Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998

  • This version was replaced on 3 May 2017 to make corrections to sections 357(1), 396(5), and 436(1), and Schedules 7, 36, 58, 69, 100, 101, 102, 103, and 104 under section 25(1)(e) and (j)(ii) and (iii) of the Legislation Act 2012, and then to make a correction to section 144 under section 25(1)(j)(ii) of the Legislation act 2012.

Schedule 58 Statutory acknowledgement for Te Ana-au (Lake Te Anau)

ss 205, 206

Statutory area

The statutory area to which this statutory acknowledgement applies is the lake known as Te Ana-au (Lake Te Anau), the location of which is shown on Allocation Plan MD 42 (SO 12259).


Under section 206, the Crown acknowledges Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu’s statement of Ngāi Tahu’s cultural, spiritual, historic, and traditional association to Te Ana-au, as set out below.

Ngāi Tahu association with Te Ana-au

Te Ana-au is one of the lakes referred to in the tradition of “Ngā Puna Wai Karikari o Rakaihautu” which tells how the principal lakes of Te Wai Pounamu were dug by the rangatira (chief) Rakaihautu. Rakaihautu was the captain of the canoe, Uruao, which brought the tribe, Waitaha, to New Zealand. Rakaihautu beached his canoe at Whakatū (Nelson). From Whakatū, Rakaihautu divided the new arrivals in two, with his son taking one party to explore the coastline southwards and Rakaihautu taking another southwards by an inland route. On his inland journey southward, Rakaihautu used his famous kō (a tool similar to a spade) to dig the principal lakes of Te Wai Pounamu, including Te Ana-au.

For Ngāi Tahu, traditions such as this represent the links between the cosmological world of the gods and present generations, these histories reinforce tribal identity and solidarity, and continuity between generations, and document the events which shaped the environment of Te Wai Pounamu and Ngāi Tahu as an iwi.

Te Ana-au figures in Ngāi Tahu histories as one of the last places where Ngāi Tahu and Ngāti Mamoe came into conflict after the peace established between Rakiihia and Te Hautapunui o Tū. After Rakiihia had died, his bones were stripped of flesh and were buried in a cave on a cliff facing the seaside near Dunedin. However, a landslip led to the bones being uncovered. The bones were found by Ngāi Tahu fishermen and made into fish hooks, an act designed to insult. Among Māori it was a practice to take the bones of enemy leaders who had recently died, fashion them into fish hooks and present fish caught with them to the enemy as a gift. Once the fish had been eaten, the enemy would be told they had feasted on fish that had in turn feasted on their dead.

While Ngāi Tahu were fishing with their Ngāti Mamoe relations, one of the Ngāi Tahu fishermen referred to the fish biting the bones of Rakiihia. The Ngāti Mamoe fisherman recognised the insult and checked the cave in which their leader had been interred. Finding that the grave had been desecrated, the Ngāti Mamoe found and killed the son of a senior Ngāi Tahu rangatira (chief). Before Ngāi Tahu could retaliate, the Ngāti Mamoe were warned that they should leave the coast for the inland lakes where they would not be found. Ngāti Mamoe headed to Te Ana-au. Among this Ngāti Mamoe party was Rakiihia’s brother, Pukutahi. Pukutahi fell sick along Te Ana-au’s shoreline and rested while his followers explored the lake to find a safer place.

Approaching the lakes, Te Hau, the leader of the Ngāi Tahu party, observed that the fugitives had divided in two, and unfortunately for Pukutahi, decided to follow the trail up to Te Ana-au. The Ngāti Mamoe camp was found and in the morning the chiefs of Ngāti Mamoe, including Pukutahi, were killed. This was to be one of the last battles between the tribes.

The lake was an important mahinga kai in the interior. The tūpuna had considerable knowledge of whakapapa, traditional trails and tauranga waka, places for gathering kai and other taonga, ways in which to use the resources of Te Ana-au, the relationship of people with the lake and their dependence on it, and tikanga for the proper and sustainable utilisation of resources. All of these values remain important to Ngāi Tahu today.

The mauri of Te Ana-au represents the essence that binds the physical and spiritual elements of all things together, generating and upholding all life. All elements of the natural environment possess a life force, and all forms of life are related. Mauri is a critical element of the spiritual relationship of Ngāi Tahu Whānui with the lake.

Purposes of statutory acknowledgement

Pursuant to section 215, and without limiting the rest of this schedule, the only purposes of this statutory acknowledgement are—


to require that consent authorities forward summaries of resource consent applications to Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu as required by regulations made pursuant to section 207 (clause 12.2.3 of the deed of settlement); and


to require that consent authorities, Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga, or the Environment Court, as the case may be, have regard to this statutory acknowledgement in relation to Te Ana-au, as provided in sections 208 to 210 (clause 12.2.4 of the deed of settlement); and


to empower the Minister responsible for management of Te Ana-au or the Commissioner of Crown Lands, as the case may be, to enter into a Deed of Recognition as provided in section 212 (clause 12.2.6 of the deed of settlement); and


to enable Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu and any member of Ngāi Tahu Whānui to cite this statutory acknowledgement as evidence of the association of Ngāi Tahu to Te Ana-au as provided in section 211 (clause 12.2.5 of the deed of settlement).

Limitations on effect of statutory acknowledgement

Except as expressly provided in sections 208 to 211, 213, and 215,—


this statutory acknowledgement does not affect, and is not to be taken into account in, the exercise of any power, duty, or function by any person or entity under any statute, regulation, or bylaw; and


without limiting paragraph (a), no person or entity, in considering any matter or making any decision or recommendation under any statute, regulation, or bylaw, may give any greater or lesser weight to Ngāi Tahu’s association to Te Ana-au (as described in this statutory acknowledgement) than that person or entity would give under the relevant statute, regulation, or bylaw, if this statutory acknowledgement did not exist in respect of Te Ana-au.

Except as expressly provided in this Act, this statutory acknowledgement does not affect the lawful rights or interests of any person who is not a party to the deed of settlement.

Except as expressly provided in this Act, this statutory acknowledgement does not, of itself, have the effect of granting, creating, or providing evidence of any estate or interest in, or any rights of any kind whatsoever relating to, Te Ana-Au.

Schedule 58: amended, on 20 May 2014, by section 107 of the Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga Act 2014 (2014 No 26).