Ngāti Awa Claims Settlement Act 2005

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Reprint as at 23 May 2008

Ngāti Awa Claims Settlement Act 2005

Public Act2005 No 28
Date of assent24 March 2005
Commencementsee section 2


Changes authorised by section 17C of the Acts and Regulations Publication Act 1989 have been made in this reprint.

A general outline of these changes is set out in the notes at the end of this reprint, together with other explanatory material about this reprint.

This Act is administered by the Ministry of Justice.


1 Title

2 Commencement

Part 1
Acknowledgements and apology by the Crown to Ngāti Awa, and preliminary provisions

3 Purpose

4 Act binds the Crown

5 Outline

6 Acknowledgements and apology

7 Text of acknowledgements in Māori—He Whakaaetanga na te Karauna

8 Text of acknowledgements in English

9 Text of apology in Māori—Ko te Whakapāha a te Karauna

10 Text of apology in English

Part 2

11 Interpretation of Act generally

12 Interpretation

13 Meaning of Ngāti Awa

14 Meaning of Ngāti Awa historical claims

Part 3
Settlement of historical claims and miscellaneous matters

Subpart 1Settlement of historical claims

Jurisdiction of courts, etc, removed

15 Settlement of Ngāti Awa historical claims final

Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 amended

16 Jurisdiction of Tribunal to consider claims [Repealed]

Protections no longer apply

17 Certain enactments do not apply

18 Removal of resumptive memorials

Subpart 2Miscellaneous matters


19 Rule against perpetuities

Date when actions or matters must occur

20 Timing of actions or matters

Part 4
Cultural redress

Subpart 1Protocols

General provisions

21 Authority to issue, amend, or cancel protocols

22 Protocols subject to the Crown's obligations

23 Enforceability of protocols

24 Limitation of rights

Noting of certain protocols

25 Noting of DOC protocol

26 Noting of fisheries protocol

Subpart 2Cultural redress properties

Vesting of cultural redress properties

27 Interpretation

28 Kohi Point Walkway

29 Kāpūterangi

30 Te Paripari Pā

31 Otitapu Pā

32 Te Toangapoto

33 Te Ihukatia

34 Whakapaukorero

35 Former Matahina A4 Block

36 Intermediate vesting of certain land in Crown

Provisions relating to vesting of cultural redress properties

37 Vesting subject to encumbrances

38 Registration of ownership

39 Application of other enactments

Subpart 3Statutory acknowledgements and deeds of recognition

Statutory acknowledgements

40 Statutory acknowledgements by the Crown

41 Purposes of statutory acknowledgements

42 Consent authorities must have regard to statutory acknowledgements

43 Environment Court to have regard to statutory acknowledgements

44 Historic Places Trust and Environment Court to have regard to statutory acknowledgements

45 Recording statutory acknowledgements on statutory plans

46 Distribution of resource consent applications to Ngāti Awa governance entity

47 Use of statutory acknowledgement

Deeds of recognition

48 Authorisation to enter into and amend deeds of recognition

49 Purpose of deed of recognition

50 Termination of deeds of recognition

51 Crown management

Application of statutory acknowledgements and deeds of recognition in relation to rivers

52 Statutory acknowledgements in relation to rivers

53 Deeds of recognition for rivers

General provisions

54 Crown not precluded from granting other statutory acknowledgements or deeds of recognition

55 Exercise of powers, duties, and functions not affected

56 Rights not affected

57 Limitation of rights

Amendment to Resource Management Act 1991

58 Amendment to Resource Management Act 1991

Subpart 4Joint advisory committee for Matata Scenic Reserve, Whakapaukorero, and Te Awa a Te Atua

59 Interpretation

Membership of joint advisory committee

60 Appointment of members of joint advisory committee

61 Constitution of joint advisory committee

62 Functions of joint advisory committee

63 Advice on retained sites

64 Advice on Whakapaukorero

Procedures of joint advisory committee

65 Meetings of committee

66 Vacancy in membership of committee

Funding provisions

67 Costs and expenses of committee

Change in ownership of retained sites

68 Change in ownership of retained sites

Exercise of powers by Minister

69 Minister must consult with committee before exercising powers in relation to certain matters

70 Section 9 of Reserves Act 1977 not to apply

Subpart 5Joint management committee for Moutohorā (Whale Island) Wildlife Management Reserve, Ōhope Scenic Reserve, and Tauwhare Pā Scenic Reserve

71 Interpretation

Membership of joint management committee

72 Appointment of members of joint management committee

73 Constitution of joint management committee

74 Powers and functions delegated to joint management committee

75 Functions of joint management committee

76 Advice on conservation matters

77 Committee to be Conservation Board for jointly managed sites

Procedures of joint management committee

78 Meetings of committee

79 Vacancy in membership of committee

Funding provisions

80 Remuneration of members

81 Amendment to Fees and Travelling Allowances Act 1951

82 Costs and expenses of committee

Exercise of powers by Minister

83 Minister may discharge committee or appoint new committees

84 Minister must consult committee before exercising powers in relation to certain matters

85 Section 9 of Reserves Act 1977 not to apply

Right to extract hangi stones from Moutohorā (Whale Island) Wildlife Management Reserve

86 Extraction of hangi stones from Moutohorā (Whale Island) Wildlife Management Reserve

87 Amendment to section 8 of Crown Minerals Act 1991

Subpart 6Nohoanga entitlements

88 Interpretation

89 Grant and renewal of Nohoanga entitlements

90 Notification of Nohoanga entitlement

91 Terms and conditions of Nohoanga entitlement may be varied

92 Purpose of Nohoanga entitlements

93 Occupation of Nohoanga entitlements by members of Ngāti Awa

94 Period of occupation of Nohoanga entitlements

95 Right to erect temporary dwellings

96 Condition of land when occupation ceases

97 Activities on entitlement land

Obligations relating to Nohoanga entitlements

98 Nohoanga entitlements must not impede public access

99 The Crown's functions to continue

100 Nohoanga entitlement does not restrict the Crown's right to alienate land

101 Ngāti Awa governance entity may enforce rights against other persons

102 The Crown's obligation to provide lawful access

103 Compliance with laws, bylaws, and land and water management practices

104 Rights of Ngāti Awa governance entity under Nohoanga entitlement not assignable

Suspension and termination of Nohoanga entitlement

105 Suspension of Nohoanga entitlement

106 Termination of Nohoanga entitlement

107 Termination of Nohoanga entitlement for breach of obligations

108 Notification of termination of Nohoanga entitlement

Rights not affected or created

109 Rights of other parties not affected

110 No creation of rights in entitlement land

Application of other enactments

111 Part 3B of Conservation Act 1987 not to apply

112 Local Government (Rating) Act 2002

113 Section 44 of Reserves Act 1977 not to apply

114 Section 11 and Part 10 of Resource Management Act 1991 not to apply

Subpart 7Place names

115 Change of names: general

116 Change of name of Thornton Lagoon Wildlife Management Reserve

Subpart 8Coastal tendering

117 Interpretation

118 Preferential right to purchase authorisations

119 Limit on proportion of authorisations able to be purchased

120 Ngāti Awa governance entity treated as having made tender

121 Exercise of powers, duties, and functions

122 Rights not affected

123 Limitation of rights

Subpart 9Whakatāne Airport land

124 Interpretation

125 Whakatāne Airport land may be vested in Ngāti Awa governance entity

126 Matters relating to vesting under section 125

127 Notice to interest holders

128 No change in classification or purpose

129 Amendment of computer register

130 Creation of computer register

131 Titles to be noted

132 Application of other enactments

133 Whakatāne Airport land may be treated as settlement property

Part 5
Commercial redress properties

Subpart 1Transfer of commercial redress properties

134 Transfer of commercial redress properties

135 Minister of Conservation may grant easements

136 Creation of computer register

137 Application of other enactments

138 Roadways and rights of way

Subpart 2Redress licensed land

139 Interpretation

140 Redress licensed land ceases to be Crown forest land

141 Ngāti Awa governance entity confirmed beneficiary of redress licensed land

142 Effect of Crown forestry licences on redress licensed land

Right of access over redress licensed land

143 Right of access over redress licensed land

144 Right of access subject to Crown forestry licence

145 Right of access must be noted on title

Subpart 3Right of access over Ngāti Awa land

146 Interpretation

147 Right of access over Ngāti Awa land

148 Requirements relating to right of access if Ngāti Awa land transferred

149 Removal of notation from computer freehold register

150 Application of section 147

151 Effect of right of access on Crown forestry licences

Subpart 4Ōhope Beach Holiday Park land

152 Ōhope Beach Holiday Park land

153 Modifications to Conservation Act 1987 in respect of Site A

Part 6
Awanuiarāngi II title

154 Interpretation

155 Registration of land in name of Awanuiarāngi II

156 Rights, powers, and duties of Ngāti Awa governance entity if land registered in name of Awanuiārangi II

Protected land

157 Direction that land be noted as protected land

Evidence of proper direction

158 Evidence of proper direction

Application of other enactments to protected land

159 Application of other enactments to protected land

Amendment to Crown Minerals Act 1991

160 Amendment to section 51 of Crown Minerals Act 1991

Part 7
Ancillary claims settlement

Subpart 1Interpretation

161 Interpretation

162 Meaning of Pukaahu, Rangitaiki 60C, and Waiohau historical claims

163 Meaning of Pukaahu claimants, Rangitaiki 60C claimants, and Waiohau claimants

Subpart 2Vesting of ancillary claims settlement land

164 Vesting of Pukaahu

165 Vesting of Rangitaiki 60C settlement land

166 Vesting of Waiohau settlement land

167 Registration of ownership: Pukaahu

168 Registration of ownership: Rangitaiki 60C settlement land and Waiohau settlement land

169 Application of other enactments

Termination of Pukaahu governance entity

170 Termination of Pukaahu governance entity

Schedule 1
Cultural redress properties

Schedule 2
Nohoanga sites

Schedule 3
Statutory acknowledgements

Schedule 4
Statutory acknowledgement for Koohi Point (Kohi Point)

Schedule 5
Statutory acknowledgement for Mokorua Scenic Reserve

Schedule 6
Statutory acknowledgement for Ōhope Scenic Reserve

Schedule 7
Statutory acknowledgement for Moutohorā (Whale Island) Wildlife Management Reserve

Schedule 8
Statutory acknowledgement for Part Ōhiwa Harbour

Schedule 9
Statutory acknowledgement for Uretara Island

Schedule 10
Statutory acknowledgement for Whakatāne River

Schedule 11
Statutory acknowledgement for Rangitaiki River

Schedule 12
Statutory acknowledgement for Tarawera River

Schedule 13
Statutory acknowledgement for Te Kaokaoroa Historic Reserve

Schedule 14
Statutory acknowledgement for Former Matahina A5 Block

Schedule 15
Place names

Schedule 16
Ancillary claims settlement land

Reprint notes

  • Preamble

    Kupu Whakataki

    (1) Kua whakatakotoria te Tiriti o Waitangi, tōna tauira reo Māori tōna tauira reo Pākeha hoki, i roto i te Wahanga 1 o te Ture Tiriti o Waitangi 1975. I hainatia te Tiriti nei i te tau 1840:

    (2) Mā ngā whiti (3) ki (53) o tēnei Kupu Whakataki ka kitea he whakarāpopototanga o ngā kōrero o muri i te kereme o nehe o Ngāti Awa kua whakatakotoria ki roto i te whakaaetanga whakataunga i whakamanahia i waenga i a Ngāti Awa rāua ko te Karauna:

    Te hītori o te Whakataunga

    (3) Mai i te wā o te raupatu i 1866, kua whakatūria ngā tono paremata a Ngāti Awa ki te Karauna mō āna mahi hē, tae rawa ki te raupatu. Kua hīkina ngā taumahatanga mō ngā takahitanga i te Tiriti o Waitangi e tēnā, e tēnā whakatipuranga o Ngāti Awa i roto i ngā tau, tāne mai, wāhine mai. Whai muri iho o ngā petihana me ngā kawenga kōrero o ngā tau tōmuri o te rau tau 1800, me ērā o te tekau tau 1920, tae rawa ki te tekau tau 1960, ko te nekehanga nui, ko te whakatūnga e ngā kaumātua o Ngāti Awa pēnei i a Eruera Mānuera, i a Hāre Rēneti, i a Aniheta Rātene me Matarena Rēneti, i te Poari o Ngāti Awa i te tau 1980 i Puawairua, te marae o Ngāti Hikakino. I whakatūria te Poari e ngā hapū o Ngāti Awa hei kawe whakamua i ngā kaupapa mō te iwi, pēnei i te take raupatu (tae rawa ki te muru i ngā whenua, te noho manene o ngā hapū me te riro o te tino rangatiratanga), te whakatū pakari anō o te wharenui Mātaatua, te whakahokinga mai o te pāmu teihana o Ngāti Awa me te maunga Pūtauaki ki ngā ringaringa o te iwi. I whakarāpopotongia ngā whāīnga matua nei e Aniheta Ratene i roto i tana kōrero mō te Moenga, te Paraikete me te Urunga—ko te Moenga, koia tērā ko ngā whenua o Ngāti Awa i raupatuhia, ko te Paraikete, ko te pāmu teihana tērā o Ngāti Awa, ā, ko te Urunga, koia tērā ko ngā kerēme a Ngāti Awa mō Kawerau:

    (4) I te tau 1988, whai muri o tētahi whakahōunga o Te Ture mō Te Tiriti o Waitangi 1975 e tarea ai te rongohia o ngā kerēme mai i 1840, i whakatakotoria e Ngāti Awa tana kerēme ki mua i te aroaro o Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti kia rangahaua ōna whakamau e pā ana ki te Tiriti. I te tau 1988, i runga i tāna kaupapa here ki te tuku i ngā whakahaere ki ngā poari whakahaere iwi, ā, i runga anō hoki i te tono a Ngāti Awa, i whakamanatia Te Ture mō Te Runanga o Ngati Awa 1988 arā, te ture whakatū i te Runanga. Ko tētahi wāhi o te ture nei i pā ki te wetewete i ngā whakawhiu ā-ture i mau ki runga i ētahi o te iwi i uru ki ngā nekenekehanga o te tau 1865:

    (5) Nō te tau 1990 i whakawhitia ai e te Karauna te pāmu teihana o Ngāti Awa ki Te Runanga o Ngati Awa. I tua atu, i ngā tau 1988 me 1990, tukuna ai e te Karauna ētahi utunga e $200,000 hui katoa ki Te Runanga o Ngati Awa. I te tau 1994, i whakawhitia ai e te Karauna ki a Ngāti Awa, ko te wāhi mahi a Telecom i Whakatāne, ko tōna wāriu i whakaaetia ai kia $390,000. Hei tā Ngāti Awa titiro mai rā anō, he wāhanga noa iho ēnei o ngā utu mō ngā kerēme raupatu ki te Karauna:

    (6) Nō te rā 4 o te marama o Hūrae o te tau 1994, kātahi anō ka tīmata te take a Ngāti Awa ki mua i te aroaro o Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti, i te marae o Te Whare o Toroa i Whakatāne. I whakatakotoria e Ngāti Awa tana kerēme i roto i ētahi hui i tū ki te marae o Kokohīnau i Te Teko, ki te marae o Umutahi i Matatā, me te kapinga o āna kōrero i Te Whare o Toroa i te rā 1 o Tīhema o te tau 1995:

    (7) Nō te marama o Mei o te tau 1995, i whakaputaina e Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti tētahi whakaaturanga e kī ana, ahakoa kāore anō kia rongohia te Karauna, nā te kaha me te pakari o te kerēme a Ngāti Awa, tērā tonu pea ka nui te paremata me utu e te Karauna ki a ia mō ngā takahitanga a te Karauna i Te Tiriti o Waitangi i roto i ngā tau kua pahure. I whakaputaina tuatahitia te kōrero nei i roto i te whakaaturanga a Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti i te marama o Noema i te tau 1994:

    (8) I whakatakotohia, i kōrerohia tētahi tikanga whakahaere i waenganui i ngā hapū, Te Runanga me ngā kai-whiriwhiri i te hui ā-tau o te tau 1996, me ngā hui o muri a Te Runanga i roto i taua tau. Whai muri i tērā, i tū anō ngā hui me ngā whitiwhitinga kōrero e whiwhi mana kōkiri ai ngā kai-whiriwhiri. I whakaae te Runanga o te Kāwanatanga ki te mana kōkiri i te Ōketopa 1996:

    (9) I te rā 21 o te marama o Tīhema o te tau 1998, whai muri o tētahi toru tau e kōrerohia ana te kaupapa, ka uru te Karauna rāua ko Ngāti Awa ki tētahi Whakaaetanga ūpoko. Ko tā te Whakaaetanga ūpoko nei, he whakatakoto noa i ngā take e mātua whakaaetia ana me uru ki roto i te Tūtohinga Whakatau, me tā rāua whakaae tahi ki te whiriwhiri i runga i te ngākau pono ki te whakatutuki i ngā ritenga o te Tūtohinga Whakatau:

    (10) Nō te rā 8 o te marama o Ōketopa o te tau 1999 i oti i Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti tana pūrongo e kīia nei ko Te Pūrongo mō te Raupatu a Ngāti Awa. Ko ngā whāinga matua o te pūrongo i kī, i raro i Te Tiriti o Waitangi, i te hē te mahi raupatu i ngā whenua o Ngāti Awa, ā, e kore e taea te kī i tū tētahi whana e whai take ai te raupatu i ngā whenua, me te mea ko te āhua nei, i tua atu kē te raupatu o ngā whenua o Ngāti Awa i te mana o Te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tīreni, 1863:

    (11) I tua atu, i kite anō Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti, he takahitanga tēnei o ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi, mēnā kāore i whakahokia mai ngā whenua i runga i te tikanga pai, mārakerake; he whakawhiu anō i a Ngāti Awa mō ana mahi whana tēnei te wehe i a ia mai i ngā whenua ki te taha uru o te rāina raupatu; i hurihia te taitara o ngā whenua ki te tangata takitahi, ā, ko te putanga o tēnei, ko te unuhanga o te mana o te iwi, ko te whakamāmā hoki i te huarahi hoko i te whenua. I tua atu i whakatau Te Rōpu Whakamana i te Tiriti, ko te huarahi e ea ai ngā kerēme a Ngāti Awa, mā te huarahi ki Te Runanga o Ngati Awa. Ahakoa te mea kāore i whakatakotohia e te Karauna ētahi whakaaturanga ki mua i te aroaro o Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti, me te mea anō ehara i te mea e whakaae ana ia ki te katoa o ngā whāinga o Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti, e whakaae ana te Karauna i mahi hē ia ki te raupatu i ngā whenua o Ngāti Awa, nā reira he takahitanga tēnā o ngā mātāpono o Te Tiriti o Waitangi:

    (12) Kāore i tau he whakaritenga i waenganui i te Karauna me Ngāti Awa i runga i ngā tāpaetanga o te tau 1998. Nō te tau 2000 whakatakotoria ai e te Karauna tētahi tāpaetanga hōu:

    (13) I te 8 o Hurae 2002 ka whakaretangia e te Karauna me te Runanga o Ngāti Awa he whakaaetanga. Ka tatū i te Karauna me Ngāti Awa tāua whakaaetanga o ngā whakataunga i te 27 o Maehe 2003 e whakatatū ana i ngā take katoa e tika ana kia whakatauria tuturutia te katoa o ngā kereme o nehe o te iwi o Ngāti Awa:

    Te Whakahokinga Mai o te Wharenui a Mātaatua

    (14) I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau 1870, i tahuri te iwi o Ngāti Awa ki te hanga i tētahi whare whakairo ki Whakatāne, ko tōna ingoa ko Mātaatua. I te tīmatanga o te tau 1875 i oti te hanga i te whare. Nō te tau 1879, i tukuna e te Karauna te whare Mātaatua ki tētahi whakaaturanga e kīia nei ko te Inter-colonial Exhibition i tū ki Poihākena, i Ahitereiria. Nō te tau 1880 i nekehia te whare ki Poi-piripiri, ki Rānana, ki reira whakaaturia ai. Nō te tau 1924 i whakahokia mai ai a Mātaatua, e aha ai, e uru atu ai ia ki te Whakaaturanga mō te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa i tū ki Ōtepoti. I whakaae te Karauna kia whakaaturia e Te Whare Taonga o Ōtepoti te whare whakairo mō ake tonu. Mai rā anō, kua rapu te iwi kia whakahokia mai te whare ki Whakatāne, me te kī a Ngāti Awa, kāore i tukuna e ia te mana mō Mātaatua ki tētahi atu. Nō te marama o Ākuhata o te tau 1996 i hainahia e Ngāti Awa rāua ko te Karauna tētahi Tūtohinga Whakatau mō te whakahokinga mai o Mātaatua ki a Ngāti Awa. I whai wāhi ki roto i te whakaaetanga nei ko te $2 miriona hei utu i te whakahoki mai me te whakatū o te wharenui a Mātaatua ki Whakatāne:

    Te tāhū kōrero

    (15) E whai take ana te kupu whakapāha a te Karauna ki a Ngāti Awa i runga i te tāhū kōrero ka whai:

    Te Rohe o Ngāti Awa

    (16) E whakapono ana a Ngāti Awa, i mua o te tau 1866, koia te tangata whenua, ā, nōna te tino rangatiratanga e hora ana i ētahi wā, ki runga i ngā whenua ka whai nei: ngā moutere o Motiti, o Rurima, o Mou-tohorā, Te Paepae o Aotea, Whakaari, a Ohakana rāua ko Uretara (he moutere ēnei kei te whanga o Ōhiwa), ngā wai mai i te wahapū o Waihī ki Ōhiwa; te whenua, ngā ngahere, ngā roto, ngā awa me ngā repo, mai i te wahapū o Waihī ki te raki, ā ka whai haere i te takutai tae rawa ki Ōhiwa, mai i te wahapū o Waihī anō, ka huri whaka-te-hau-ā-uru ki te awa o Pongakawa, ki te moutere o Rotoehu (tae rawa ki te papa o te roto o Rotoehu me te ngahere o Rotoehu), ā, mai i Rotoehu ki Te Haehaenga, tae atu ki te roto o Rotomā ki ngā whenua o Pokohu, o Tuararangaia me Matahina ki te tonga, ā, atu i reira ki te Whanga o Ōhiwa:

    (17) Ko ētahi o ngā wāhi nui i whakahuahuatia ai i roto i ngā tāhū kōrero mō Ngāti Awa ko: ngā maunga e kōrerohia nei ko Pūtauaki ki Kawerau, ko Whakapaukōrero ki Matatā me Maunga Whakamana ki Te Haehaenga, me te hiwi e kīia nei ko Te Tiringa ki Awakeri, tae rawa hoki ki Te Rae o Kōhī ki Whakatāne; ngā awa o Whakatāne, Ōrini, Rangitāiki, Tarawera, Wai-tahanui me ngā wai o Waikōwhewhe rāua ko Pongakawa; te repo o Rangitāiki; ngā ngahere i Rotoehu, i Matahina, i Kiwi-nui, i Ō-mata-roa, i Tarawera me Manawahē; ngā roto o Rotoehu, Rotomā, Kawerau, Te Tahuna, Onerahi, Roto-iti Paku, Onepū me Roto-roa; ngā waiariki i Kawerau, Awakeri, Mou-tohorā me Whakaari; ngā whanga i Ōhiwa me Whakatāne; ngā wahapū i Waihī, i Te Awa a Te Atua i Matatā, me Whakatāne:

    (18) I pupuritia ngā whenua me ngā rawa o Ngāti Awa i raro i ngā tikanga Māori, arā, ka noho hei mea tino nui rawa te kaitiakitanga ohu a-hapū, a-iwi. I mua o te raupatu, i mau tonu ngā rangatira o Ngāti Awa ki tō rātou rangatiratanga, ā, iti noa iho nei ngā whenua o roto i te rohe o Ngāti Awa i hokona:

    (19) I tua atu, ko te whakapae a Ngāti Awa, i te tau 1865 e noho motuhake ana rātou, i te hua ngā painga o ngā mahi kaipakihi. Ka mutu, i roto rātou i ngā mahi whitiwhiti taonga, tauhokohoko hoki. I te whakatipu, i te hoko rātou i ngā rawa pēnei i te poaka, i te harakeke, i ngā hua whenua, i te wīti, i te papa rākau me te rīwai, ā, i roto anō hoki rātou i te whānuitanga o ngā kaupapa tauhokohoko pēnei i te mira wīti me te whakahaere kaipuke. I te haere tonu ngā mahi whitiwhiti taonga a Ngāti Awa me ētahi atu iwi mō ngā taonga pēnei i te kōkōwai, te tītī me te nuinga atu o ngā rawa o te moana:

    Te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tīreni 1863

    (20) Nō te tau 1863 i whakamanatia e te Karauna ētahi hanganga ture whakahirahira e toru arā, te Ture Tāmi i te Mahi Whana, te Ture Pūtea Taurewa o Niu Tīreni me te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tīreni. I āheitia e te ture whakamutunga te raupatu i ngā whenua Māori e tirohia ana e te Karauna nā tētahi iwi, nā tētahi wāhanga o tētahi iwi, nā tētahi rahinga mai i tētahi iwi rānei i mahi hara ki te mana o te Kuini. Ko te mea nui, i whakamanatia te ture ki te tiaki, ki te whakamaru tūturu i ngā tāngata pai o ngā iwi e rua, kia ārai atu i ngā mahi whana, kia pupuri hoki ki te mana o Te Arikinui Te Kuini i roto i te Ture me te Māriretanga puta noa i te whenua. Hei whakatutuki i ēnei whāinga whānui e rua, i mea te Karauna ki te whakatū tāngata noho ki ngā rohe mā te hoko i ngā whenua raupatu ki te hunga whai. Ko te titiro a te Karauna mā ngā moni hua i ēnei hokonga whenua e ea ai ngā utu a te Karauna mō ana pakanga ki te Māori:

    (21) I te āwangawanga te Tari Koroni o Piritana mō te whānui me te whakamahi i te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tīreni 1863, e mea ana ia, ka taea ngā mahi tūkino nui. I te tīmatanga, i te wā e whakaarohia ana te raupatu whenua, i whakatūpatohia e te Hēkeretari Koroni te Kāwana Tianara, kia aro nui ki ngā whenua o ngā tāngata me ngā iwi harakore, ā, kia hāngai hoki te whiunga ki te hara. Nō muri mai, i a ia ka noho ki te āta whakaaro mō te hanganga ture raupatu whenua, i te āwangawanga tonu te Tari Koroni o Piritana mō te whakamahi i te Ture me tōna roanga, engari i whakaaetia kia tū tonu nā te mea ko te mana whakamutunga rawa mō te raupatu ko te Kāwana. I tohungia e te Hēkeretari Koroni te Kāwana kia kaua ia e whakaae kia raupatuhia he whenua mēnā kāore i te tika, i te ngāwari:

    Te Kaokaoroa

    (22) E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho a Ngāti Awa, i te tau 1864, i uru atu ētahi o ngā hapū o Ngāti Awa pēnei i a Te Patu-tātahi, a Ngāti Hikakino me Ngāi Te Rangihouhiri II, me ētahi o Te Tāwera ki tētahi ope taua o ngā iwi o Mātaatua me ētahi atu iwi, ā, e mōhiotia nei ko Te Ope Taua o Te Tai Rāwhiti. E mea ana te ope nei ki te hou atu ki te rohe o Waikato ki te tautoko i ngā iwi o Waikato e ātete ana i te whakaeke pokanoa ō rātou whenua e ngā ope taua o te Karauna me ngā tāngata whai. I āraitia e Te Arawa te haere a te ope taua o Te Tai Rāwhiti nei mā te rohe o Rotorua. I tono ētahi o ngā iwi o Te Arawa ki te Karauna ki te tautoko i tā rātou mahi, ā, tautokona noa mai e te Karauna. I te marama o Pepuere o te tau 1864 i tū tētahi pakanga i waenganui i tētahi wāhanga o te ope taua o Te Tai Rāwhiti me ētahi o te iwi o Te Arawa, ki Roto-iti; mate atu ētahi ki reira. Hāunga tērā, he wāhanga o te ope nei i pakaru atu ki roto ki te rohe o Waikato, rokohina atu ko Ōrākau:

    (23) I Maketū, i te marama o Āperira o te tau 1864, ka ngana te ope taua o Te Tai Rāwhiti ki te pakaru atu mā te wahapū o Waihī. Nā ētahi o te iwi o Te Arawa, tāpae atu ko ngā waka taua me ngā hōia a te Karauna te ope taua o Te Tai Rāwhiti i whiu. Ko te whawhai nui o Te Kaokaoroa te whawhai i parekura atu ai a Ngāti Awa, me kī, ko ana kārangatanga hapū a Ngāti Hikakino me Ngāi Te Rangihouhiri II, tae rawa atu ki ētahi o ngā hapū me ngā iwi haumi. I hinga atu ki te pakanga nei ētahi o ngā rangatira nui o Ngāti Awa:

    James Te Mautaranui Fulloon

    (24) Nō te tōmuritanga o te tau 1864, i tau atu a Kereopa, a Horomona me Pātara, ētahi poropiti o te whakapono Pai Mārire, ki te rohe o Whakatāne, ā, nā rātou ētahi o te iwi o Ngāti Awa i whakawai ki te uru ki te whakapono o Pai Mārire. I te marama o Maehe o te tau 1865 ka kōhurutia a Rev. Carl Volkner, he mihingare e noho ana ki Ōpōtiki, e ētahi o ngā Māori o taua takiwā kua taka ki te whakapono Pai Mārire. Nō te rā 6 o te marama o Maehe o te tau 1865 ka whakaputaina e ngā rangatira o Ngāti Awa ō rātou tino whakahē mō te patunga o Volkner; hāunga tērā, kāore rātou ngā rangatira o Ngāti Awa i whakaae kia haere te Karauna mā te rohe o Ngāti Awa i a ia ka rapu mō te hunga nā rātou a Volkner i patu. Kore rawa i whakamanatia e te Kāwanatanga te haere a tētahi o ōna ope taua mā te rohe o Ngāti Awa ki te rapu i te hunga nā rātou a Volkner i patu:

    (25) Nō te marama o Pepuere o te tau 1865, whai muri i ētahi rūnanga, ka hui ētahi rangatira o Ngāti Awa ki Whakatāne, i reira ka whakatakotoria ai e rātou tētahi aukati o tō rātou rohe, kia kaua tētahi noa atu e uru mai. Nāwai ā, i te marama o Hūrae i te tau 1865, whai muri i ētahi hui ki Tauaroa me Matatā, ka whakatakotoria ai tētahi atu aukati anō e te poropiti Pai Mārire e Horomona, me ētahi o ngā rangatira o Ngāti Awa tautoko i a ia. Mai i Whangaparāoa i te rāwhiti tae atu ki Taranaki i te uru te aukati nei. I te rā 19, te rā 20 rānei o Hūrae 1865 i tau ai ki Whakatāne a Maruiwi, tētahi kaipuke hokohoko nō Te Arawa. I hopukina te kaipuke, mō tōna takahi i te aukati a ngā Pai Mārire. Nō te rā 22 o te marama o Hūrae o te tau 1865 i tau atu ai te kaipuke Kate ki Whakatāne. Ko ngā tāngata i runga i te kaipuke, ko James Fulloon, he āpiha nā te Karauna, me ētahi atu. I patua i runga i te kaipuke, a Fulloon, he uri nō Ngāti Awa, me ētahi kaumoana tokotoru, e ērā o Ngāti Awa i tautoko i te Pai Mārire. Kātahi ka tahuri a Wepiha Apanui o te pori o Ngāti Awa ki Whakatāne ki te whakarite mō te tanu i tōna uri, a Hēmi (James) Fulloon. He maha ngā kōrero he aha i patua ai a Fulloon; e ai ki a Ngāti Awa i patua ia mō tana takahi i te aukati. Nā ēnei nekenekehanga i korikori ake ngā hapū o Ngāti Awa:

    Te Whakamana

    (26) Nō te rā 2 o te marama o Ākuhata o te tau 1865 i Maketū ka whakaputaina e T H Smith, te Kōmihana Kāwanatanga tana whakamana hopu tāngata mō te mau here i te hunga e whakapaetia ana nā rātou a Fulloon me ētahi atu i patu:

    (27) Ko ngā tāngata i te rārangi o te whakamana ko:

    Te Hura Te TaiwhakaripiHaki Waihou
    Te Pitoiwi Te PutareraTe Hemara Tukairangi
    Hakaraia TohoraTure Te Matutaera
    Te Aka o Tau Te HuraParaharaha
    Te Metera Te TiiRaniera Te Werotokotoko
    Hepeta Te TaiHaki Tukino
    KorimanaEria Te Hakona
    Horomona PoropitiHeahea Te Pakihiwi
    Utuku Te RangiHohepa Te Ra
    Te Meihana Te TawaTawhaki
    Te WetiniRaureti
    Tamati o Ngāti HokoHunia Marupo
    Mohi Te PaohiPanapa Rangirewaia
    TuririHakopa Tupika
    Hawera Te HihiraPetera Moki
    Te HekaraPakiuru
     Hohua Karipipi:

    (28) Nō te marama o Ākuhata o te tau 1865, i whakakotahihia tētahi ope taua a te Karauna e rima rau nei te tokomaha, he mea emi i ētahi o ngā hapū, iwi e noho tata ana ki a Ngāti Awa ka mutu, kua roa kē hoki e pakanga ana ki a Ngāti Awa mai rā anō; ko ētahi o te ope nei i roto i ngā riri o Te Kaokaoroa. Ko te kaingārahu o te ope taua nei a te Karauna ko Meiha William Mair, Te Kaiwhakawā. I kuhu atu te ope taua nei ki te rohe o Ngāti Awa ki te whakatutuki i te whakamana mau here. Nō te pokapū o te marama o Ākuhata whakamāramahia ai ki te rangatira o Ngāti Awa, a Te Hura Te Taiwhakaripi, he aha te kaupapa a te taua. I tū ētahi whakapāpā i waenganui i te taua a te Karauna me Ngāti Awa, ko te otinga atu i mate ētahi tāngata. I murua ngā kau, ngā hoiho me ētahi atu o ngā rawa a Ngāti Awa, i wāwāhia ngā kāinga, wharenui, pātaka, waka hoki o Ngāti Awa. I whakaekea ngā pā o Ngāti Awa i Whakatāne, i Matatā me Te Teko, te wāhi i rere ai a Te Hura me ana tāngata:

    (29) Nō te rā 2 o te marama o Hepetema o te tau 1865 i whakaputaina e te Karauna tētahi Pānuitanga Rongomau e kī ana kua mutu te pakanga i tīmata rā i Oakura, takiwā o Taranaki i te tau e 1863. Ko tā te Pānuitanga Rongomau i whakamārama ai, e kore e whiua e te Karauna ērā i mau pū ki te Karauna i ngā raruraru o mua, hāunga ērā nā rātou a Fulloon i patu, kāore rātou i kuhuna ki raro i te tikanga o te pānuitanga nei. Ko ngā kupu o te pānuitanga i kī pēnei, ki te kore e tae ngā tāngata nā rātou a Fulloon i kōhuru ki te aroaro o te Kāwana, ka murua e te Karauna ngā whenua o ngā iwi nā rātou i manaaki te hunga kōhuru. I tua atu, i tono te pānui kia āwhinatia e te Māori te mahi aukati i ngā tutūnga puehu, ā, i takoto anō te hiahia ki te kōrerorero me ngā Rangatira nui, me pēhea e rongohia ai te reo o te Māori i roto i te Rūnanga Nui, e aha ai, e whai wāhi ai e te Māori ki te hanga ture hei whai māna:

    (30) Nō te marama o Hepetema o te tau 1865 ka whakaputaina e te Kāwana tētahi Pānuitanga Ture Taua mō ngā rohe o Whakatāne me Ōpōtiki, e taea ai te hopu i te hunga e whakapaetia ana nā rātou a Fulloon i kōhuru, e taea ai hoki te whakawā i a rātou mā te Whakawā Taua. Ko te tikanga, ka mau te Ture Taua ki runga i ngā rohe nei ā, tae noa ki te wā hīkina ai, ka mutu, ko tā te pānuitanga e mea ana, ka āhei ngā tāngata a te Karauna te tū anō nei he ope taua. Nō te rā e 5 o Hepetema o te tau 1865 pānuitia ai ēnei pānuitanga e rua ki te Kāhiti o Niu Tireni. Hāunga tērā, kāore i te mārama nōnahea mōhio ai a Ngāti Awa mō ēnei pānuitanga:

    Te Kupenga

    (31) Kia tae ki te wāhanga tōmuri o te marama o Hepetema o te tau 1865, kua nui ake ngā korikoringa a ngā hōia o te Karauna. Ko te otinga atu, e toru rā e whawhai ana i te pā o Te Kupenga, takiwā ki Te Teko. Nāwai rā, ā, nō te rā 20 o te marama o Oketopa o te tau 1865, ka mutu i Te Kupenga te whawhai o ngā hapū o Ngāti Awa i raro i te ārahitanga o Te Hura Taiwhakaripi. Ko ētahi o ngā hapū i roto i te whawhai nei ko Te Tāwera, Warahoe, Ngāi Te Rangihouhiri II, Te Patu-tātahi, Ngāti Hikakino me ētahi atu. Kō atu i te 30 ngā tāne, tae noa ki te nuinga o ērā i te rārangi ingoa o te whakamana me ētahi atu, i mauheretia, i kawea hoki ki Ōpōtiki, kia whakawātia e te Kōti Taua i te marama o Nōema o te tau 1865, mō te patunga o Fulloon, mō ētahi atu whakapae. I whakatau te Kōti Taua he tokomaha rātou i hara, ā, ko te hunga nei i whiua kia whakamatea:

    Ngā Whakawātanga

    (32) Nō te rā 23 o te marama o Tīhema o te tau 1865 ka whakatakoto whakaaro a James Prendergast, te Rōia Matua mō ngā whakawātanga mā te kōti taua, i ngā mauhere i kawea ki Ōpōtiki. E ai ki a Prendergast ehara i te mea tika i raro i te ture te ture taua. Nāwai ā, ka tono te Kāwana kia kawea ngā mau here o Ngāti Awa ki Tāmaki-makau-rau, ki reira whakawātia anō, ki mua tonu i te aroaro o te Kōti Matua, mō te kōhuru me ētahi atu whakawhiu. Kotahi te rōia i tū mō te hunga e 35 o Ngāti Awa:

    (33) E whai ake nei ko te rārangi ingoa o rātou o ngā tāngata i whakawhiua mō te tāhae waka me te kōhuru i a Fulloon me kaumoana Ned i runga i te waka Kate: Mikaere Kirimangu, Hekara, Himone-te-Auru, Paraharaha, Hoani Poururu, Hoani Hupe, Utuku-te-Rangi, Te Aka o Tau-te-Hura, Hunia Marupo, Haki Waihou, Haki Tukino, Tamati o Ngāti Hoko, Tio Wahu, Hawera-te-Hihira, Heahea te Pakihiwi, Raniera te Werotokotoko. I unuhia ngā whakapae i runga i te tokotoru o ngā tāngata nei mō te tāhae waka, engari katoa rātou i whakaaetia e te kōti he tangata hara mō te mahi kōhuru. Tekau atu anō ngā tāngata i kīia e te kōti nā rātou i awhi te hunga nā rātou ngā mahi kōhuru. Ko ēnei tāngata ko Te Hura Te Tai, Te Pitoiwi Te Putarera, Hepeta Te Tai, Horomona Poropiti, Mohi te Paohi, Te Hemara, Hakaraia Tohora, Te Uwhi Te Haraki, Kereama Toitoi me Ture Te Matutaera. I tua atu, tokoono ngā tāngata i whakawhiua mō te whiwhi rawa i tāhaetia i te Kate. Kia tae ki te rā 23 o te marama o Maehe o te tau 1866, ko te hunga katoa i tū ki mua o te aroaro o te Kōti i whakataungia e te Kōti i hara, ā, i whiua kia whakamatea, kia mauhereheretia rānei. Nō te rā 17 o Mei o te tau 1866 whakamatea ai a Mikaere Kirimangu rāua ko Horomona Poropoti (o Taranaki) mō te kōhuru i a Fulloon. Tuangahuru mā tahi o rātou i whiua kia whakamatea i hurihia kia mauheretia mō ake tonu atu, ā, ko te toenga o ngā tāngata nei i whakahaua e te Kōti kia whakamatea, i takahurihia e te Kōti kia mauheretia ētahi o rātou mō ngā tau e whā, piki atu ki te tekau mā whā tau. Ko ērā i hara mō te whiwhi rawa i tāhaetia, i whiua kia mauheretia mō ngā tau e toru. No ngā tau 1867 me 1868 i wetekina te hara i runga i ētahi o ngā tāngata nei, engari ko te nuinga i mauheretia ā, eke noa te wā i whakaritea mō rātou. Tokotoru rātou i mate i te wā e mauheretia ana rātou arā, ko Tamati o Ngāti Hoko (rā 1 o Ākuhata o te tau 1866), a Hepeta Te Tai (rā 26 o Nōema o te tau 1866), a Paraharaha (rā 18 o Tīhema o te tau 1866). Kāore i karakiahia, i poroporoakihia rānei ēnei tāngata i mate ki roto i te whare herehere. Rite ana ngā tono a ngā whakatipuranga i roto i ngā tau kia whakahokia ngā kōiwi o ō rātou whanaunga ki a rātou; nō te tau e 1988 tutuki ai ā rātou tono:

    (34) Hei tā Ngāti Awa, tokomaha tonu ērā i tukuna, kāore i hiahia hoki ki ō rātou kāīnga i Whakatāne me Matatā nā te whakamā i runga i tō rātou mauheretanga me te rironga atu o ō rātou whenua. I noho rātou i te taha i a Te Kooti, i Te Rohe Pōtae, i raro i te maru o Ngāti Maniapoto. Ko te nuinga i mate, i takoto ki waho kē o te rohe o Ngāti Awa, engari nā runga i te mahi a Te Kooti me āna tāngata, nō te tau 1885 hahua ai rātou, ka tanumia ki te Urupā o Ohuirere, takiwā ki Whakatāne:

    Te Raupatu Whenua

    (35) Nā runga i te mana o ngā Tono ā-Kaunihera i tukuna i te rā 17 o te marama o Hānuere me te rā 1 o te marama o Hepetema o te tau 1866, whai muri mai hoki o tā te Karauna i kī, i hara ngā iwi o Te Moana o Toi, āhua e 448 000 eka te rahi o ngā whenua i pānuitia ai kia raupatuhia i raro i te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tīreni, 1863. Kāore te Ture i kōrero mō te utu, engari ko te whiu tonu ia tōna whāinga:

    (36) Ko te ripa tauārai o ngā whenua i raupatutia, ko:

    Ngā whenua katoa pōkaitia ai e te ripa tauārai, mai i te pūwaha o te awa o Wai-tahanui, haere whaka-te-tonga mō tētahi 20 maero; kātahi ka hāngai te haere ki te tihi o (Mt Edgecombe) Putanaki [sic], mai i reira ka rere whaka-te-rāwhiti ki tētahi wāhi 11 maero ki te taha tonga o te pūwaha o te whanga o Ōhiwa, ā, tōtika ana te haere ki te rāwhiti mō tētahi 25 maero; kātahi ka ripa atu ki te pūwaha o te awa o Araparapara [sic], huri haere i te takutai ā, kia tau atu ki te tīmatanga i Wai-tahanui.

    (37) I roto i te whenua pōkaitia ai i raro i te maru o te tono, āwhiwhi e 245 000 eka te rahi o ngā whenua o Ngāti Awa i raupatutia i te tau 1866. He mahi pokanoa tēnei mahi, nō te mea nui rawa atu ngā whenua i raupatutia, ki tērā rahi o te whenua e ea ai ngā kaupapa i raro i te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tīreni:

    (38) I pā ki ngā hapū katoa o Ngāti Awa te raupatunga o ngā whenua, tae rawa ki te hunga kāore rawa i ātete ki te Karauna. Ko te otinga atu o tēnei, me haere rā anō ngā hapū o Ngāti Awa ki mua i te aroaro o te Kōti Utunga me ētahi atu wāhi, rapu ai kia whakahokia mai ō rātou whenua:

    Ngā Whakaritenga a Wilson me te Kōti Utunga

    (39) Nō te marama o Pēpuere o te tau 1866, i mua o te noho a te Kōti Utunga, ka whakaingoatia e te Karauna tana kaikōmihana hira, a John A Wilson ki te whakarite i te toha o ngā whenua i raupatutia i Te Moana o Toi. I uru atu a Wilson ki ētahi kōrerorero me ētahi o ngā hapū mō te whakahokinga mai o ētahi whenua. I whiwhia ētahi o ngā iwi o Te Arawa me ētahi atu ki ētahi toha mō ā rātou kawe ā-riri ā, ko ngā toha nei, mai i ngā rohenga whenua o te taha hau-ā-uru o te awa o Tarawera, ka taea te kī ka taka i roto i ngā toha nei, ko te nuinga o ngā whenua e kīia ana e Ngāti Awa ko ōna rohe o te taha hau-ā-uru (he whenua ēnei e kerēmehia ana e ētahi atu iwi). Kia taka ki te tau 1885, kua hokona kē e te Karauna te nuinga o te whenua nei. Ko te whakaritenga a Wilson, kia whakahokia ā-whenua rāhui nei te e 77 000 eka ki ngā tāngata takitahi o Ngāti Awa. Koianei tēnei tētahi wāhanga o te 245 000 eka i murua tuatahitia i te tau 1866:

    (40) I whakahaerehia ngā mahi a Wilson i raro i ngā wāhanga o Te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tīreni, 1863, tae rawa ki ana whakahōunga. E whai mana ai āna whakaritenga, i whakamanatia ai e te Karauna ētahi atu hanganga ture pēnei i Te Ture Whenua Raupatu 1867, Te Ture Hoko Whenua i Richmond 1870, Te Ture Whakamana Toha Whenua i Whakatāne 1878, Te Ture Kerēme Whenua Māori me Te Ture Whakamana Taitara o te tau 1894:

    (41) Nā Te Ture Whakatau Manene ki Niu Tīreni 1863, ka whakatūria ai Te Kōti Utunga ki te aha, ki te utu i ngā tāngata i raupatuhia ō rātou whenua, ahakoa te mea kāore rātou i te hara. Nō te marama o Maehe o te tau 1867 i tīmata ai ngā hui a te Kōti i te rohe. Ko ngā Kaiwhakawā ko William Mair rāua ko Thomas Smith, ko rāua tonu ētahi o ngā kaiārahi i ngā ope taua a te Karauna i mua tonu o te raupatu. He maha ngā wā, whakamanahia ai e te Kōti ngā whakaritenga a Wilson, anō nei he whakataunga i waho ake o te kōti:

    (42) Ko ērā tāngata o Ngāti Awa kāore i te pīrangi whakatau kerēme me Wilson, i whakatakoto kerēme kē me te Kōti; waihoki, ko ērā te hunga kāore i āhei ki te haere ā-tinana ki te Kōti ki te whai i ā rātou kerēme, tae tonu ki ērā te hunga i mauheretia i te tau 1866, i taka ki waho o ēnei whakaritenga. Hei ētahi wā, nā te tōmuri o te tae o ngā pānui, me te tawhiti ki te haere ki ngā nōhanga a te Kōti, tae rawa ki ērā nōhanga i waho atu i te rohe o Ngāti Awa, kāore te hunga whai pānga e tae ake:

    (43) Ahakoa te mau i herea ngā kai-tono Māori ki ngā whakahaere o Te Kōti Utunga kei whiua ki waho, nō te tau 1866 puta ai te whakamana tōmuri a te Paremata e mea ana, kei te tika katoa ngā mahi a te Kōti, ahakoa te mea tērā kāore i tutuki ētahi o ngā whakaritenga ā-ture:

    (44) Nō muri mai ka āraitia e te hātepe utunga a Ngāti Awa ngā rohenga whenua ka taka ki roto i te rāina raupatu me ērā whenua i te taha uru o te rohe o Ngāti Awa arā, ngā rohenga whenua o Matatā 31, 39, me 63. Hui katoa e 50 000 eka te rahi o te whenua nei, ā, ka taka te nuinga o te rohe whaka-te-uru e kerēmehia ana e Ngāti Awa ki roto. Mō te take o Matata Lot 63, he nui ngā kōrero i whakatakotoria e ngā kaiwhakaatu o Ngāti Awa ki mua i te aroaro o te Kōti, ā, i tautokongia aua kōrero e ētahi o ngā iwi o Te Arawa. Ahakoa tēnei, i whiwhia e te kōti aua whenua ki iwi kē ki hapū kē, ki ētahi i whawhai mō te Karauna. Kāore he huarahi hoki atu ki te pīra i ngā whakatau a te kōti:

    (45) Nā te tikanga utunga kātahi ka pōuri rawa atu te iwi o Ngāti Awa mō ngā mahi raupatu whenua. Kāore i te tino mōhiotia ko wai te hunga e āhei ana ki te tono utunga i te Kōti. Hei ētahi wā tekau tau e tāria ana kātahi anō ka whiwhi rātou ki te pūtea Kāwanatanga mō te whenua i whakahokia. I whiwhi ētahi hapū ki ngā whenua o hapū kē, ka mutu, ka mate ngā hapū o Ngāti Awa ki Whakatāne ki te tiaki i ngā tāngata o hapū kē ki runga ki ō rātou whenua, tae rawa ki ērā mai i te rohe o Matatā i uru ki roto i ngā pakanga o ngā tau 1864 me 1865. He nui tonu te whenua poupou, koraha i whakaritea e Wilson hei whakahoki. Ina whakahokia ngā whenua mā ngā whakaritenga a Wilson, mā ngā tikanga a te Kōti Utunga rānei, ka whakahokia kē ki te tangata takitahi, āpā te hapū, te iwi rānei. Kāore i whai wāhi ki ngā toha nei ngā tikanga tūturu mō te whenua, ā, mōrearea te noho a te whenua, kei hokona:

    (46) I ngā tau whai muri mai, kāore i aronuitia ngā pānga a Ngāti Awa ki ngā rohenga whenua i te taha hau-ā-uru o te raina raupatu, i roto i ngā toha a Te Kōti Whenua Māori. Hei tā Ngāti Awa, nā runga i ngā nekenekehanga o roto i ngā tau mai i te 1865 ki te 1867, tae rawa ki ngā whakataunga a Te Kōti Utunga i taua wā, i raru ai a Ngāti Awa i roto i ngā kēhi o muri mai a Te Kōti Whenua Māori e pā ana ki ngā rohenga whenua nei:

    Ngā Mahi o Ngā Ture Whenua Māori, Ngā Hoko me ētahi atu Wehewehenga o muri iho

    (47) Whakatūria ai te Kōti Whenua Māori i raro i ngā Ture Whenua Māori o ngā tau 1862 me 1865, ki te rapu ko wai te hunga nō rātou ngā whenua e ai ki te Tikanga Māori, ki te takahuri hoki i te mana tūturu mō te whenua, kia noho ko ngā taitara a te Karauna ki runga i te whenua. I whakatahangia hoki te tika a te Karauna ki te hoko tuatahi i ngā whenua o te Māori, e aha ai, e taea ai e te Māori te rīhi, te hoko rānei i ōna whenua, kāore he nui o ngā here. Kāore i nui ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero i waenganui i te Karauna me te Māori i mua o te whakamanatanga o te ture nei, kāore hoki ia i āta kōrero ki a Ngāti Awa; he pērā te āhua o ēnei mea i te tekau tau 1860. I tēnei wā, kāore he waha kōrero mō te Māori i roto i te Paremata. Nā reira ko tō Ngāti Awa whakaaro, he mea uhi kē e tētahi atu tēnei tikanga tiaki whenua ki runga i a rātou:

    (48) I te tekau tau o 1870, i whakahaua ngā āpiha hoko whenua ki te hoko whenua i te rohe o Rangitaiki, ā, hei ētahi wā, ka whakarite rīhi, ka whakawhiti whenua rātou i mua o te haria o te whenua ki mua i te aroaro o Te Kōti Whenua Māori kia āta rangahauatia te taitara. I ngā tekau tau 1870, 1880 me 1890, whakatakotohia ai e Ngāti Awa ana kerēme ki ētahi whenua i te taha tonga o te rāina raupatu. Kāore i tautokona e te Kōti ā rātou tono mō ngā rohenga whenua i Ruātoki me Kaingaroa. I roto i tēnei wā, whakawhiwhia ai ētahi hapū o Ngāti Awa ki ētahi pānga whenua i ngā rohenga whenua o Pokohu, Pūtauaki, Matahina, Waiohau me Tuarārangaia. I te nuinga o te wā, i tukuna e te Kōti ētahi wāhanga o ngā rohenga whenua nei ki iwi kē, ahakoa te mea hei tā Ngāti Awa, no rātou ake te whenua. No muri kē, mā te hanganga ture, ka whakahaua e te Kōti kia whakarongohia anō ngā kōrero mō ētahi o ngā rohenga whenua. Ko te otinga atu o tēnei, i riro atu ētahi o ngā whenua i tukuna tuatahitia ki a Ngāti Awa i Pokohū me Matahina:

    (49) No muri o tētahi rangahau taitara i te tau 1881, whakawhiwhia a Ngāti Awa ki te e 79 000 eka i roto i te rohenga o Matahina. Nō te tau 1884 rongohia anō ngā kōrero, ā, ko te hua o tērā, i whakaitia te korahi o te rohenga ki te e 74 300 eka. E 8 500 eka o tēnei rahi i tangohia e te Karauna e ea ai ngā utu rūri. I whakawhiwhia e Te Kōti Whenua Māori ngā pānga ki ngā tāngata takitahi, ā, ahakoa i pupuritia ngā whenua mō tētahi wā i runga i ngā okeoke a Ngāti Awa kia pupuria, kia tae ki te rau tau e 20, kua mārō kē te haere o te wehewehe whenua ki ngā tāngata takitahi. Ko te hua o tēnei, i noho kongakonga noa ngā whenua, i maha ngā hokohoko whenua i te wāhanga tōmuri o te rau tau e 19 me te wāhanga tōmua o te rau tau e 20. Kia taka ki te tau 1980, e 240 eka anake te rahi o te pānga whenua o Ngāti Awa ki roto i Matahina A1D1. He mate nui ki te iwi o Ngāti Awa tēnei te rironga atu o te rohenga nei, ā, kei roto i te waiata Tangi mō Matahina e whakaata ana te mamae:

    (50) Ko Pūtauaki te tipuna maunga o ngā tāngata katoa o Ngāti Awa. I tauwehea a Pūtauaki e te rāina raupatu, nāwai ā nō te tau 1867, ka tukuna ai te taha whaka-te-raki o te maunga e Te Kōti Utunga ki a Te Pahipoto rāua ko Ngā Maihi. Ko te wāhanga whaka-te-tonga o te maunga i roto kē i te rohenga whenua e kīia nei ko Pūtauaki. I te tau 1879 i tū tētahi whakaritenga – me āna tikanga - i waenganui i ngā āpiha hoko a te Karauna me ētahi o Ngāti Awa kia hokona te rohenga whenua, engari nō te tau 1881 kātahi anō te rohenga whenua nei ka rangahaua e Te Kōti Whenua Māori. I tukuna e te Kōti te whenua ki a Ngāti Awa, ā ka tono te iwi kia rāhui motuhaketia te whenua. Waihoki, i te hipanga o ngā rā e tekau, i runga hoki i te tono a ētahi rangatira tokorua o Ngāti Awa, arā, a Rangitūkehu rāua ko Penetito, i wehea e te Kōti te rohenga whenua ki ngā wāhanga e toru. Ko te rohenga whenua nui rawa atu, i tukuna ki ētahi tāngata takitahi e 15, ā, hokona wawetia e rātou ki te Karauna. Kāore e tino maha ngā rā whai muri, e 27 ngā tāne, wāhine, tamariki hoki i petihana ki te Minita mō Ngā Take Māori mō te mahi tauwehe i te rohenga whenua nei. Nō muri kē ka tono te hunga nā rātou te whenua i hoko ki te Karauna, kia whakahokia tēnei me ētahi atu rohenga whenua, ā, ko te utu mō tēnei, ko te moni i homaihia mō te hoko i te whenua i te tuatahi, engari kāore te Karauna i whakaae. Ko te iti noa o te rohenga whenua i mahue mai, tae rawa ki te maunga, i tukuna ki ētahi tāngata takitahi mai i Ngāti Awa me ētahi atu iwi. Nā ēnei mahi whakatakitahi i te mana whenua, ka ngaro noa i te iwi ēnei whenua. He whakamau nui tā Ngāti Awa, mō te rironga atu o Pūtauaki mā ngā tikanga rerekē i ngā rau tau tekau mā iwa, rua tekau hoki:

    (51) I tua atu, kua riro ētahi whenua o Ngāti Awa pēnei i ngā rohenga whenua i Rangitāiki, Poroporo-Rewatu, Matahina, Whakatāne, me Matata mā ngā hanganga ture mahi tūmatanui o te rau tau rua tekau. He wāhi tapu, he urupā, he papakāinga i runga i ētahi o ngā whenua i riro:

    (52) Mai i te tau 1867, kua rapu a Ngāti Awa i te tika, mō ngā hē i mahia ki te iwi e te Karauna. He maha ngā petihana a Ngāti Awa ki te Karauna mō ngā raupatu, ngā mauheretanga, me te rironga atu o ngā whenua i roto i te wā roa. I tae te kaupapa a Ngāti Awa ki mua i te aroaro o te Kōmihana Sim i te tau 1927, ā, kāore i tautokongia e te Kōmihana te kaupapa whānui a Ngāti Awa. Hāunga tērā, i kite te Kōmihana, paku noa iho te whenua i tohaina ki a Ngāi Te Rangihouhiri II rāua ko Ngāti Hikakino. Nō muri mai ka tangohia ai tētahi wāhanga o te whenua nei i raro i Te Ture Mahi Tūmatanui, ā, i te mutunga, i toe mai ki ngā hapū nei ko ētahi whenua tītōhea anake, e kore e puta he oranga. I tūtohu te Kōmihana ki te toha i ētahi whenua i Matatā, engari kāore tēnei tūtohu i puāwai:

    (53) I runga i ngā tūtohinga o te Kōmihana Sim, whiwhi ai ētahi atu iwi ki ētahi utunga ā-tau mai i te Karauna, ā, whakatūria ai ētahi Poari mō ētahi iwi raupatu, hāunga anō a Ngāti Awa.


    (1) The Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi), as set out in English and in Māori in Schedule 1 of the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975, was signed in 1840:

    (2) Recitals (3) to (53) of this Preamble present, in summary form, the background to the Ngāti Awa historical claims that is set out in the deed of settlement entered into by Ngāti Awa and the Crown:

    Background to settlement

    (3) Since the time of the raupatu in 1866, Ngāti Awa has sought redress for its grievances against the Crown including the confiscation of land from Ngāti Awa. The responsibility for seeking redress for breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) has passed through many generations of Ngāti Awa men and women. Following the petitions and representations of the late 19th century, the 1920s, and up to the 1960s, the next significant effort occurred in 1980 with the establishment of the Ngāti Awa Trust Board at the Ngāti Hikakino marae, Puawairua by the hapū and kaumatua of Ngāti Awa including Eruera Manuera, Hare Reneti, Aniheta Ratene, and Matarena Reneti. The hapū of Ngāti Awa established the Trust Board to progress various issues on behalf of the iwi and in particular, to seek redress for the raupatu (including the loss of land, dislocation of hapū, and loss of rangatiratanga), the restoration of Mātaatua wharenui, the return of the Ngāti Awa station, and the return of Putauaki. These principal goals of the Trust Board were encapsulated by Aniheta Ratene in the phrase the bed, the blanket and the pillow—the bed symbolized the lands confiscated from Ngāti Awa, the blanket represented the Ngāti Awa station and the pillow embodied the Ngāti Awa claims to Kawerau:

    (4) In 1988, following an amendment to the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 to allow hearing of claims back to 1840, Ngāti Awa lodged its claim with the Waitangi Tribunal to investigate its Treaty grievances. In 1988 the Crown, in accordance with its policy of devolution to iwi authorities and at the request of Ngāti Awa, enacted Te Runanga o Ngati Awa Act 1988 establishing the Runanga. This included a statutory pardon for those members of Ngāti Awa involved in the events of 1865:

    (5) In 1990 the Crown transferred the Ngāti Awa station to Te Runanga o Ngati Awa. The Crown also made payments totalling $200,000 to Te Runanga o Ngati Awa in 1988 and 1990. In 1994, the Crown transferred the Whakatāne Telecom site at an agreed value of $390,000 to Ngāti Awa. Ngāti Awa has always regarded these returns as part settlement of its raupatu claims against the Crown:

    (6) On 4 July 1994, Ngāti Awa finally began its Waitangi Tribunal case at Te Whare o Toroa Marae in Whakatāne. Ngāti Awa presented its claims at hearings at Kokohinau Marae in Te Teko and Umutahi Marae in Matata, completing the process at Te Whare o Toroa on 1 December 1995:

    (7) In May 1995, the Waitangi Tribunal issued a memorandum observing that, although the Crown had yet to be heard, Ngāti Awa had demonstrated significant and compelling claims that were likely to require substantial compensation from the Crown to remedy past breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi). This point was previously made by the Waitangi Tribunal in its memorandum in November 1994:

    (8) A mandate protocol between the hapū, the Runanga, and the negotiators was prepared and discussed at an annual general meeting in 1996 and at subsequent hui of the Runanga during that year. This was followed by further hui and consultations to confirm the mandate of the negotiators. Cabinet recognised the mandate in October 1996:

    (9) On 21 December 1998, following 3 years of discussions and negotiations the Crown and Te Runanga o Ngati Awa entered into a heads of agreement. This recorded on a without prejudice basis the matters which they had agreed in principle should be contained in a deed of settlement to effect a settlement of Ngāti Awa's historical claims, and their agreement to negotiate in good faith to settle the terms of the deed of settlement:

    (10) On 8 October 1999, the Waitangi Tribunal completed its report entitled The Ngāti Awa Raupatu Report. The principal findings of the Tribunal were that the confiscation of the lands of Ngāti Awa was contrary to the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi), that there was no rebellion to justify confiscation, and that confiscation as effected against Ngāti Awa appears to have been beyond the authority of the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863:

    (11) The Tribunal also found that it was contrary to the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) that the return of lands and reserves was not effected by a fair and open process; that Ngāti Awa's exclusion from the lands to the west of the confiscation line was an additional retribution for their perceived rebellion; that tribal land was converted to individual shareholding and tribal authority was therefore removed and the land was exposed to alienation. The Tribunal also concluded that the claims of Ngāti Awa should be settled by the Crown through Te Runanga o Ngati Awa. While the Crown did not present evidence to the Tribunal and does not necessarily agree with all the findings made by the Waitangi Tribunal, the Crown had acknowledged that the confiscation against Ngāti Awa constituted an injustice and was therefore in breach of the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi):

    (12) In the meantime, the Crown and Ngāti Awa were unable to reach agreement on the basis of the 1998 offer. The Crown made a revised settlement offer in 2000:

    (13) The Crown and Te Runanga o Ngati Awa initialled a deed on 8 July 2002. Ngāti Awa ratified the Crown's settlement offer and entered into a deed of settlement on 27 March 2003 recording matters to give effect to a full and final settlement of all Ngāti Awa's historical claims:

    Return of Mātaatua wharenui

    (14) In the early 1870s the people of Ngāti Awa undertook the construction at Whakatāne of a carved meeting-house, Mātaatua. Construction of Mātaatua was completed at the beginning of 1875. In 1879 Mātaatua was sent by the Crown for exhibition at the Inter-colonial Exhibition in Sydney, Australia. In 1880 the house was sent to Melbourne, then to London to be exhibited. Mātaatua returned to New Zealand in 1924 for the South Seas Exhibition in Dunedin. The Crown agreed to allow the University Museum in Otago to exhibit the meeting-house on permanent loan. Ngāti Awa has always maintained that it did not transfer title to Mātaatua and sought the return of the meeting-house to Whakatāne. In August 1996 Ngāti Awa and the Crown signed a deed of settlement to return Mātaatua to Ngāti Awa. This agreement included a Crown payment of $2 million for the costs of transporting and establishing Mātaatua Wharenui at Whakatāne:

    Historical account

    (15) The apology from the Crown to Ngāti Awa is based on the following historical account:

    Rohe of Ngāti Awa

    (16) Ngāti Awa claim that prior to 1866 they exercised tino rangatiratanga as tangata whenua from time to time over their rohe including: the islands of Motiti, the Rurima group, Moutohorā (Whale Island), Paepae o Aotea (Volkner Rocks), Whakāri (White Island), Ohakana, and Uretara (both the latter 2 islands being situated in Ōhiwa Harbour); the seas from Waihi Estuary near Maketu to Ōhiwa Harbour; the land, forests, lakes, rivers, and swamps bounded to the north by the coastline from Waihi Estuary to Ōhiwa, to the west from the Waihi Estuary along the Pongakawa River to Lake Rotoehu (including the lake itself and the Rotoehu Forest), from Lake Rotoehu to Te Haehaenga, and including Lake Rotoma to the Pokohu, Tuararangaia, and Matahina lands to the south and from there to Ōhiwa Harbour:

    (17) Places of historical and cultural significance to Ngāti Awa include: the mountains called Putauaki at Kawerau (Mt Edgecumbe), Whakapaukorero at Matata and Maunga Whakamana at Te Haehaenga, the hill called Te Tiringa at Awakeri, and Koohi Point at Whakatāne; the rivers Whakatāne, Orini, Rangitaiki, Tarawera, Waitahanui, and the Waikowhewhe and Pongakawa Streams; the Rangitaiki swamp and wetlands; the forests at Rotoehu, Matahina, Kiwinui, Omataroa, Tarawera, and Manawahe; the lakes Rotoehu, Rotoma, Kawerau, Te Tahuna, Roto-Onerahi, Rotoiti Paku, Onepu, and Rotoroa; the thermal areas at Kawerau, Awakeri, Moutohorā, and Whakāri; the harbours at Ōhiwa and Whakatāne; and the estuaries at Waihi, Te Awa a Te Atua at Matata, and Whakatāne:

    (18) Ngāti Awa land and resources were held in customary tenure where tribal and hapū collective custodianship remained paramount. In the exercise of their rangatiratanga the chiefs of Ngāti Awa ensured that very little land within the Ngāti Awa rohe was permanently alienated prior to the confiscation:

    (19) Further, Ngāti Awa claim that in 1865 they were essentially autonomous, economically prosperous, and actively engaged in trade and commerce. They produced and sold commodities such as pigs, flax, vegetables, wheat, timber, and potatoes and were involved in a range of commercial activities including flour milling and merchant shipping. Ngāti Awa also used commodities such as red ochre, mutton-birds, and the resources of the sea for customary trade with other iwi:

    New Zealand Settlements Act 1863

    (20) In 1863, the Crown enacted three important pieces of legislation, the Suppression of Rebellion Act, the New Zealand Loan Act, and the New Zealand Settlements Act, the last of which provided for the confiscation of Māori land whenever the Governor in Council was satisfied that any native tribe, or section of tribe or any considerable number thereof, had been engaged in rebellion against the authority of the Queen. More particularly, the Act was passed into law to provide permanent protection and security of the well-disposed Inhabitants of both races for the prevention of future insurrection or rebellion and for the establishment and maintenance of Her Majesty's authority in Law and Order throughout the Colony. In order to achieve those two broad ends, the Crown proposed introducing settlers into the regions by confiscating land and allotting or selling it to military and other settlers. The returns from the sales of land to settlers were also intended to recoup the Crown's costs of the wars against Māori:

    (21) The British Colonial Office had misgivings about the scope and application of the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863, considering it capable of great abuse. When initially considering the proposal to confiscate lands the Colonial Secretary cautioned the Governor to respect the lands of innocent people and tribes and to apportion the measure of punishment to the degree of guilt. When it later considered the confiscation legislation, the British Colonial Office continued to express serious reservations about the use of the Act and its duration but allowed it to remain in operation because final authority for any confiscation remained with the Governor. The Colonial Secretary instructed the Governor to withhold his consent to any confiscation which was not just and moderate:

    Te Kaokaoroa

    (22) In 1864, according to the traditions of Ngāti Awa, certain hapū of Ngāti Awa, including Te Patutatahi, Ngāti Hikakino, Ngai Te Rangihouhiri II, and some members of Te Tawera and others joined a combined force of various Mātaatua and related iwi which came to be known as the Tai Rawhiti force. This force was destined for the Waikato region to lend assistance to the Waikato tribes who were resisting the unjust invasion of their lands by Crown and colonial forces. It was prevented from travelling through the Rotorua region by a Te Arawa prohibition on armed parties moving through its territory. A number of Te Arawa iwi had sought, and gained, Crown support in this undertaking. A Tai Rawhiti party fought against various Te Arawa iwi in February 1864 at Rotoiti which resulted in loss of life. However, part of this group did proceed to Orakau, in the Waikato region:

    (23) The Tai Rawhiti force made a second attempt to break through at the Waihi estuary, Maketu, in April 1864. Certain Te Arawa iwi, supported by Crown warships and military personnel, repulsed the force. The fighting culminated in the battle of Te Kaokaoroa where Ngāti Awa, particularly Ngāti Hikakino and Ngai Te Rangihouhiri II, and allied hapū and iwi suffered numerous casualties. Several key chiefs of Ngāti Awa were among those lost:

    James Te Mautaranui Fulloon

    (24) In late 1864, Kereopa, Horomona, and Patara, prophets of Pai Marire, arrived in the Whakatāne region and persuaded a number of Ngāti Awa to join Pai Marire. In March 1865, the Reverend Carl Volkner, a missionary living in Opotiki, was killed by local Māori some of whom were influenced by Pai Marire. On 6 March 1865, Ngāti Awa chiefs at Whakatāne expressed strong disapproval of the killing, but also stated that the Crown should not come through their territory while apprehending those responsible for killing Volkner. No military force was authorised by the Government to pursue Volkner's killers through Ngāti Awa territory:

    (25) In February 1865, after a series of runanga, certain chiefs of Ngāti Awa met at Whakatāne and resolved to place an aukati (customary prohibitive measure) about their territory to prevent encroachment into their rohe. Then in July 1865, following a series of hui at Tauaroa and Matata, the Pai Marire prophet Horomona and certain Ngāti Awa chiefs who supported him declared a second aukati. This aukati ran from Cape Runaway in the east to Taranaki in the west. On 19 or 20 July 1865, the Maruiwi, a Te Arawa trading vessel, arrived at Whakatāne. The vessel was seized for breaching the Pai Marire aukati and its crew was held at Whakatāne. On 22 July 1865, the Kate, carrying Crown official James Fulloon and others, arrived at Whakatāne. Fulloon, of Ngāti Awa descent, and three of the crew were killed on board by Ngāti Awa supporters of Pai Marire. Wepiha Apanui of the Whakatāne section of Ngāti Awa then arranged for the burial of his first cousin Hemi (James) Fulloon. There are various explanations for Fulloon's death; Ngāti Awa attribute Fulloon's death to his breach of the aukati. These events evoked various reactions among the hapū of Ngāti Awa:

    The warrant

    (26) On 2 August 1865, T H Smith, as Civil Commissioner at Maketu, issued a warrant for the arrest of those persons alleged to have been responsible for killing Fulloon and others:

    (27) The people who were subject to the warrant were:

    Te Hura Te TaiwhakaripiHaki Waihou
    Te Pitoiwi Te PutareraTe Hemara Tukairangi
    Hakaraia TohoraTure Te Matutaera
    Te Aka o Tau Te HuraParaharaha
    Te Metera Te TiiRaniera Te Werotokotoko
    Hepeta Te TaiHaki Tukino
    KorimanaEria Te Hakona
    Horomona PoropitiHeahea Te Pakihiwi
    Utuku Te RangiHohepa Te Ra
    Te Meihana Te TawaTawhaki
    Te WetiniRaureti
    Tamati o Ngāti HokoHunia Marupo
    Mohi Te PaohiPanapa Rangirewaia
    TuririHakopa Tupika
    Hawera Te HihiraPetera Moki
    Te HekaraPakiuru
     Hohua Karipipi:

    (28) In August 1865, a Crown force of some 500 men was formed. It was drawn primarily from certain neighbouring iwi and hapū, many of whom were the traditional foes of Ngāti Awa and who had been involved in the battle at Te Kaokaoroa. The Crown force, under the command of Major William Mair, Resident Magistrate, entered the rohe of Ngāti Awa to execute the arrest warrant. The purpose of this expedition was explained to Te Hura Te Taiwhakaripi, a Ngāti Awa chief, in mid-August. The Crown force was involved in skirmishes with Ngāti Awa in which some people were killed. Cattle, horses, and other Ngāti Awa property were seized and kainga, wharenui, pataka, and waka were destroyed. This force laid siege to Ngāti Awa pā at Whakatāne, Matata, and Te Teko to which Te Hura and his force had retreated:

    (29) On 2 September 1865, the Crown issued a Proclamation of Peace declaring that the war, which had begun at Oakura in Taranaki in 1863, was at an end. The Proclamation of Peace stated that those who had been in arms against the Crown would not be prosecuted for past offences, but excluded those responsible for the killing of Fulloon. The Proclamation stated that if those responsible for the killing of Fulloon were not given up to the Governor then the Crown would take parts of the lands of those tribes who concealed the murderers. It also called for Māori assistance in stopping all future acts of violence and declared an intention to consult with the great Chiefs about the best means for Māori to be represented in the General Assembly so that they could help make the laws they were called on to obey:

    (30) On 4 September 1865, the Governor issued a proclamation of martial law in the areas of Whakatāne and Opotiki to enable the capture of those accused of the murder of Fulloon and others through the use of military force and to enable them to be tried by court martial. Martial law was to operate in the areas from that time until duly revoked and the proclamation implied that the Crown forces could act as a military force. Both these proclamations appeared in the New Zealand Gazette on 5 September 1865. It is unclear, however, when Ngāti Awa became aware of these proclamations:

    Te Kupenga

    (31) There was an increase in Crown military activity at the end of September. This culminated in 3 days of fighting at Te Kupenga Pā, Te Teko. Eventually, on 20 October 1865, those Ngāti Awa hapū under the leadership of Te Hura Te Taiwhakaripi surrendered at Te Kupenga. They included Te Tawera, Warahoe, Ngai Te Rangihouhiri II, Te Patutatahi, Ngāti Hikakino, and others. Over 30 men, including most of those Ngāti Awa named in the warrant and some others, were placed under arrest and transported to Opotiki for trial by courts martial in November 1865 for the killing of Fulloon and other charges. The courts martial found many of the accused guilty and sentenced them to death:


    (32) On 23 December 1865 James Prendergast, the Attorney-General, provided an opinion on the trial by court martial of the prisoners taken at Opotiki. Prendergast determined that martial law was in no way recognised by the law. As a consequence the Governor then ordered that the Ngāti Awa accused be transported to Auckland to be tried again, this time before the Supreme Court for murder and other charges. The 35 Ngāti Awa accused were all represented by a single legal counsel:

    (33) The following men were charged with piracy and the murders of Fulloon and seaman Ned on board the Kate: Mikaere Kirimangu, Te Hekara, Himone te Auru, Paraharaha, Hoani Poururu, Hoani Hupe, Utuku te Rangi, Te Aka o Tau te Hura, Hunia Marupo, Haki Waihou, Haki Tukino, Tamati o Ngāti Hoko, Tio Wahu, Hawera te Hihira, Heahea te Pakihiwi, and Raniera te Werotokotoko. Three of these men were found innocent on the piracy charge but all were found guilty of murder. Ten other men were charged with being accessories before the fact to the murders. They were Te Hura Te Tai, Te Pitoiwi Te Putarera, Hepeta Te Tai, Horomona Poropiti, Mohi Te Paohi, Te Hemara, Hakaraia Tohora, Te Uwhi Te Haraki, Kereama Toitoi, and Ture Te Matutaera. Six men were also charged with receiving stolen goods from the Kate. By 23 March 1866, all those tried before the Court were found guilty on at least 1 charge and were sentenced to execution or imprisonment. Mikaere Kirimangu and Horomona Poropiti (Taranaki) were executed for the murder of Fulloon on 17 May 1866. Eleven of the men sentenced to death had their sentences commuted to life imprisonment and the other death sentences were commuted to between 4 and 14 years' penal servitude. Those charged with receiving stolen goods were sentenced to 3 years' hard labour. In 1867 and 1868 pardons were issued to some of these men but most served out their terms. Three men died while in prison, namely Tamati o Ngāti Hoko (1 August 1866), Hepeta Te Tai (26 November 1866), and Paraharaha (18 December 1866). Those who died in prison were interred without ceremony in the prison grounds. After regular requests over the generations their remains were released for reinterment with their families in 1988:

    (34) Ngāti Awa say that many of those who were eventually released were unable to return to their homes in Whakatāne and Matata because of the shame they felt as a consequence of their imprisonment and the confiscation. They lived in the King Country with Te Kooti Rikirangi under the protection of Ngāti Maniapoto. Most of them died and were buried outside of the rohe of Ngāti Awa but were eventually exhumed and reinterred at Ohuirehe Urupa near Whakatāne by Te Kooti Rikirangi and his followers in 1885:


    (35) By Orders in Council on 17 January and 1 September 1866, approximately 448 000 acres of land was proclaimed to be confiscated under the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863 as a consequence of Bay of Plenty tribes being deemed by the Crown to have been in rebellion. The Act did not mention punishment but was punitive in nature:

    (36) The boundaries of the confiscated area were:

    All that land bounded by a line commencing at the mouth of the Waitahanui River, Bay of Plenty, and running due south for a distance of 20 miles; then to the summit of (Mt Edgecombe) Putanaki [sic], thence by a straight line in an easterly direction to a point 11 miles due south from the entrance to the Ōhiwa Harbour, thence by a line running due east for 25 miles; thence by a line to the mouth of the Aparapara [sic] River and thence following the coastline to the point of commencement at Waitahanui”.

    (37) Within the area covered by the proclamation Ngāti Awa had approximately 245 000 acres of its land confiscated in 1866. This was indiscriminate in that the lands taken greatly exceeded the minimum necessary for achieving the purposes of the New Zealand Settlements Act:

    (38) The confiscation of land affected all Ngāti Awa hapū, including many hapū who had never been engaged in any conflict with the Crown. The result was that all of the hapū of Ngāti Awa then had to go through the Compensation Court and other processes to seek the return of their land:

    Wilson's arrangements and the Compensation Court

    (39) In February 1866, prior to the sitting of the Compensation Court, the Crown appointed a special commissioner, John A Wilson, to deal with the allocation of confiscated lands in the Bay of Plenty. Wilson was involved in making arrangements with various hapū for the return of land. Military awards for services rendered were made to certain Te Arawa iwi and other tribes from the 87 000 acre blocks west of the Tarawera River, which included the bulk of the area Ngāti Awa claim as their western rohe (other iwi also claim an interest in this area). By 1885 the Crown had purchased most of this land. Wilson's arrangements provided for the return of approximately 77 000 acres awarded to Ngāti Awa individuals in the form of reserves. This land was part of the 245 000 acres originally confiscated from the iwi in 1866:

    (40) Wilson's activities were carried out under the provisions of the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863 and its amendments. In order to validate his arrangements, the Crown then enacted further legislation including the Confiscated Lands Act 1867, the Richmond Land Sales Act 1870, the Whakatāne Grants Validation Act 1878, and the Native Land Claims and Boundaries Adjustments and Titles Empowering Act 1894:

    (41) The Compensation Court was established by the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863 to compensate anyone who had suffered land confiscation when they had not been in rebellion. The Court began its hearings in the region in March 1867. The presiding judges were William Mair and Thomas Smith, both of whom played important roles in either leading or directing the Crown's expeditionary force prior to confiscation. In many cases, the Court validated Wilson's arrangements as out of court settlements:

    (42) Those Ngāti Awa not wishing to settle with Wilson filed claims with the Court but those who could not attend the Court to pursue their claims, especially those who had been imprisoned in 1866, were inevitably excluded. In several cases non-attendance at court hearings was due to inadequate notice, the inability of claimants to attend and hearings being held outside of the rohe of Ngāti Awa:

    (43) Although Māori claimants were required to comply with Compensation Court processes or be excluded, in 1866 Parliament retrospectively declared the Court's own actions and proceedings to be valid and beyond judicial scrutiny, even if statutory requirements had not been met:

    (44) Ngāti Awa were subsequently excluded by the compensation process from those blocks falling within the confiscation line and the western part of the Ngāti Awa rohe, namely Matata Lots 31, 39, and 63. These lands comprised an area in excess of 50 000 acres and made up the bulk of the western rohe claimed by Ngāti Awa. In the case of Matata Lot 63 Ngāti Awa witnesses gave a large amount of evidence and were supported by members of certain Te Arawa iwi. Despite this, the Court awarded this lot to another iwi who had given military service to the Crown. There was no provision for appeal from the decisions of the Court:

    (45) The compensation process and its outcomes added to the upheaval and distress of the people of Ngāti Awa about the confiscation. There was uncertainty about who was entitled to claim compensation from the Court. It often took up to 10 years before a Crown grant was issued for the land returned. Some hapū received land that was previously occupied by other hapū and the Whakatāne section of Ngāti Awa also had to accept members of other hapū onto their lands, including those from the Matata region who had been more directly involved in the battles of 1864 and 1865. A large proportion of the land that Wilson had arranged for return was mountainous, barren country. Once land was restored either through Wilson's arrangements or the Compensation Court process, it was returned to individuals rather than to the hapū and iwi. The awards did not reflect customary forms of land tenure and the land became more susceptible to sale:

    (46) In future years Ngāti Awa's interests in the blocks to the west of the confiscation line were not recognised in the awards of the Native Land Court. Ngāti Awa consider that, because of the events of 1865 to 1867, including the determinations of the Compensation Court, they were prejudiced in later Native Land Court cases involving these blocks:

    The operations of the native land laws, subsequent purchases, and other alienations

    (47) The Native Land Court was established under the Native Land Acts of 1862 and 1865 to determine the owners of Māori land according to Native Custom and to convert customary title into title derived from the Crown. The Crown's pre-emptive right of land purchase was also set aside, enabling Māori to lease and sell their lands with few restrictions. As was often the case in the 1860s, there was limited consultation concerning this legislation, and the Crown did not specifically consult Ngāti Awa. Māori had no direct representation in Parliament at this time. Ngāti Awa therefore considers that this change in the land tenure system was imposed on them:

    (48) In the 1870s Crown land purchase agents were instructed to purchase land in the Rangitaiki area and sometimes negotiated leases and deeds of transfer prior to the land being taken to the Native Land Court for title investigation. During the 1870s, 1880s, and 1890s Ngāti Awa made claims to lands south of the confiscation line. Their claims to Ruatoki and Kaingaroa blocks were not upheld by the Court. The Native Land Court awarded Ngāti Awa hapū interests in the Pokohu, Putauaki, Matahina, Waiohau, and Tuararangaia blocks over this period. In most cases the Court also awarded parts of these land blocks, regarded by Ngāti Awa as theirs, to other iwi. The Crown later ordered rehearings into some of the blocks by way of legislation. As a result, Ngāti Awa lost some of the land they had originally been awarded at Pokohu and Matahina:

    (49) The Court awarded Ngāti Awa approximately 79 000 acres in the Matahina block after a title investigation hearing in 1881. A rehearing was held in 1884 and Ngāti Awa were awarded a reduced area of approximately 74 300 acres. An area of 8 500 acres of this was immediately taken by the Crown in payment of a survey lien. Native Land Court awards were made in the names of individuals and while Ngāti Awa managed to retain most of the land awarded to them for some time, the process of individualising and partitioning of interests accelerated in the 20th century. This resulted in substantial fragmentation and as a consequence many private sales occurred throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries. By 1980 Ngāti Awa's interests in the Matahina block had been reduced to 240 acres in Matahina A1D1. Ngāti Awa consider the loss of this block a significant grievance, which is encapsulated in the waiata Tangi mo Matahina:

    (50) Putauaki is the tipuna maunga of all Ngāti Awa. Putauaki was bisected by the confiscation boundary and, consequently, the northern portion of the maunga was awarded to Te Pahipoto and Nga Maihi by the Compensation Court in 1867. The southern portion of the maunga was within the Putauaki block. An agreement for the sale of the block, subject to conditions, was arranged between Crown purchase agents and some Ngāti Awa in 1879 but title to the block was not investigated by the Native Land Court until 1881. The Court awarded the block to Ngāti Awa and the iwi requested the land be made inalienable. Ten days later, however, on a request from 2 Ngāti Awa chiefs, Rangitukehu and Penetito, the Court divided the block into 3 parts. The largest block was vested in 15 individuals and immediately sold to the Crown. Within days, 27 Ngāti Awa men, women, and children petitioned the Native Minister protesting the alienation of the block. Those involved in the sale later requested that the Crown return this and other blocks in exchange for a refund of the purchase money but the Crown did not agree. The remainder of the block, which included the maunga, was awarded to various individuals of Ngāti Awa and other iwi and ceased to be a tribal asset as a consequence of this process of individualisation. Ngāti Awa consider the alienation of Putauaki through various processes in the 19th and 20th centuries to be a significant grievance:

    (51) Ngāti Awa also lost land through acquisitions under public works legislation in the 20th century, including blocks in the Rangitaiki, Poroporo-Rewatu, Matahina, Whakatāne, and Matata areas. There were urupa, other wāhi tapu, and papakainga on some of the lands taken:

    (52) Ngāti Awa have sought justice for the wrongs inflicted on the iwi by the Crown since 1867. Numerous petitions were sent to the Crown relating to the confiscations, imprisonments, and the loss of land over many generations. Ngāti Awa's case was heard before the Sim Commission in 1927 but the Commission did not find in favour of the general Ngāti Awa claim. The Commission did, however, find that Ngai Te Rangihouhiri II and Ngāti Hikakino had been granted only a small area of land. This was later depleted by a taking under public works legislation and as a result these hapū were left with poor quality land which was insufficient to support them. The Commission recommended the award of some land at Matata, but this never eventuated:

    (53) As a result of the recommendations of the Sim Commission other iwi had annuities paid to them by the Crown, and Trust Boards were established for some raupatu iwi, but not for Ngāti Awa.