The area to which this statutory acknowledgement applies (statutory area) is the area known as Koohi Point, as shown on SO 61401, South Auckland Land District.
Under section 40, the Crown acknowledges Ngāti Awa’s statement of its cultural, spiritual, historical, and traditional association to Koohi Point as set out below.
Cultural, spiritual, historical, and traditional association of Ngāti Awa with statutory area
It is the historical traditions of Ngāti Awa that illustrate the relationship of Ngāti Awa to Koohi Point Scenic Reserve. For Ngāti Awa, traditions such as these represent the links between the world of the gods and present generations. These histories reinforce tribal identity, solidarity, and continuity between generations and document the events which shaped the environment of Koohi Point and Ngāti Awa as an iwi.
Ngāti Awa has resided at Koohi Point since the time of the ancestor Tīwakawaka, many generations before the arrival of the Mātaatua waka at Whakatāne. Tīwakawaka was the first explorer to discover and settle the land around Kākahoroa (Whakatāne). His waka was Te Aratauwhāiti and his descendants were the original people of Kākahoroa. Some of the crew of Te Aratauwhāiti are commemorated in the names of the rocks at Koohi Point.
Twelve generations from Tīwakawaka came the ancestor Toi te Huatahi. Toi resided at Kāpūterangi Pā which is located above the Koohi Point Scenic Reserve. On the arrival of Hoaki and Taukata to the area in search of their sister, Kanioro, they were treated to a feast consisting of fern root, berries, and other forest foods. Upon tasting these foods they took an instant dislike to them, remarking that it was just like eating wood. It was from this event that Toi became known as Toi-kai-rākau (Toi the vegetarian). Hoaki and Taukata asked for a bowl of water in which they added dried preserved kūmara or kao and asked their hosts to taste it. Having tasted this delicious kai they desired to have more of it. A canoe was built from driftwood log (tāwhaowhao) and named accordingly Te Ara Tāwhao. Tama ki Hikurangi was chosen to captain the canoe to go in search of the source of the kūmara. These events occurred near Te Haehaenga, the beach immediately below Koohi near the Whakatāne River.
A significant event in the history of Ngāti Awa was the arrival of the waka Mātaatua, captained by Toroa, the chief of Mātaatua and one of the principal ancestors of Ngāti Awa. Mātaatua faced rough waters as it approached the headland at Whakatāne (Koohi Point). The turbulence was so bad that it caused the daughter of Toroa, Wairaka, to suffer the indignity of experiencing sea sickness. The term by which Ngāti Awa tipuna later called this experience was
“kō-hī” (to be ill). Hence the name by which the rocks, the point, and adjacent land is known today.
The name Koohi is well known in the traditions of Ngāti Awa and appears in several waiata and in the following well known proverb:
Ngā mate i Koohi me tangi mai i Kawerau, ngā mate o
Kawerau me tangi atu i Koohi.
The deaths at Koohi will be wept over at Kawerau and the deaths at Kawerau will be wept over at Koohi.
Ngāti Awa have traditionally regarded the Koohi Point Rocks as toka tipua (rocks imbued with spiritual and sacred qualities) and the places as papanga tawhito (ancient sites of traditional significance). Ngāti Awa tipuna used the naming of the rocks at Koohi to record significant events and rangatira throughout their history. The Koohi Point Rocks have been personalised with the names of some of those involved in the Mātaatua canoe’s lengthy ocean passage. The Koohi Point Rocks are made up of a number of different rocks, some of which are referred to here to signify the importance of the Koohi Point Scenic Reserve and contiguous coastal area to Ngāti Awa. All the Koohi Point Rocks, aside from Hine-tū-aho-anga, Hī-moki, and Toka-tapu, are owned by Ngāti Awa.
Hi-moki is in the mouth of the Whakatāne River and was regarded as a very significant fishing spot. The next Koohi Point Rock is Hine-tū-aho-anga, named after a woman who was a leader of the sandstone people back in the ancient lands of Hawaiki. This rock was used for sharpening tools in ancient times.
To the west of Koohi Pā is Te Puke a Hawaiki, also known as Hingarae or Sugar Loaf Rock. This rock was named after an accident where a rangatira slipped and hit his forehead. Next to Hingarae are Te Toka Koakaroa, commonly referred to as Koakaroa, which is the traditional name of the entrance to the Whakatāne River, and Areiawa. The latter is submerged in the channel of the 2 former rocks and is historically known as the guardian rock of the Whakatāne River. Sited amongst these rocks is Toka Kuku-pōniania, commonly referred to as Niania Rock. Niania is a species of mussel commonly found in the area.
Kōpua Huruhuru is an area of water north-east of Te Puke a Hawaiki and encompasses the shoreline and bed of rocks north of it. This area was well known as a harvesting place for seafood. Below the very point of this headland are Koohi Point and Rukupō rocks. The latter rock is significant in Ngāti Awa mythology in that it was here that the famous tohunga Te Tahinga o te Rangi rested when he returned from Whakāri (White Island).
On the eastern coastline of Koohi Point Scenic Reserve is Te Toka o te Rua o te Ika (Fish Hole), a bay renowned by Ngāti Awa for the varieties of fish that dwell there. In the middle of this bay is a rock island of the same name. Located off its eastern point is a submerged rock called Whakāri of the same name as the island volcano. Whakāri and the adjourning bay, Pipiko, are popular nesting areas for the grey-faced petrel commonly known as muttonbird or tītī. The area was also a popular spot from which Ngāti Awa people collected kaimoana including koura, paua, and kina. Paparoa and Ōtarawairere are also areas on the eastern side of Koohi Point Scenic Reserve that were well known as recreational sites for the collection of seafood.
The particular Ngāti Awa hapū who lived on and around the lands of the Koohi Point Scenic Reserve were Te Patutātahi or Ngai Taiwhakaea II, Ngāti Hokopū, and Ngāti Pūkeko (which was previously referred to as Ngai Tonu). Patutāhora and Ngāti Rangataua were divisions of Ngāti Pūkeko. Ngāti Wharepaia, a division of Ngāti Hokopū, and Te Patuwai also have historical and cultural connections to Koohi Point by virtue of their descent from the Ngāti Awa ancestors, Taiwhakaea I, Te Rangitipukiwaho I, Taiwhakaea II, Nukutaimehameha, Paiaka, Te Hemahema, Te Pūtārera, and Te Hāmaiwaho. Other hapū of the area included Ngāti Ikapuku, Ngāti Maumoana, Ngāti Hore, Ngāti Paeko, Ngāti Whakapoi, and Ngāti Whakahinga.
Ngāti Awa people occupied a number of pā sites at Koohi Point. Aside from Kāpūterangi, the famous pā of Toi, there was a neighbouring pā site called Ōrāhiri. Ōrāhiri derived its name from Rāhiri, the son of Puhi-moana-ariki, the brother of Toroa. Although there were other pā sites on Koohi Point during the time of Puhi and Toroa, Ōrāhiri was the only settlement with a chief, namely Puhi. Toroa himself lived on the flat lands below Koohi Point.
There was an instance during the kūmara planting season when Puhi, who lived at Koohi Point, being jealous of his older brother Toroa for holding the mana of Mātaatua as bestowed upon him by his father Irakewa, set out to insult his tuakana (older brother). After hearing the insult directed at him by his younger brother, Toroa reciprocated. Bitter resentment arose between the 2 brothers, with Puhi deciding to take the Mātaatua waka and seek a new home in the North.
Papa-Whāriki was another area of occupation by Ngāti Awa at Koohi Point. Papa-Whāriki overlooked Te Ana o Muriwai (Muriwai’s Cave). There were three sites at Papa-Whāriki. Below this site, directly opposite Te Ana o Muriwai at the water front, once stood Irakewa Island. Irakewa was the father of Toroa. The island held a spiritual significance for Ngāti Awa as descendants of this ancestor.
Another pā at Koohi Point was Taumata Kahawai. The name of this pā signifies a lookout place for Kahawai. Taumata Kahawai was occupied by the chief Taiwhakaea I, founder of the hapū of Te Patutātahi or Ngai Taiwhakaea and of Ngāti Ikapuku. These hapū were responsible for observing the ocean and surrounding shores for possible invasion and shoals of fish.
Other pā sites within the Koohi Point Scenic Reserve include Te Rae o te Tāmure, Koohi, and Te Whakatere. Te Rae o te Tāmure Pā is situated on the ridge between Ōhope West and Ōtarawairere beach at Koohi Point. It runs north from the vicinity of Ōtarawairere down to the cliffs at the seaside edge of the ridge. Situated at the bottom of the cliff is a very important fishing rock called Whanga-pānui where snapper would gather in abundance (hence the name
“The Gathering Place of Snapper”).
There were other pā sites at Koohi Point, adjacent to the modern day Koohi Point Scenic Reserve. Pāpaka was located directly above Pōhaturoa Rock at Koohi Point. Opposite and south of Pāpaka is another well known pā site, Puketapu. To the east of Pāpaka and towards Te Wairere Falls were Koohinepipi and Tamatea-Iwi. Below these pā to the north-east was Kuharoa. Further Ngāti Awa pā at Koohi Point were Hauwai, Kuharua, Kāeaea, Pāhau, Tikotikorere, and Tirotiro Whetū. These were all settlements named and occupied by Ngāti Awa. The people of these pā also utitilised the abundant resources of the Koohi Point Scenic Reserve.
The various pā and other sites within and in the vicinity of Koohi Point Scenic Reserve demonstrate the general and special significance of the statutory area to Ngāti Awa. They show how the region has been occupied by Ngāti Awa hapū since the time of the Mātaatua waka and before.
The Ngāti Awa tipuna had considerable knowledge of whakapapa, traditional trails and tauranga waka, places for gathering kai and other taonga, ways in which to use the resources of the Koohi Point area, the relationship of people with the area and their dependence on it, and tikanga for the proper and sustainable utilisation of resources. All of these values remain important to the people of Ngāti Awa today.
Koohi Point Scenic Reserve is the repository of many kōiwi tangata, secreted away in places throughout the Reserve. Urupā are the resting places of Ngāti Awa tipuna and, as such, are the focus of whānau traditions. Urupā and wāhi tapu are places holding the memories, traditions, victories, and defeats of Ngāti Awa tipuna, and are frequently protected in secret locations.
The mauri of the coastal area represents the essence that binds the physical and spiritual elements of all things together, generating and upholding all life. All elements of the natural environment possess a life force and all forms of life are related. Mauri is a critical element of the spiritual relationship of Ngāti Awa whānui to Koohi Point Scenic Reserve.
Purposes of statutory acknowledgement
Under section 41, and without limiting the rest of this schedule, the purposes of this statutory acknowledgement are—
to require that relevant consent authorities, Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga, or the Environment Court, as the case may be, have regard to this statutory acknowledgement in relation to Koohi Point, as provided in sections 42 to 44; and
to require that relevant consent authorities forward summaries of resource consent applications to the Ngāti Awa governance entity as provided in section 46; and
to enable the Ngāti Awa governance entity and any member of Ngāti Awa to cite this statutory acknowledgement as evidence of the association of Ngāti Awa to Koohi Point as provided in section 47.
Limitations on effect of statutory acknowledgement
Except as expressly provided in sections 41 to 44 and 47,—
this statutory acknowledgement does not affect, and is not to be taken into account in, the exercise of any power, duty, or function by any person or entity under any statute, regulation, or bylaw; and
no person or entity, in considering any matter or making any decision or recommendation under any statute, regulation, or bylaw, may give any greater or lesser weight to Ngāti Awa’s association with Koohi Point than that person or entity would give under the relevant statute, regulation, or bylaw, if this statutory acknowledgement had not been made.
Except as expressly provided in subpart 3 of Part 4, this statutory acknowledgement does not affect the lawful rights or interests of any person who is not a party to the deed of settlement.
Except as expressly provided in subpart 3 of Part 4, this statutory acknowledgement does not have the effect of granting, creating, or providing evidence of any estate or interest in, or any rights of any kind whatsoever relating to, Koohi Point.
No limitation on the Crown
The existence of this statutory acknowledgement does not prevent the Crown from providing a statutory acknowledgement in respect of Koohi Point to a person or persons other than Ngāti Awa or a representative entity.
Schedule 4: amended, on 20 May 2014, by section 107 of the Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga Act 2014 (2014 No 26).