua ona whakamau e pa ana ki te Tiriti. I te tau 1988, i runga i tana kaupapa here ki te tuku i nga whakahaere ki nga poari whakahaere iwi, a, i runga ano hoki i te tono a Ngati Awa, i whakamanatia Te Ture mo Te Runanga o Ngati Awa 1988 ara, te ture whakatu i te Runanga. Ko tetahi wahi o te ture nei i pa ki te wetewete i nga whakawhiu a-ture i mau ki runga i etahi o te iwi i uru ki nga nekenekehanga o te tau 1865:

    • (5) No te tau 1990 i whakawhitia ai e te Karauna te pamu teihana o Ngati Awa ki Te Runanga o Ngati Awa. I tua atu, i nga tau 1988 me 1990, tukuna ai e te Karauna etahi utunga e $200,000 hui katoa ki Te Runanga o Ngati Awa. I te tau 1994, i whakawhitia ai e te Karauna ki a Ngati Awa, ko te wahi mahi a Telecom i Whakatane, ko tona wariu i whakaaetia ai kia $390,000. Hei ta Ngati Awa titiro mai ra ano, he wahanga noa iho enei o nga utu mo nga kereme raupatu ki te Karauna:

    • (6) No te ra 4 o te marama o Hurae o te tau 1994, katahi ano ka timata te take a Ngati Awa ki mua i te aroaro o Te Ropu Whakamana i te Tiriti, i te marae o Te Whare o Toroa i Whakatane. I whakatakotoria e Ngati Awa tana kereme i roto i etahi hui i tu ki te marae o Kokohinau i Te Teko, ki te marae o Umutahi i Matata, me te kapinga o ana korero i Te Whare o Toroa i te ra 1 o Tihema o te tau 1995:

    • (7) No te marama o Mei o te tau 1995, i whakaputaina e Te Ropu Whakamana i te Tiriti tetahi whakaaturanga e ki ana, ahakoa kaore ano kia rongohia te Karauna, na te kaha me te pakari o te kereme a Ngati Awa, tera tonu pea ka nui te paremata me utu e te Karauna ki a ia mo nga takahitanga a te Karauna i Te Tiriti o Waitangi i roto i nga tau kua pahure. I whakaputaina tuatahitia te korero nei i roto i te whakaaturanga a Te Ropu Whakamana i te Tiriti i te marama o Noema i te tau 1994:

    • (8) I whakatakotohia, i korerohia tetahi tikanga whakahaere i waenganui i nga hapu, Te Runanga me nga kai-whiriwhiri i te hui a-tau o te tau 1996, me nga hui o muri a Te Runanga i roto i taua tau. Whai muri i tera, i tu ano nga hui me nga whitiwhitinga korero e whiwhi mana kokiri ai nga kai-whiriwhiri. I whakaae te Runanga o te Kawanatanga ki te mana kokiri i te Oketopa 1996:

    • (9) I te ra 21 o te marama o Tihema o te tau 1998, whai muri o tetahi toru tau e korerohia ana te kaupapa, ka uru te Karauna raua ko Ngati Awa ki tetahi Whakaaetanga upoko. Ko ta te Whakaaetanga upoko nei, he whakatakoto noa i nga take e matua whakaaetia ana me uru ki roto i te Tutohinga Whakatau, me ta raua whakaae tahi ki te whiriwhiri i runga i te ngakau pono ki te whakatutuki i nga ritenga o te Tutohinga Whakatau:

    • (10) No te ra 8 o te marama o Oketopa o te tau 1999 i oti i Te Ropu Whakamana i te Tiriti tana purongo e kiia nei ko Te Purongo mo te Raupatu a Ngati Awa. Ko nga whainga matua o te purongo i ki, i raro i Te Tiriti o Waitangi, i te he te mahi raupatu i nga whenua o Ngati Awa, e kore e taea te ki i tu tetahi whana e whai take ai te raupatu i nga whenua, me te mea ko te ahua nei, i tua atu ke te raupatu o nga whenua o Ngati Awa i te mana o Te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tireni, 1863:

    • (11) I tua atu, i kite ano Te Ropu Whakamana i te Tiriti, he takahitanga tenei o nga matapono o te Tiriti o Waitangi, mena kaore i whakahokia mai nga whenua i runga i te tikanga pai, marakerake; he whakawhiu ano i a Ngati Awa mo ana mahi whana tenei te wehe i a ia mai i nga whenua ki te taha uru o te raina raupatu; i hurihia te taitara o nga whenua ki te tangata takitahi, a, ko te putanga o tenei, ko te unuhanga o te mana o te iwi, ko te whakamama hoki i te huarahi hoko i te whenua. I tua atu i whakatau Te Ropu Whakamana i te Tiriti, ko te huarahi e ea ai nga kereme a Ngati Awa, ma te huarahi ki Te Runanga o Ngati Awa. Ahakoa te mea kaore i whakatakotohia e te Karauna etahi whakaaturanga ki mua i te aroaro o Te Ropu Whakamana i te Tiriti, me te mea ano ehara i te mea e whakaae ana ia ki te katoa o nga whainga o Te Ropu Whakamana i te Tiriti, e whakaae ana te Karauna i mahi he ia ki te raupatu i nga whenua o Ngati Awa, na reira he takahitanga tena o nga matapono o Te Tiriti o Waitangi:

    • (12) Kaore i tau he whakaritenga i waenganui i te Karauna me Ngati Awa i runga i nga tapaetanga o te tau 1998. No te tau 2000 whakatakotoria ai e te Karauna tetahi tapaetanga hou:

    • (13) I te 8 o Hurae 2002 ka whakaretangia e te Karauna me te Runanga o Ngati Awa he whakaaetanga. Ka tatu i te Karauna me Ngati Awa taua whakaaetanga o nga whakataunga i te 27 o Maehe 2003 e whakatatu ana i nga take katoa e tika ana kia whakatauria tuturutia te katoa o nga kereme o nehe o te iwi o Ngati Awa:

    Te Whakahokinga Mai o te Wharenui a Mataatua

    • (14) I nga tau tomua o te tekau tau 1870, i tahuri te iwi o Ngati Awa ki te hanga i tetahi whare whakairo ki Whakatane, ko tona ingoa ko Mataatua. I te timatanga o te tau 1875 i oti te hanga i te whare. No te tau 1879, i tukuna e te Karauna te whare Mataatua ki tetahi whakaaturanga e kiia nei ko te Inter-colonial Exhibition i tu ki Poihakena, i Ahitereiria. No te tau 1880 i nekehia te whare ki Poi-piripiri, ki Ranana, ki reira whakaaturia ai. No te tau 1924 i whakahokia mai ai a Mataatua, e aha ai, e uru atu ai ia ki te Whakaaturanga mo te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa i tu ki Otepoti. I whakaae te Karauna kia whakaaturia e Te Whare Taonga o Otepoti te whare whakairo mo ake tonu. Mai ra ano, kua rapu te iwi kia whakahokia mai te whare ki Whakatane, me te ki a Ngati Awa, kaore i tukuna e ia te mana mo Mataatua ki tetahi atu. No te marama o Akuhata o te tau 1996 i hainahia e Ngati Awa raua ko te Karauna tetahi Tutohinga Whakatau mo te whakahokinga mai o Mataatua ki a Ngati Awa. I whai wahi ki roto i te whakaaetanga nei ko te $2 miriona hei utu i te whakahoki mai me te whakatu o te wharenui a Mataatua ki Whakatane:

    Te tahu korero

    • (15) E whai take ana te kupu whakapaha a te Karauna ki a Ngati Awa i runga i te tahu korero ka whai:

    Te Rohe o Ngati Awa

    • (16) E whakapono ana a Ngati Awa, i mua o te tau 1866, koia te tangata whenua, a, nona te tino rangatiratanga e hora ana i etahi wa, ki runga i nga whenua ka whai nei: nga moutere o Motiti, o Rurima, o Mou-tohora, Te Paepae o Aotea, Whakaari, a Ohakana raua ko Uretara (he moutere enei kei te whanga o Ohiwa), nga wai mai i te wahapu o Waihi ki Ohiwa; te whenua, nga ngahere, nga roto, nga awa me nga repo, mai i te wahapu o Waihi ki te raki, a ka whai haere i te takutai tae rawa ki Ohiwa, mai i te wahapu o Waihi ano, ka huri whaka-te-hau-a-uru ki te awa o Pongakawa, ki te moutere o Rotoehu (tae rawa ki te papa o te roto o Rotoehu me te ngahere o Rotoehu), a, mai i Rotoehu ki Te Haehaenga, tae atu ki te roto o Rotoma ki nga whenua o Pokohu, o Tuararangaia me Matahina ki te tonga, a, atu i reira ki te Whanga o Ohiwa:

    • (17) Ko etahi o nga wahi nui i whakahuahuatia ai i roto i nga tahu korero mo Ngati Awa ko: nga maunga e korerohia nei ko Putauaki ki Kawerau, ko Whakapaukorero ki Matata me Maunga Whakamana ki Te Haehaenga, me te hiwi e kiia nei ko Te Tiringa ki Awakeri, tae rawa hoki ki Te Rae o Kohi ki Whakatane; nga awa o Whakatane, Orini, Rangitaiki, Tarawera, Wai-tahanui me nga wai o Waikowhewhe raua ko Pongakawa; te repo o Rangitaiki; nga ngahere i Rotoehu, i Matahina, i Kiwi-nui, i O-mata-roa, i Tarawera me Manawahe; nga roto o Rotoehu, Rotoma, Kawerau, Te Tahuna, Onerahi, Roto-iti Paku, Onepu me Roto-roa; nga waiariki i Kawerau, Awakeri, Mou-tohora me Whakaari; nga whanga i Ohiwa me Whakatane; nga wahapu i Waihi, i Te Awa a Te Atua i Matata, me Whakatane:

    • (18) I pupuritia nga whenua me nga rawa o Ngati Awa i raro i nga tikanga Maori, ara, ka noho hei mea tino nui rawa te kaitiakitanga ohu a-hapu, a-iwi. I mua o te raupatu, i mau tonu nga rangatira o Ngati Awa ki to ratou rangatiratanga, a, iti noa iho nei nga whenua o roto i te rohe o Ngati Awa i hokona:

    • (19) I tua atu, ko te whakapae a Ngati Awa, i te tau 1865 e noho motuhake ana ratou, i te hua nga painga o nga mahi kaipakihi. Ka mutu, i roto ratou i nga mahi whitiwhiti taonga, tauhokohoko hoki. I te whakatipu, i te hoko ratou i nga rawa penei i te poaka, i te harakeke, i nga hua whenua, i te witi, i te papa rakau me te riwai, a, i roto ano hoki ratou i te whanuitanga o nga kaupapa tauhokohoko penei i te mira witi me te whakahaere kaipuke. I te haere tonu nga mahi whitiwhiti taonga a Ngati Awa me etahi atu iwi mo nga taonga penei i te kokowai, te titi me te nuinga atu o nga rawa o te moana:

    Te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tireni 1863

    • (20) No te tau 1863 i whakamanatia e te Karauna etahi hanganga ture whakahirahira e toru ara, te Ture Tami i te Mahi Whana, te Ture Putea Taurewa o Niu Tireni me te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tireni. I aheitia e te ture whakamutunga te raupatu i nga whenua Maori e tirohia ana e te Karauna na tetahi iwi, na tetahi wahanga o tetahi iwi, na tetahi rahinga mai i tetahi iwi ranei i mahi hara ki te mana o te Kuini. Ko te mea nui, i whakamanatia te ture ki te tiaki, ki te whakamaru tuturu i nga tangata pai o nga iwi e rua, kia arai atu i nga mahi whana, kia pupuri hoki ki te mana o Te Arikinui Te Kuini i roto i te Ture me te Mariretanga puta noa i te whenua. Hei whakatutuki i enei whainga whanui e rua, i mea te Karauna ki te whakatu tangata noho ki nga rohe ma te hoko i nga whenua raupatu ki te hunga whai. Ko te titiro a te Karauna ma nga moni hua i enei hokonga whenua e ea ai nga utu a te Karauna mo ana pakanga ki te Maori:

    • (21) I te awangawanga te Tari Koroni o Piritana mo te whanui me te whakamahi i te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tireni 1863, e mea ana ia, ka taea nga mahi tukino nui. I te timatanga, i te wa e whakaarohia ana te raupatu whenua, i whakatupatohia e te Hekeretari Koroni te Kawana Tianara, kia aro nui ki nga whenua o nga tangata me nga iwi harakore, a, kia hangai hoki te whiunga ki te hara. No muri mai, i a ia ka noho ki te ata whakaaro mo te hanganga ture raupatu whenua, i te awangawanga tonu te Tari Koroni o Piritana mo te whakamahi i te Ture me tona roanga, engari i whakaaetia kia tu tonu na te mea ko te mana whakamutunga rawa mo te raupatu ko te Kawana. I tohungia e te Hekeretari Koroni te Kawana kia kaua ia e whakaae kia raupatuhia he whenua mena kaore i te tika, i te ngawari:

    Te Kaokaoroa

    • (22) E ai ki nga korero tuku iho a Ngati Awa, i te tau 1864, i uru atu etahi o nga hapu o Ngati Awa penei i a Te Patu-tatahi, a Ngati Hikakino me Ngati Te Rangihouhiri II, me etahi o Te Tawera ki tetahi ope taua o nga iwi o Mataatua me etahi atu iwi, a, e mohiotia nei ko Te Ope Taua o Te Tai Rawhiti. E mea ana te ope nei ki te hou atu ki te rohe o Waikato ki te tautoko i nga iwi o Waikato e atete ana i te whakaeke pokanoa o ratou whenua e nga ope taua o te Karauna me nga tangata whai. I araitia e Te Arawa te haere a te ope taua o Te Tai Rawhiti nei ma te rohe o Rotorua. I tono etahi o nga iwi o Te Arawa ki te Karauna ki te tautoko i ta ratou mahi, tautokona noa mai e te Karauna. I te marama o Pepuere o te tau 1864 i tu tetahi pakanga i waenganui i tetahi wahanga o te ope taua o Te Tai Rawhiti me etahi o te iwi o Te Arawa, ki Roto-iti; mate atu etahi ki reira. Haunga tera, he wahanga o te ope nei i pakaru atu ki roto ki te rohe o Waikato, rokohina atu ko Orakau:

    • (23) I Maketu, i te marama o Aperira o te tau 1864, ka ngana te ope taua o Te Tai Rawhiti ki te pakaru atu ma te wahapu o Waihi. Na etahi o te iwi o Te Arawa, tapae atu ko nga waka taua me nga hoia a te Karauna te ope taua o Te Tai Rawhiti i whiu. Ko te whawhai nui o Te Kaokaoroa te whawhai i parekura atu ai a Ngati Awa, me ki, ko ana karangatanga hapu a Ngati Hikakino me Ngai Te Rangihouhiri II, tae rawa atu ki etahi o nga hapu me nga iwi haumi. I hinga atu ki te pakanga nei etahi o nga rangatira nui o Ngati Awa:

    James Te Mautaranui Fulloon

    • (24) No te tomuritanga o te tau 1864, i tau atu a Kereopa, a Horomona me Patara, etahi poropiti o te whakapono Pai Marire, ki te rohe o Whakatane, a, na ratou etahi o te iwi o Ngati Awa i whakawai ki te uru ki te whakapono o Pai Marire. I te marama o Maehe o te tau 1865 ka kohurutia a Rev. Carl Volkner, he mihingare e noho ana ki Opotiki, e etahi o nga Maori o taua takiwa kua taka ki te whakapono Pai Marire. No te ra 6 o te marama o Maehe o te tau 1865 ka whakaputaina e nga rangatira o Ngati Awa o ratou tino whakahe mo te patunga o Volkner; haunga tera, kaore ratou nga rangatira o Ngati Awa i whakaae kia haere te Karauna ma te rohe o Ngati Awa i a ia ka rapu mo te hunga na ratou a Volkner i patu. Kore rawa i whakamanatia e te Kawanatanga te haere a tetahi o ona ope taua ma te rohe o Ngati Awa ki te rapu i te hunga na ratou a Volkner i patu.

    • (25) No te marama o Pepuere o te tau 1865, whai muri i etahi runanga, ka hui etahi rangatira o Ngati Awa ki Whakatane, i reira ka whakatakotoria ai e ratou tetahi aukati o to ratou rohe, kia kaua tetahi noa atu e uru mai. Nawai a, i te marama o Hurae i te tau 1865, whai muri i etahi hui ki Tauaroa me Matata, ka whakatakotoria ai tetahi atu aukati ana e te poropiti Pai Marire e Horomona, me etahi o nga rangatira o Ngati Awa tautoko i a ia. Mai i Whangaparaoa i te rawhiti tae atu ki Taranaki i te uru te aukati nei. I te ra 19, te ra 20 ranei o Hurae 1865 i tau ai ki Whakatane a Maruiwi, tetahi kaipuke hokohoko no Te Arawa. I hopukina te kaipuke, mo tona takahi i te aukati a nga Pai Marire. No te ra 22 o te marama o Hurae o te tau 1865 i tau atu ai te kaipuke Kate ki Whakatane. Ko nga tangata i runga i te kaipuke, ko James Fulloon, he apiha na te Karauna, me etahi atu. I patua i runga i te kaipuke, a Fulloon, he uri no Ngati Awa, me etahi kaumoana tokotoru, e era o Ngati Awa i tautoko i te Pai Marire. Katahi ka tahuri a Wepiha Apanui o te pori o Ngati Awa ki Whakatane ki te whakarite mo te tanu i tona uri, a Hemi (James) Fulloon. He maha nga korero he aha i patua ai a Fulloon; e ai ki a Ngati Awa i patua ia mo tana takahi i te aukati. Na enei nekenekehanga i korikori ake nga hapu o Ngati Awa:

    Te Whakamana

    • (26) No te ra 2 o te marama o Akuhata o te tau 1865 i Maketu ka whakaputaina e T H Smith, te Komihana Kawanatanga tana whakamana hopu tangata mo te mau here i te hunga e whakapaetia ana na ratou a Fulloon me etahi atu i patu:

    • (27) Ko nga tangata i te rarangi o te whakamana ko:

      Te Hura Te TaiwhakaripiHaki Waihou
      Te Pitoiwi Te PutareraTe Hemara Tukairangi
      Hakaraia TohoraTure Te Matutaera
      Te Aka o Tau Te HuraParaharaha
      Te Metera Te TiiRaniera Te Werotokotoko
      Hepeta Te TaiHaki Tukino
      KorimanaEria Te Hakona
      Horomona PoropitiHeahea Te Pakihiwi
      Utuku Te RangiHohepa Te Ra
      Te Meihana Te TawaTawhaki
      Te WetiniRaureti
      Tamati o Ngati HokoHunia Marupo
      Mohi Te PaohiPanapa Rangirewaia
      TuririHakopa Tupika
      Hawera Te HihiraPetera Moki
      Te HekaraPakiuru
       HohuaKaripipi:
    • (28) No te marama o Akuhata o te tau 1865, i whakakotahihia tetahi ope taua a te Karauna e rima rau nei te tokomaha, he mea emi i etahi o nga hapu, iwi e noho tata ana ki a Ngati Awa ka mutu, kua roa ke hoki e pakanga ana ki a Ngati Awa mai ra ano; ko etahi o te ope nei i roto i nga riri o Te Kaokaoroa. Ko te kaingarahu o te ope taua nei a te Karauna ko Meiha William Mair, Te Kaiwhakawa. I kuhu atu te ope taua nei ki te rohe o Ngati Awa ki te whakatutuki i te whakamana mau here. No te pokapu o te marama o Akuhata whakamaramahia ai ki te rangatira o Ngati Awa, a Te Hura Te Taiwhakaripi, he aha te kaupapa a te taua. I tu etahi whakapapa i waenganui i te taua a te Karauna me Ngati Awa, ko te otinga atu i mate etahi tangata. I murua nga kau, nga hoiho me etahi atu o nga rawa a Ngati Awa, i wawahia nga kainga, wharenui, pataka, waka hoki o Ngati Awa. I whakaekea nga pa o Ngati Awa i Whakatane, i Matata me Te Teko, te wahi i rere ai a Te Hura me ana tangata:

    • (29) No te ra 2 o te marama o Hepetema o te tau 1865 i whakaputaina e te Karauna tetahi Panuitanga Rongomau e ki ana kua mutu te pakanga i timata ra i Oakura, takiwa o Taranaki i te tau e 1863. Ko ta te Panuitanga Rongomau i whakamarama ai, e kore e whiua e te Karauna era i mau pu ki te Karauna i nga raruraru o mua, haunga era na ratou a Fulloon i patu, kaore ratou i kuhuna ki raro i te tikanga o te panuitanga nei. Ko nga kupu o te panuitanga i ki penei, ki te kore e tae nga tangata na ratou a Fulloon i kohuru ki te aroaro o te Kawana, ka murua e te Karauna nga whenua o nga iwi na ratou i manaaki te hunga kohuru. I tua atu, i tono te panui kia awhinatia e te Maori te mahi aukati i nga tutunga puehu, a, i takoto ano te hiahia ki te korerorero me nga Rangatira nui, me pehea e rongohia ai te reo o te Maori i roto i te Runanga Nui, e aha ai, e whai wahi ai e te Maori ki te hanga ture hei whai mana:

    • (30) No te marama o Hepetema o te tau 1865 ka whakaputaina e te Kawana tetahi Panuitanga Ture Taua mo nga rohe o Whakatane me Opotiki, e taea ai te hopu i te hunga e whakapaetia ana na ratou a Fulloon i kohuru, e taea ai hoki te whakawa i a ratou ma te Whakawa Taua. Ko te tikanga, ka mau te Ture Taua ki runga i nga rohe nei a, tae noa ki te wa hikina ai, ka mutu, ko ta te panuitanga e mea ana, ka ahei nga tangata a te Karauna te tu ano nei he ope taua. No te ra e 5 o Hepetema o te tau 1865 panuitia ai enei panuitanga e rua ki te Kahiti o Niu Tireni. Haunga tera, kaore i te marama nonahea mohio ai a Ngati Awa mo enei panuitanga:

    Te Kupenga

    • (31) Kia tae ki te wahanga tomuri o te marama o Hepetema o te tau 1865, kua nui ake nga korikoringa a nga hoia o te Karauna. Ko te otinga atu, e toru ra e whawhai ana i te pa o Te Kupenga, takiwa ki Te Teko. Nawai ra, a, no te ra 20 o te marama o Oketopa o te tau 1865, ka mutu i Te Kupenga te whawhai o nga hapu o Ngati Awa i raro i te arahitanga o Te Hura Taiwhakaripi. Ko etahi o nga hapu i roto i te whawhai nei ko Te Tawera, Warahoe, Ngai Te Rangihouhiri II, Te Patu-tatahi, Ngati Hikakino me etahi atu. Ko atu i te 30 nga tane, tae noa ki te nuinga o era i te rarangi ingoa o te whakamana me etahi atu, i mauheretia, i kawea hoki ki Opotiki, kia whakawatia e te Koti Taua i te marama o Noema o te tau 1865, mo te patunga o Fulloon, mo etahi atu whakapae. I whakatau te Koti Taua he tokomaha ratou i hara, a, ko te hunga nei i whiua kia whakamatea:

    Nga Whakawatanga

    • (32) No te ra 23 o te marama o Tihema o te tau 1865 ka whakatakoto whakaaro a James Prendergast, te Roia Mama mo nga whakawatanga ma te koti taua, i nga mauhere i kawea ki Opotiki. E ai ki a Prendergast ehara i te mea tika i raro i te ture te ture taua. Nawai a, ka tono te Kawana kia kawea nga mau here o Ngati Awa ki Tamaki-makau-rau, ki reira whakawatia ano, ki mua tonu i te aroaro o te Koti Manua, mo te kohuru me etahi atu whakawhiu. Kotahi te roia i tu mo te hunga e 35 o Ngati Awa:

    • (33) E whai ake nei ko te rarangi ingoa o ratou o nga tangata i whakawhiua mo te tahae waka me te kohuru i a Fulloon me kaumoana Ned i runga i te waka Kate: Mikaere Kirimangu, Hekara, Himone-te-Auru, Paraharaha, Hoani Poururu, Hoani Hupe, Utuku-te-Rangi, Te Aka o Tau-te-Hura, Hunia Marupo, Haki Waihou, Haki Tukino, Tamati o Ngati Hoko, Tio Wahu, Hawera-te-Hihira, Heahea te Pakihiwi, Raniera te Werotokotoko. I unuhia nga whakapae i runga i te tokotoru o nga tangata nei mo te tahae waka, engari katoa ratou i whakaaetia e te koti he tangata hara mo te mahi kohuru. Tekau atu ano nga tangata i kiia e te koti na ratou i awhi te hunga na ratou nga mahi kohuru. Ko enei tangata ko Te Hura Te Tai, Te Pitoiwi Te Putarera, Hepeta Te Tai, Horomona Poropiti, Mohi te Paohi, Te Hemara, Hakaraia Tohora, Te Uwhi Te Haraki, Kereama Toitoi me Ture Te Matutaera. I tua atu, tokoono nga tangata i whakawhiua mo te whiwhi rawa i tahaetia i te Kate. Kia tae ki te ra 23 o te marama o Maehe o te tau 1866, ko te hunga katoa i tu ki mua o te aroaro o te Koti i whakataungia e te Koti i hara, i whiua kia whakamatea, kia mauhereheretia ranei. No te ra 17 o Mei o te tau 1866 whakamatea ai a Mikaere Kirimangu raua ko Horomona Poropoti (o Taranaki) mo te kohuru i a Fulloon. Tuangahuru ma tahi o ratou i whiua kia whakamatea i hurihia kia mauheretia mo ake tonu atu, a, ko te toenga o nga tangata nei i whakahaua e te Koti kia whakamatea, i takahurihia e te Koti kia mauheretia etahi o ratou mo nga tau e wha, piki atu ki te tekau ma wha tau. Ko era i hara mo te whiwhi rawa i tahaetia, i whiua kia mauheretia mo nga tau e toru. No nga tau 1867 me 1868 i wetekina te hara i runga i etahi o nga tangata nei, engari ko te nuinga i mauheretia a, eke noa te wa i whakaritea mo ratou. Tokotoru ratou i mate i te wa e mauheretia ana ratou ara, ko Tamati o Ngati Hoko (ra 1 o Akuhata o te tau 1866), a Hepeta Te Tai (ra 26 o Noema o te tau 1866), a Paraharaha (ra 18 o Tihema o te tau 1866). Kaore i karakiahia, i poroporoakihia ranei enei tangata i mate ki roto i te whare herehere. Rite ana nga tono a nga whakatipuranga i roto i nga tau kia whakahokia nga koiwi o o ratou whanaunga ki a ratou; no te tau e 1988 tutuki ai a ratou tono:

    • (34) Hei ta Ngati Awa, tokomaha tonu era i tukuna, kaore i hiahia hoki ki o ratou kainga i Whakatane me Matata na te whakama i runga i to ratou mauheretanga me te rironga atu o o ratou whenua. I noho ratou i te taha i a Te Kooti, i Te Rohe Potae, i raro i te maru o Ngati Maniapoto. Ko te nuinga i mate, i takoto ki waho ke o te rohe o Ngati Awa, engari na runga i te mahi a Te Kooti me ana tangata, no te tau 1885 hahua ai ratou, ka tanumia ki te Urupa o Ohuirere, takiwa ki Whakatane:

    Te Raupatu Whenua

    • (35) Na runga i te mana o nga Tono a-Kaunihera i tukuna i te ra 17 o te marama o Hanuere me te ra 1 o te marama o Hepetema o te tau 1866, whai muri mai hoki o ta te Karauna i ki, i hara nga iwi o Te Moana o Toi, ahua e 448 000 eka te rahi o nga whenua i panuitia ai kia raupatuhia i raro i te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tireni, 1863. Kaore te Ture i korero mo te utu, engari ko te whiu tonu ia tona whainga:

    • (36) Ko te ripa tauarai o nga whenua i raupatutia, ko:

      Nga whenua katoa pokaitia ai e te ripa tauarai, mai i te puwaha o te awa o Wai-tahanui, haere whaka-te-tonga mo tetahi 20 maero; katahi ka hangai te haere ki te tihi o (Mt Edgecombe) Putanaki, mai i reira ka rere whaka-te-rawhiti ki tetahi wahi 11 maero ki te taha tonga o te puwaha o te whanga o Ohiwa, a, totika ana te haere ki te rawhiti mo tetahi 25 maero; katahi ka ripa atu ki te puwaha o te awa o Araparapara, huri haere i te takutai a, kia tau atu ki te timatanga i Wai-tahanui.

    • (37) I roto i te whenua pokaitia ai i raro i te maru o te tono, awhiwhi e 245 000 eka te rahi o nga whenua o Ngati Awa i raupatutia i te tau 1866. He mahi pokanoa tenei mahi, no te mea nui rawa atu nga whenua i raupatutia, ki tera rahi o te whenua e ea ai nga kaupapa i raro i te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tireni:

    • (38) I pa ki nga hapu katoa o Ngati Awa te raupatunga o nga whenua, tae rawa ki te hunga kaore rawa i atete ki te Karauna. Ko te otinga atu o tenei, me haere ra ano nga hapu o Ngati Awa ki mua i te aroaro o te Koti Utunga me etahi atu wahi, rapu ai kia whakahokia mai o ratou whenua:

    Nga Whakaritenga a Wilson me te Koti Utunga

    • (39) No te marama o Pepuere o te tau 1866, i mua o te noho a te Koti Utunga, ka whakaingoatia e te Karauna tana kaikomihana hira, a John A Wilson ki te whakarite i te toha o nga whenua i raupatutia i Te Moana o Toi. I uru atu a Wilson ki etahi korerorero me etahi o nga hapu mo te whakahokinga mai o etahi whenua. I whiwhia etahi o nga iwi o Te Arawa me etahi atu ki etahi toha mo a ratou kawe a-riri a, ko nga toha nei, mai i nga rohenga whenua o te taha hau-a-uru o te awa o Tarawera, ka taea te ki ka taka i roto i nga toha nei, ko te nuinga o nga whenua e kiia ana e Ngati Awa ko ona rohe o te taha hau-a-uru (he whenua enei e keremehia ana e etahi atu iwi). Kia taka ki te tau 1885, kua hokona ke e te Karauna te nuinga o te whenua nei. Ko te whakaritenga a Wilson, kia whakahokia a-whenua rahui nei te e 77 000 eka ki nga tangata takitahi o Ngati Awa. Koianei tenei tetahi wahanga o te 245 000 eka i murua tuatahitia i te tau 1866:

    • (40) I whakahaerehia nga mahi a Wilson i raro i nga wahanga o Te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tireni, 1863, tae rawa ki ana whakahounga. E whai mana ai ana whakaritenga, i whakamanatia ai e te Karauna etahi atu hanganga ture penei i Te Ture Whenua Raupatu 1867, Te Ture Hoko Whenua i Richmond 1870, Te Ture Whakamana Toha Whenua i Whakatane 1878, Te Ture Kereme Whenua Maori me Te Ture Whakamana Taitara o te tau 1894:

    • (41) Na Te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tireni 1863, ka whakaturia ai Te Koti Utunga ki te aha, ki te utu i nga tangata i raupatuhia o ratou whenua, ahakoa te mea kaore ratou i te hara. No te marama o Maehe o te tau 1867 i timata ai nga hui a te Koti i te rohe. Ko nga Kaiwhakawa ko William Mair raua ko Thomas Smith, ko raua tonu etahi o nga kaiarahi i nga ope taua a te Karauna i mua tonu o te raupatu. He maha nga wa, whakamanahia ai e te Koti nga whakaritenga a Wilson, ano nei he whakataunga i waho ake o te koti:

    • (42) Ko era tangata o Ngati Awa kaore i te pirangi whakatau kereme me Wilson, i whakatakoto kereme ke me te Koti; waihoki, ko era te hunga kaore i ahei ki te haere a-tinana ki te Koti ki te whai i a ratou kereme, tae tonu ki era te hunga i mauheretia i te tau 1866, i taka ki waho o enei whakaritenga. Hei etahi wa, na te tomuri o te tae o nga panui, me te tawhiti ki te haere ki nga nohanga a te Koti, tae rawa ki era nohanga i waho atu i te rohe o Ngati Awa, kaore te hunga whai panga e tae ake:

    • (43) Ahakoa te mau i herea nga kai-tono Maori ki nga whakahaere o Te Koti Utunga kei whiua ki waho, no te tau 1866 puta ai te whakamana tomuri a te Paremata e mea ana, kei te tika katoa nga mahi a te Koti, ahakoa te mea tera kaore i tutuki etahi o nga whakaritenga a-ture:

    • (44) No muri mai ka araitia e te hatepe utunga a Ngati Awa nga rohenga whenua ka taka ki roto i te raina raupatu me era whenua i te taha uru o te rohe o Ngati Awa ara, nga rohenga whenua o Matata 31, 39, me 63. Hui katoa e 50 000 eka te rahi o te whenua nei, a, ka taka te nuinga o te rohe whaka-te-uru e keremehia ana e Ngati Awa ki roto. Mo te take o Matata Lot 63, he nui nga korero i whakatakotoria e nga kaiwhakaatu o Ngati Awa ki mua i te aroaro o te Koti, a, i tautokongia aua korero e etahi o nga iwi o Te Arawa. Ahakoa tenei, i whiwhia e te koti aua whenua ki iwi ke ki hapu ke, ki etahi i whawhai mo te Karauna. Kaore he huarahi hoki atu ki te pira i nga whakatau a te koti:

    • (45) Na te tikanga utunga katahi ka pouri rawa atu te iwi o Ngati Awa mo nga mahi raupatu whenua. Kaore i te tino mohiotia ko wai te hunga e ahei ana ki te tono utunga i te Koti. Hei etahi wa tekau tau e taria ana katahi ano ka whiwhi ratou ki te putea Kawanatanga mo te whenua i whakahokia. I whiwhi etahi hapu ki nga whenua o hapu ke, ka mutu, ka mate nga hapu o Ngati Awa ki Whakatane ki te tiaki i nga tangata o hapu ke ki runga ki o ratou whenua, tae rawa ki era mai i te rohe o Matata i uru ki roto i nga pakanga o nga tau 1864 me 1865. He nui tonu te whenua poupou, koraha i whakaritea e Wilson hei whakahoki. Ina whakahokia nga whenua ma nga whakaritenga a Wilson, ma nga tikanga a te Koti Utunga ranei, ka whakahokia ke ki te tangata takitahi, apa te hapu, te iwi ranei. Kaore i whai wahi ki nga toha nei nga tikanga tuturu mo te whenua, a, morearea te noho a te whenua, kei hokona:

    • (46) I nga tau whai muri mai, kaore i aronuitia nga panga a Ngati Awa ki nga rohenga whenua i te taha hau-a-uru o te raina raupatu, i roto i nga toha a Te Koti Whenua Maori. Hei ta Ngati Awa, na runga i nga nekenekehanga o roto i nga tau mai i te 1865 ki te 1867, tae rawa ki nga whakataunga a Te Koti Utunga i taua wa, i raru ai a Ngati Awa i roto i nga kehi o muri mai a Te Koti Whenua Maori e pa ana ki nga rohenga whenua nei:

    Nga Mahi o Nga Ture Whenua Maori, Nga Hoko me etahi atu Wehewehenga o muri iho

    • (47) Whakaturia ai te Koti Whenua Maori i raro i nga Ture Whenua Maori o nga tau 1862 me 1865, ki te rapu ko wai te hunga no ratou nga whenua e ai ki te Tikanga Maori, ki te takahuri hoki i te mana tuturu mo te whenua, kia noho ko nga taitara a te Karauna ki runga i te whenua. I whakatahangia hoki te tika a te Karauna ki te hoko tuatahi i nga whenua o te Maori, e aha ai, e taea ai e te Maori te rihi, te hoko ranei i ona whenua, kaore he nui o nga here. Kaore i nui nga whakawhitiwhiti korero i waenganui i te Karauna me te Maori i mua o te whakamanatanga o te ture nei, kaore hoki ia i ata korero ki a Ngati Awa; he pera te ahua o enei mea i te tekau tau 1860. I tenei wa, kaore he waha korero mo te Maori i roto i te Paremata. Na reira ko to Ngati Awa whakaaro, he mea uhi ke e tetahi atu tenei tikanga tiaki whenua ki runga i a ratou:

    • (48) I te tekau tau o 1870, i whakahaua nga apiha hoko whenua ki te hoko whenua i te rohe o Rangitaiki, a, hei etahi wa, ka whakarite rihi, ka whakawhiti whenua ratou i mua o te haria o te whenua ki mua i te aroaro o Te Koti Whenua Maori kia ata rangahauatia te taitara. I nga tekau tau 1870, 1880 me 1890, whakatakotohia ai e Ngati Awa ana kereme ki etahi whenua i te taha tonga o te raina raupatu. Kaore i tautokona e te Koti a ratou tono mo nga rohenga whenua i Ruatoki me Kaingaroa. I roto i tenei wa, whakawhiwhia ai etahi hapu o Ngati Awa ki etahi panga whenua i nga rohenga whenua o Pokohu, Putauaki, Matahina, Waiohau me Tuararangaia. I te nuinga o te wa, i tukuna e te Koti etahi wahanga o nga rohenga whenua nei ki iwi ke, ahakoa te mea hei ta Ngati Awa, no ratou ake te whenua. No muri ke, ma te hanganga ture, ka whakahaua e te Koti kia whakarongohia ano nga korero mo etahi o nga rohenga whenua. Ko te otinga atu o tenei, i riro atu etahi o nga whenua i tukuna tuatahitia ki a Ngati Awa i Pokohu me Matahina:

    • (49) No muri o tetahi rangahau taitara i te tau 1881, whakawhiwhia a Ngati Awa ki te e 79 000 eka i roto i te rohenga o Matahina. No te tau 1884 rongohia ano nga korero, a, ko te hua o tera, i whakaitia te korahi o te rohenga ki te e 74 300 eka. E 8 500 eka o tenei rahi i tangohia e te Karauna e ea ai nga utu ruri. I whakawhiwhia e Te Koti Whenua Maori nga panga ki nga tangata takitahi, a, ahakoa i pupuritia nga whenua mo tetahi wa i runga i nga okeoke a Ngati Awa kia pupuria, kia tae ki te rau tau e 20, kua maro ke te haere o te wehewehe whenua ki nga tangata takitahi. Ko te hua o tenei, i noho kongakonga noa nga whenua, i maha nga hokohoko whenua i te wahanga tomuri o te rau tau e 19 me te wahanga tomua o te rau tau e 20. Kia taka ki te tau 1980, e 240 eka anake te rahi o te panga whenua o Ngati Awa ki roto i Matahina A1D1. He mate nui ki te iwi o Ngati Awa tenei te rironga atu o te rohenga nei, a, kei roto i te waiata Tangi mo Matahina e whakaata ana te mamae:

    • (50) Ko Putauaki te tipuna maunga o nga tangata katoa o Ngati Awa. I tauwehea a Putauaki e te raina raupatu, nawai a no te tau 1867, ka tukuna ai te taha whaka-te-raki o te maunga e Te Koti Utunga ki a Te Pahipoto raua ko Nga Maihi. Ko te wahanga whaka-te-tonga o te maunga i roto ke i te rohenga whenua e kiia nei ko Putauaki. I te tau 1879 i tu tetahi whakaritenga -- me ana tikanga - i waenganui i nga apiha hoko a te Karauna me etahi o Ngati Awa kia hokona te rohenga whenua, engari no te tau 1881 katahi ano te rohenga whenua nei ka rangahaua e Te Koti Whenua Maori. I tukuna e te Koti te whenua ki a Ngati Awa, a ka tono te iwi kia rahui motuhaketia te whenua. Waihoki, i te hipanga o nga ra e tekau, i runga hoki i te tono a etahi rangatira tokorua o Ngati Awa, ara, a Rangitukehu raua ko Penetito, i wehea e te Koti te rohenga whenua ki nga wahanga e toru. Ko te rohenga whenua nui rawa atu, i tukuna ki etahi tangata takitahi e 15, a, hokona wawetia e ratou ki te Karauna. Kaore e tino maha nga ra whai muri, e 27 nga tane, wahine, tamariki hoki i petihana ki te Minita mo Nga Take Maori mo te mahi tauwehe i te rohenga whenua nei. No muri ke ka tono te hunga na ratou te whenua i hoko ki te Karauna, kia whakahokia tenei me etahi atu rohenga whenua, a, ko te utu mo tenei, ko te moni i homaihia mo te hoko i te whenua i te tuatahi, engari kaore te Karauna i whakaae. Ko te iti noa o te rohenga whenua i mahue mai, tae rawa ki te maunga, i tukuna ki etahi tangata takitahi mai i Ngati Awa me etahi atu iwi. Na enei mahi whakatakitahi i te mana whenua, ka ngaro noa i te iwi enei whenua. He whakamau nui ta Ngati Awa, mo te rironga atu o Putauaki ma nga tikanga rereke i nga rau tau tekau ma iwa, ma tekau hoki:

    • (51) I tua atu, kua riro etahi whenua o Ngati Awa penei i nga rohenga whenua i Rangitaiki, Poroporo-Rewatu, Matahina, Whakatane, me Matata ma nga hanganga ture mahi tumatanui o te rau tau rua tekau. He wahi tapu, he urupa, he papakainga i runga i etahi o nga whenua i riro:

    • (52) Mai i te tau 1867, kua rapu a Ngati Awa i te tika, mo nga he i mahia ki te iwi e te Karauna. He maha nga petihana a Ngati Awa ki te Karauna mo nga raupatu, nga mauheretanga, me te rironga atu o nga whenua i roto i te wa roa. I tae te kaupapa a Ngati Awa ki mua i te aroaro o te Komihana Sim i te tau 1927, a, kaore i tautokongia e te Komihana te kaupapa whanui a Ngati Awa. Haunga tera, i kite te Komihana, paku noa iho te whenua i tohaina ki a Ngai Te Rangihouhiri II raua ko Ngati Hikakino. No muri mai ka tangohia ai tetahi wahanga o te whenua nei i raro i Te Ture Mahi Tumatanui, a, i te mutunga, i toe mai ki nga hapu nei ko etahi whenua titohea anake, e kore e puta he oranga. I tutohu te Komihana ki te toha i etahi whenua i Matata, engari kaore tenei tutohu i puawai:

    • (53) I runga i nga tutohinga o te Komihana Sim, whiwhi ai etahi atu iwi ki etahi utunga a-tau mai i te Karauna, a, whakaturia ai etahi Poari mo etahi iwi raupatu, hunga ano a Ngati Awa:

    Background

    • (2) Recitals (3) to (53) of this Preamble present, in summary form, the background to the Ngati Awa historical claims that is set out in the deed of settlement entered into by Ngati Awa and the Crown:

    Background to settlement

    • (3) Since the time of the raupatu in 1866, Ngati Awa has sought redress for its grievances against the Crown including the confiscation of land from Ngati Awa. The responsibility for seeking redress for breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) has passed through many generations of Ngati Awa men and women. Following the petitions and representations of the late 19th century, the 1920s, and up to the 1960s, the next significant effort occurred in 1980 with the establishment of the Ngati Awa Trust Board at the Ngati Hikakino marae, Puawairua by the hapu and kaumatua of Ngati Awa including Eruera Manuera, Hare Reneti, Aniheta Ratene, and Matarena Reneti. The hapu of Ngati Awa established the Trust Board to progress various issues on behalf of the iwi and in particular, to seek redress for the raupatu (including the loss of land, dislocation of hapu, and loss of rangatiratanga), the restoration of Mataatua wharenui, the return of the Ngati Awa station, and the return of Putauaki. These principal goals of the Trust Board were encapsulated by Aniheta Ratene in the phrase the bed, the blanket and the pillow—the bed symbolized the lands confiscated from Ngati Awa, the blanket represented the Ngati Awa station and the pillow embodied the Ngati Awa claims to Kawerau:

    • (4) In 1988, following an amendment to the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 to allow hearing of claims back to 1840, Ngati Awa lodged its claim with the Waitangi Tribunal to investigate its Treaty grievances. In 1988 the Crown, in accordance with its policy of devolution to iwi authorities and at the request of Ngati Awa, enacted Te Runanga o Ngati Awa Act 1988 establishing the Runanga. This included a statutory pardon for those members of Ngati Awa involved in the events of 1865:

    • (5) In 1990 the Crown transferred the Ngati Awa station to Te Runanga o Ngati Awa. The Crown also made payments totalling $200,000 to Te Runanga o Ngati Awa in 1988 and 1990. In 1994, the Crown transferred the Whakatane Telecom site at an agreed value of $390,000 to Ngati Awa. Ngati Awa has always regarded these returns as part settlement of its raupatu claims against the Crown:

    • (6) On 4 July 1994, Ngati Awa finally began its Waitangi Tribunal case at Te Whare o Toroa Marae in Whakatane. Ngati Awa presented its claims at hearings at Kokohinau Marae in Te Teko and Umutahi Marae in Matata, completing the process at Te Whare o Toroa on 1 December 1995:

    • (7) In May 1995, the Waitangi Tribunal issued a memorandum observing that, although the Crown had yet to be heard, Ngati Awa had demonstrated significant and compelling claims that were likely to require substantial compensation from the Crown to remedy past breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi). This point was previously made by the Waitangi Tribunal in its memorandum in November 1994:

    • (8) A mandate protocol between the hapu, the Runanga, and the negotiators was prepared and discussed at an annual general meeting in 1996 and at subsequent hui of the Runanga during that year. This was followed by further hui and consultations to confirm the mandate of the negotiators. Cabinet recognised the mandate in October 1996:

    • (9) On 21 December 1998, following 3 years of discussions and negotiations the Crown and Te Runanga o Ngati Awa entered into a heads of agreement. This recorded on a without prejudice basis the matters which they had agreed in principle should be contained in a deed of settlement to effect a settlement of Ngati Awa' s historical claims, and their agreement to negotiate in good faith to settle the terms of the deed of settlement:

    • (10) On 8 October 1999, the Waitangi Tribunal completed its report entitled The Ngati Awa Raupatu Report. The principal findings of the Tribunal were that the confiscation of the lands of Ngati Awa was contrary to the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi), that there was no rebellion to justify confiscation, and that confiscation as effected against Ngati Awa appears to have been beyond the authority of the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863:

    • (11) The Tribunal also found that it was contrary to the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) that the return of lands and reserves was not effected by a fair and open process; that Ngati Awa's exclusion from the lands to the west of the confiscation line was an additional retribution for their perceived rebellion; that tribal land was converted to individual shareholding and tribal authority was therefore removed and the land was exposed to alienation. The Tribunal also concluded that the claims of Ngati Awa should be settled by the Crown through Te Runanga o Ngati Awa. While the Crown did not present evidence to the Tribunal and does not necessarily agree with all the findings made by the Waitangi Tribunal, the Crown had acknowledged that the confiscation against Ngati Awa constituted an injustice and was therefore in breach of the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi):

    • (12) In the meantime, the Crown and Ngati Awa were unable to reach agreement on the basis of the 1998 offer. The Crown made a revised settlement offer in 2000:

    • (13) The Crown and Te Runanga o Ngati Awa initialled a deed on 8 July 2002. Ngati Awa ratified the Crown's settlement offer and entered into a deed of settlement on 27 March 2003 recording matters to give effect to a full and final settlement of all Ngati Awa's historical claims:

    Return of Mataatua wharenui

    • (14) In the early 1870s the people of Ngati Awa undertook the construction at Whakatane of a carved meetinghouse, Mataatua. Construction of Mataatua was completed at the beginning of 1875. In 1879 Mataatua was sent by the Crown for exhibition at the Inter-colonial Exhibition in Sydney, Australia. In 1880 the house was sent to Melbourne, then to London to be exhibited. Mataatua returned to New Zealand in 1924 for the South Seas Exhibition in Dunedin. The Crown agreed to allow the University Museum in Otago to exhibit the meeting-house on permanent loan. Ngati Awa has always maintained that it did not transfer title to Mataatua and sought the return of the meeting-house to Whakatane. In August 1996 Ngati Awa and the Crown signed a deed of settlement to return Mataatua to Ngati Awa. This agreement included a Crown payment of $2 million for the costs of transporting and establishing Mataatua Wharenui at Whakatane:

    Historical account

    • (15) The apology from the Crown to Ngati Awa is based on the following historical account:

    Rohe of Ngati Awa

    • (16) Ngati Awa claim that prior to 1866 they exercised tino rangatiratanga as tangata whenua from time to time over their rohe including: the islands of Motiti, the Rurima group, Moutohora (Whale Island), Paepae o Aotea (Volkner Rocks), Whakari (White Island), Ohakana, and Uretara (both the latter 2 islands being situated in Ohiwa Harbour); the seas from Waihi Estuary near Maketu to Ohiwa Harbour; the land, forests, lakes, rivers, and swamps bounded to the north by the coastline from Waihi Estuary to Ohiwa, to the west from the Waihi Estuary along the Pongakawa River to Lake Rotoehu (including the lake itself and the Rotoehu Forest), from Lake Rotoehu to Te Haehaenga, and including Lake Rotoma to the Pokohu, Tuararangaia, and Matahina lands to the south and from there to Ohiwa Harbour:

    • (17) Places of historical and cultural significance to Ngati Awa include: the mountains called Putauaki at Kawerau (Mt Edgecumbe), Whakapaukorero at Matata and Maunga Whakamana at Te Haehaenga, the hill called Te Tiringa at Awakeri, and Koohi Point at Whakatane; the rivers Whakatane, Orini, Rangitaiki, Tarawera, Waitahanui, and the Waikowhewhe and Pongakawa Streams; the Rangitaiki swamp and wetlands; the forests at Rotoehu, Matahina, Kiwinui, Omataroa, Tarawera, and Manawahe; the lakes Rotoehu, Rotoma, Kawerau, Te Tahuna, Roto-Onerahi, Rotoiti Paku, Onepu, and Rotoroa; the thermal areas at Kawerau, Awakeri, Moutohora, and Whakari; the harbours at Ohiwa and Whakatane; and the estuaries at Waihi, Te Awa a Te Atua at Matata, and Whakatane:

    • (18) Ngati Awa land and resources were held in customary tenure where tribal and hapu collective custodianship remained paramount. In the exercise of their rangatiratanga the chiefs of Ngati Awa ensured that very little land within the Ngati Awa rohe was permanently alienated prior to the confiscation:

    • (19) Further, Ngati Awa claim that in 1865 they were essentially autonomous, economically prosperous, and actively engaged in trade and commerce. They produced and sold commodities such as pigs, flax, vegetables, wheat, timber, and potatoes and were involved in a range of commercial activities including flour milling and merchant shipping. Ngati Awa also used commodities such as red ochre, mutton-birds, and the resources of the sea for customary trade with other iwi:

    New Zealand Settlements Act 1863

    • (20) In 1863, the Crown enacted three important pieces of legislation, the Suppression of Rebellion Act, the New Zealand Loan Act, and the New Zealand Settlements Act, the last of which provided for the confiscation of Maori land whenever the Governor in Council was satisfied that any native tribe, or section of tribe or any considerable number thereof, had been engaged in rebellion against the authority of the Queen. More particularly, the Act was passed into law to provide permanent protection and security of the well-disposed Inhabitants of both races for the prevention of future insurrection or rebellion and for the establishment and maintenance of Her Majesty's authority in Law and Order throughout the Colony. In order to achieve those two broad ends, the Crown proposed introducing settlers into the regions by confiscating land and allotting or selling it to military and other settlers. The returns from the sales of land to settlers were also intended to recoup the Crown's costs of the wars against Maori:

    • (21) The British Colonial Office had misgivings about the scope and application of the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863, considering it capable of great abuse. When initially considering the proposal to confiscate lands the Colonial Secretary cautioned the Governor to respect the lands of innocent people and tribes and to apportion the measure of punishment to the degree of guilt. When it later considered the confiscation legislation, the British Colonial Office continued to express serious reservations about the use of the Act and its duration but allowed it to remain in operation because final authority for any confiscation remained with the Governor. The Colonial Secretary instructed the Governor to withhold his consent to any confiscation which was not just and moderate:

    Te Kaokaoroa

    • (22) In 1864, according to the traditions of Ngati Awa, certain hapu of Ngati Awa, including Te Patutatahi, Ngati Hikakino, Ngai Te Rangihouhiri II, and some members of Te Tawera and others joined a combined force of various Mataatua and related iwi which came to be known as the Tai Rawhiti force. This force was destined for the Waikato region to lend assistance to the Waikato tribes who were resisting the unjust invasion of their lands by Crown and colonial forces. It was prevented from travelling through the Rotorua region by a Te Arawa prohibition on armed parties moving through its territory. A number of Te Arawa iwi had sought, and gained, Crown support in this undertaking. A Tai Rawhiti party fought against various Te Arawa iwi in February 1864 at Rotoiti which resulted in loss of life. However, part of this group did proceed to Orakau, in the Waikato region:

    • (23) The Tai Rawhiti force made a second attempt to break through at the Waihi estuary, Maketu, in April 1864. Certain Te Arawa iwi, supported by Crown warships and military personnel, repulsed the force. The fighting culminated in the battle of Te Kaokaoroa where Ngati Awa, particularly Ngati Hikakino and Ngai Te Rangihouhiri II, and allied hapu and iwi suffered numerous casualties. Several key chiefs of Ngati Awa were among those lost:

    James Te Mautaranui Fulloon

    • (24) In late 1864, Kereopa, Horomona, and Patara, prophets of Pai Marire, arrived in the Whakatane region and persuaded a number of Ngati Awa to join Pai Marire. In March 1865, the Reverend Carl Volkner, a missionary living in Opotiki, was killed by local Maori some of whom were influenced by Pai Marire. On 6 March 1865, Ngati Awa chiefs at Whakatane expressed strong disapproval of the killing, but also stated that the Crown should not come through their territory while apprehending those responsible for killing Volkner. No military force was authorised by the Government to pursue Volkner's killers through Ngati Awa territory:

    • (25) In February 1865, after a series of runanga, certain chiefs of Ngati Awa met at Whakatane and resolved to place an aukati (customary prohibitive measure) about their territory to prevent encroachment into their rohe. Then in July 1865, following a series of hui at Tauaroa and Matata, the Pai Marire prophet Horomona and certain Ngati Awa chiefs who sup-ported him declared a second aukati. This aukati ran from Cape Runaway in the east to Taranaki in the west. On 19 or 20 July 1865, the Maruiwi, a Te Arawa trading vessel, arrived at Whakatane. The vessel was seized for breaching the Pai Marire aukati and its crew was held at Whakatane. On 22 July 1865, the Kate, carrying Crown official James Fulloon and others, arrived at Whakatane. Fulloon, of Ngati Awa descent, and three of the crew were killed on board by Ngati Awa supporters of Pai Marire. Wepiha Apanui of the Whakatane section of Ngati Awa then arranged for the burial of his first cousin Hemi (James) Fulloon. There are various explanations for Fulloon' s death; Ngati Awa attribute Fulloon' s death to his breach of the aukati. These events evoked various reactions among the hapu of Ngati Awa:

    The warrant

    • (26) On 2 August 1865, T H Smith, as Civil Commissioner at Maketu, issued a warrant for the arrest of those persons alleged to have been responsible for killing Fulloon and others:

    • (27) The people who were subject to the warrant were:

      Te Hura Te TaiwhakaripiHaki Waihou
      Te Pitoiwi Te PutareraTe Hemara Tukairangi
      Hakaraia TohoraTure Te Matutaera
      Te Aka o Tau Te HuraParaharaha
      Te Metera Te TiiRaniera Te Werotokotoko
      Hepeta Te TaiHaki Tukino
      KorimanaEria Te Hakona
      Horomona PoropitiHeahea Te Pakihiwi
      Utuku Te RangiHohepa Te Ra
      Te Meihana Te TawaTawhaki
      Te WetiniRaureti
      Tamati o Ngati HokoHunia Marupo
      Mohi Te PaohiPanapa Rangirewaia
      TuririHakopa Tupika
      Hawera Te HihiraPetera Moki
      Te HekaraPakiuru
       Hohua Karipipi:
    • (28) In August 1865, a Crown force of some 500 men was formed. It was drawn primarily from certain neighbouring iwi and hapu, many of whom were the traditional foes of Ngati Awa and who had been involved in the battle at Te Kaokaoroa. The Crown force, under the command of Major William Mair, Resident Magistrate, entered the rohe of Ngati Awa to execute the arrest warrant. The purpose of this expedition was explained to Te Hura Te Taiwhakaripi, a Ngati Awa chief, in mid-August. The Crown force was involved in skirmishes with Ngati Awa in which some people were killed. Cattle, horses, and other Ngati Awa property were seized and kainga, wharenui, pataka, and waka were destroyed. This force laid siege to Ngati Awa pa at Whakatane, Matata, and Te Teko to which Te Hura and his force had retreated:

    • (297) On 2 September 1865, the Crown issued a Proclamation of Peace declaring that the war, which had begun at Oakura in Taranaki in 1863, was at an end. The Proclamation of Peace stated that those who had been in arms against the Crown would not be prosecuted for past offences, but excluded those responsible for the killing of Fulloon. The Proclamation stated that if those responsible for the killing of Fulloon were not given up to the Governor then the Crown would take parts of the lands of those tribes who concealed the murderers. It also called for Maori assistance in stopping all future acts of violence and declared an intention to consult with the great Chiefs about the best means for Maori to be represented in the General Assembly so that they could help make the laws they were called on to obey:

    • (30) On 4 September 1865, the Governor issued a proclamation of martial law in the areas of Whakatane and Opotiki to enable the capture of those accused of the murder of Fulloon and others through the use of military force and to enable them to be tried by court martial. Martial law was to operate in the areas from that time until duly revoked and the proclamation implied that the Crown forces could act as a military force. Both these proclamations appeared in the New Zealand Gazette on 5 September 1865. It is unclear, however, when Ngati Awa became aware of these proclamations:

    Te Kupenga

    • (31) There was an increase in Crown military activity at the end of September. This culminated in 3 days of fighting at Te Kupenga Pa, Te Teko. Eventually, on 20 October 1865, those Ngati Awa hapu under the leadership of Te Hura Te Taiwhakaripi surrendered at Te Kupenga. They included Te Tawera, Warahoe, Ngai Te Rangihouhiri II, Te Patutatahi, Ngati Hikakino, and others. Over 30 men, including most of those Ngati Awa named in the warrant and some others, were placed under arrest and transported to Opotiki for trial by courts martial in November 1865 for the killing of Fulloon and other charges. The courts martial found many of the accused guilty and sentenced them to death:

    Trials

    • (32) On 23 December 1865 James Prendergast, the Attorney-General, provided an opinion on the trial by court martial of the prisoners taken at Opotiki. Prendergast determined that martial law was in no way recognised by the law. As a consequence the Governor then ordered that the Ngati Awa accused be transported to Auckland to be tried again, this time before the Supreme Court for murder and other charges. The 35 Ngati Awa accused were all represented by a single legal counsel:

    • (33) The following men were charged with piracy and the murders of Fulloon and seaman Ned on board the Kate: Mikaere Kirimangu, Te Hekara, Himone te Auru, Paraharaha, Hoani Poururu, Hoani Hupe, Utuku te Rangi, Te Aka o Tau te Hura, Hunia Marupo, Haki Waihou, Haki Tukino, Tamati o Ngati Hoko, Tio Wahu, Hawera te Hihira, Heahea te Pakihiwi, and Raniera te Werotokotoko. Three of these men were found innocent on the piracy charge but all were found guilty of murder. Ten other men were charged with being accessories before the fact to the murders. They were Te Hura Te Tai, Te Pitoiwi Te Putarera, Hepeta Te Tai, Horomona Poropiti, Mohi Te Paohi, Te Hemara, Hakaraia Tohora, Te Uwhi Te Haraki, Kereama Toitoi, and Ture Te Matutaera. Six men were also charged with receiving stolen goods from the Kate. By 23 March 1866, all those tried before the Court were found guilty on at least 1 charge and were sentenced to execution or imprisonment. Mikaere Kirimangu and Horomona Poropiti (Taranaki) were executed for the murder of Fulloon on 17 May 1866. Eleven of the men sentenced to death had their sentences commuted to life imprisonment and the other death sentences were commuted to between 4 and 14 years' penal servitude. Those charged with receiving stolen goods were sentenced to 3 years' hard labour. In 1867 and 1868 pardons were issued to some of these men but most served out their terms. Three men died while in prison, namely Tamati o Ngati Hoko (1 August 1866), Hepeta Te Tai (26 November 1866), and Paraharaha (18 December 1866). Those who died in prison were interred without ceremony in the prison grounds. After regular requests over the generations their remains were released for reinterment with their families in 1988:

    • (34) Ngati Awa say that many of those who were eventually released were unable to return to their homes in Whakatane and Matata because of the shame they felt as a consequence of their imprisonment and the confiscation. They lived in the King Country with Te Kooti Rikirangi under the protection of Ngati Maniapoto. Most of them died and were buried outside of the rohe of Ngati Awa but were eventually exhumed and reinterred at Ohuirehe Urupa near Whakatane by Te Kooti Rikirangi and his followers in 1885:

    Confiscation

    • (35) By Orders in Council on 17 January and 1 September 1866, approximately 448 000 acres of land was proclaimed to be confiscated under the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863 as a consequence of Bay of Plenty tribes being deemed by the Crown to have been in rebellion. The Act did not mention punishment but was punitive in nature:

    • (36) The boundaries of the confiscated area were:

      All that land bounded by a line commencing at the mouth of the Waitahanui River, Bay of Plenty, and running due south for a distance of 20 miles; then to the summit of (Mt Edgecombe) Putanaki, thence by a straight line in an easterly direction to a point 11 miles due south from the entrance to the Ohiwa Harbour, thence by a line running due east for 25 miles; thence by a line to the mouth of the Aparapara River and thence following the coastline to the point of commencement at Waitahanui.

    • (37) Within the area covered by the proclamation Ngati Awa had approximately 245 000 acres of its land confiscated in 1866. This was indiscriminate in that the lands taken greatly exceeded the minimum necessary for achieving the purposes of the New Zealand Settlements Act:

    • (38) The confiscation of land affected all Ngati Awa hapu, including many hapu who had never been engaged in any conflict with the Crown. The result was that all of the hapu of Ngati Awa then had to go through the Compensation Court and other processes to seek the return of their land:

    Wilson's arrangements and the Compensation Court

    • (39) In February 1866, prior to the sitting of the Compensation Court, the Crown appointed a special commissioner, John A Wilson, to deal with the allocation of confiscated lands in the Bay of Plenty. Wilson was involved in making arrangements with various hapu for the return of land. Military awards for services rendered were made to certain Te Arawa iwi and other tribes from the 87 000 acre blocks west of the Tarawera River, which included the bulk of the area Ngati Awa claim as their western rohe (other iwi also claim an interest in this area). By 1885 the Crown had purchased most of this land. Wilson's arrangements provided for the return of approximately 77 000 acres awarded to Ngati Awa individuals in the form of reserves. This land was part of the 245 000 acres originally confiscated from the iwi in 1866:

    • (40) Wilson's activities were carried out under the provisions of the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863 and its amendments. In order to validate his arrangements, the Crown then enacted further legislation including the Confiscated Lands Act 1867, the Richmond Land Sales Act 1870, the Whakatane Grants Validation Act 1878, and the Native Land Claims and Boundaries Adjustments and Titles Empowering Act 1894:

    • (41) The Compensation Court was established by the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863 to compensate anyone who had suffered land confiscation when they had not been in rebellion. The Court began its hearings in the region in March 1867. The presiding judges were William Mair and Thomas Smith, both of whom played important roles in either leading or directing the Crown's expeditionary force prior to confiscation. In many cases, the Court validated Wilson's arrangements as out of court settlements:

    • (42) Those Ngati Awa not wishing to settle with Wilson filed claims with the Court but those who could not attend the Court to pursue their claims, especially those who had been imprisoned in 1866, were inevitably excluded. In several cases non-attendance at court hearings was due to inadequate notice, the inability of claimants to attend and hearings being held outside of the rohe of Ngati Awa:

    • (43) Although Maori claimants were required to comply with Compensation Court processes or be excluded, in 1866 Parliament retrospectively declared the Court's own actions and proceedings to be valid and beyond judicial scrutiny, even if statutory requirements had not been met:

    • (44) Ngati Awa were subsequently excluded by the compensation process from those blocks falling within the confiscation line and the western part of the Ngati Awa rohe, namely Matata Lots 31, 39, and 63. These lands comprised an area in excess of 50 000 acres and made up the bulk of the western rohe claimed by Ngati Awa. In the case of Matata Lot 63 Ngati Awa witnesses gave a large amount of evidence and were supported by members of certain Te Arawa iwi. Despite this, the Court awarded this lot to another iwi who had given military service to the Crown. There was no provision for appeal from the decisions of the Court:

    • (45) The compensation process and its outcomes added to the upheaval and distress of the people of Ngati Awa about the confiscation. There was uncertainty about who was entitled to claim compensation from the Court. It often took up to 10 years before a Crown grant was issued for the land returned. Some hapu received land that was previously occupied by other hapu and the Whakatane section of Ngati Awa also had to accept members of other hapu onto their lands, including those from the Matata region who had been more directly involved in the battles of 1864 and 1865. A large proportion of the land that Wilson had arranged for return was mountainous, barren country. Once land was restored either through Wilson's arrangements or the Compensation Court process, it was returned to individuals rather than to the hapu and iwi. The awards did not reflect customary forms of land tenure and the land became more susceptible to sale:

    • (46) In future years Ngati Awa's interests in the blocks to the west of the confiscation line were not recognised in the awards of the Native Land Court. Ngati Awa consider that, because of the events of 1865 to 1867, including the determinations of the Compensation Court, they were prejudiced in later Native Land Court cases involving these blocks:

    The operations of the native land laws, subsequent purchases, and other alienations

    • (47) The Native Land Court was established under the Native Land Acts of 1862 and 1865 to determine the owners of Maori land according to Native Custom and to convert customary title into title derived from the Crown. The Crown's pre-emptive right of land purchase was also set aside, enabling Maori to lease and sell their lands with few restrictions. As was often the case in the 1860s, there was limited consultation concerning this legislation, and the Crown did not specifically consult Ngati Awa. Maori had no direct representation in Parliament at this time. Ngati Awa therefore considers that this change in the land tenure system was imposed on them:

    • (48) In the 1870s Crown land purchase agents were instructed to purchase land in the Rangitaiki area and sometimes negotiated leases and deeds of transfer prior to the land being taken to the Native Land Court for title investigation. During the 1870s, 1880s, and 1890s Ngati Awa made claims to lands south of the confiscation line. Their claims to Ruatoki and Kaingaroa blocks were not upheld by the Court. The Native Land Court awarded Ngati Awa hapu interests in the Pokohu, Putauaki, Matahina, Waiohau, and Tuararangaia blocks over this period. In most cases the Court also awarded parts of these land blocks, regarded by Ngati Awa as theirs, to other iwi. The Crown later ordered rehearings into some of the blocks by way of legislation. As a result, Ngati Awa lost some of the land they had originally been awarded at Pokohu and Matahina:

    • (49) The Court awarded Ngati Awa approximately 79 000 acres in the Matahina block after a title investigation hearing in 1881. A rehearing was held in 1884 and Ngati Awa were awarded a reduced area of approximately 74 300 acres. An area of 8 500 acres of this was immediately taken by the Crown in payment of a survey lien. Native Land Court awards were made in the names of individuals and while Ngati Awa managed to retain most of the land awarded to them for some time, the process of individualising and partitioning of interests accelerated in the 20th century. This resulted in substantial fragmentation and as a consequence many private sales occurred throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries. By 1980 Ngati Awa's interests in the Matahina block had been reduced to 240 acres in Matahina A1D1. Ngati Awa consider the loss of this block a significant grievance, which is encapsulated in the waiata Tangi mo Matahina:

    • (50) Putauaki is the tipuna maunga of all Ngati Awa. Putauaki was bisected by the confiscation boundary and, consequently, the northern portion of the maunga was awarded to Te Pahipoto and Nga Maihi by the Compensation Court in 1867. The southern portion of the maunga was within the Putauaki block. An agreement for the sale of the block, subject to conditions, was arranged between Crown purchase agents and some Ngati Awa in 1879 but title to the block was not investigated by the Native Land Court until 1881. The Court awarded the block to Ngati Awa and the iwi requested the land be made inalienable. Ten days later, however, on a request from 2 Ngati Awa chiefs, Rangitukehu and Penetito, the Court divided the block into 3 parts. The largest block was vested in 15 individuals and immediately sold to the Crown. Within days, 27 Ngati Awa men, women, and children petitioned the Native Minister protesting the alienation of the block. Those involved in the sale later requested that the Crown return this and other blocks in exchange for a refund of the purchase money but the Crown did not agree. The remainder of the block, which included the maunga, was awarded to various individuals of Ngati Awa and other iwi and ceased to be a tribal asset as a consequence of this process of individualisation. Ngati Awa consider the alienation of Putauaki through various processes in the 19th and 20th centuries to be a significant grievance:

    • (51) Ngati Awa also lost land through acquisitions under public works legislation in the 20th century, including blocks in the Rangitaiki, Poroporo-Rewatu, Matahina, Whakatane, and Matata areas. There were urupa, other wahi tapu, and papakainga on some of the lands taken:

    • (52) Ngati Awa have sought justice for the wrongs inflicted on the iwi by the Crown since 1867. Numerous petitions were sent to the Crown relating to the confiscations, imprisonments, and the loss of land over many generations. Ngati Awa's case was heard before the Sim Commission in 1927 but the Commission did not find in favour of the general Ngati Awa claim. The Commission did, however, find that Ngai Te Rangihouhiri H and Ngati Hikakino had been granted only a small area of land. This was later depleted by a taking under public works legislation and as a result these hapu were left with poor quality land which was insufficient to support them. The Commission recommended the award of some land at Matata, but this never eventuated:

    • (53) As a result of the recommendations of the Sim Commission other iwi had annuities paid to them by the Crown, and Trust Boards were established for some raupatu iwi, but not for Ngati Awa:

The Parliament of New Zealand therefore enacts as follows: