Te Kawerau ā Maki Claims Settlement Act 2015

8 Acknowledgements

(1)

The Crown acknowledges that until now it has failed to deal with the long-standing grievances of Te Kawerau ā Maki in an appropriate way and that recognition of these grievances is long overdue.

(2)

The Crown acknowledges that Te Kawerau ā Maki has honoured its obligations under the Treaty of Waitangi since 1840.

(3)

The Crown acknowledges that in considering pre-Treaty land transactions and pre-emption waiver purchases for lands in which Te Kawerau ā Maki had interests, it breached the Treaty of Waitangi and its principles when it—

(a)

failed to consider the interests of Te Kawerau ā Maki before approving these transactions; and

(b)

applied a policy of taking surplus lands from these transactions without assessing the adequacy of lands that Te Kawerau ā Maki held.

(4)

The Crown acknowledges that it did not properly apply certain regulations for pre-emption waiver transactions, including for lands in the West Auckland and upper Waitemata Harbour regions. The Crown also acknowledges that it did not always protect Māori interests during investigation into these transactions.

(5)

The Crown acknowledges that in purchasing the extensive area called Mahurangi and Ōmaha in 1841 it breached the Treaty of Waitangi and its principles when it—

(a)

failed to conduct an adequate investigation of customary rights when it purchased the land; and

(b)

acquired the land without the knowledge and consent of Te Kawerau ā Maki; and

(c)

failed to provide adequate compensation and reserves for the future use and benefit of Te Kawerau ā Maki when it later learned of their interests in the purchase area.

(6)

The Crown further acknowledges that—

(a)

it failed to adequately survey and define the Mahurangi and Ōmaha purchase and this caused confusion and uncertainty for Te Kawerau ā Maki; and

(b)

the process whereby the Crown granted land to settlers within the Mahurangi and Ōmaha purchase area compounded the prejudice arising from the 1841 transaction.

(7)

The Crown acknowledges that in purchasing the extensive area called Hikurangi in 1853–1854 it breached the Treaty of Waitangi and its principles when it—

(a)

failed to conduct an adequate investigation of customary rights when it purchased this land; and

(b)

acquired the land without the knowledge or consent of Te Kawerau ā Maki; and

(c)

failed to provide adequate compensation or reserves for the future use and benefit of Te Kawerau ā Maki when it later learned of their interests in the land.

(8)

The Crown acknowledges that the 1853 and 1854 purchase deeds for Hikurangi, Paeōterangi, and Puatainga contained provisions that 10% of the proceeds of sale were to be expended for the benefit of Māori and for specific payments to be made to the vendors. The Crown failed to keep adequate records after 1874 and the vendors, including Te Kawerau ā Maki, received no further identifiable benefit under the 10% provision.

(9)

The Crown acknowledges that when it purchased a large amount of land in the Waitākere region between 1853 and 1856 it failed to actively protect Te Kawerau ā Maki by ensuring adequate lands were reserved from the purchase and thereafter protected from alienation and this was in breach of the Treaty of Waitangi and its principles.

(10)

The Crown acknowledges that—

(a)

it introduced the native land laws without consulting Te Kawerau ā Maki and the individualisation of title imposed by these laws was inconsistent with Te Kawerau ā Maki tikanga; and

(b)

Te Kawerau ā Maki had no choice but to participate in the Native Land Court system to protect their interests in their lands and to integrate into the modern economy; and

(c)

the Native Land Court title determination process carried significant costs, including survey and hearing costs, which at times contributed to the alienation of Te Kawerau ā Maki land; and

(d)

the operation and impact of the native land laws made the lands of Te Kawerau ā Maki more susceptible to partition, fragmentation, and alienation. This further contributed to the erosion of tribal structures of Te Kawerau ā Maki, which were based on collective ownership of land. The Crown failed to take adequate steps to actively protect those structures. This had a prejudicial effect on Te Kawerau ā Maki and was a breach of the Treaty of Waitangi and its principles.

(11)

The Crown acknowledges that it did not promote any means in the native land law legislation for a form of collective title enabling Te Kawerau ā Maki to administer and utilise their lands until 1894, by which time title to much Te Kawerau ā Maki land had been awarded to individuals. The failure to promote a legal means for collective administration of Te Kawerau ā Maki land was a breach of the Treaty of Waitangi and its principles.

(12)

The Crown acknowledges that lands of significance to Te Kawerau ā Maki at Kopironui and elsewhere were acquired by the Crown for sand-dune reclamation purposes between 1920 and 1951, including through compulsory taking. The Crown acknowledges that it did not work with Te Kawerau ā Maki to find an alternative to compulsory acquisition and that the loss of these lands has hindered Te Kawerau ā Maki access to urupā, kaimoana, and other resources and that this acquisition has been a major grievance for Te Kawerau ā Maki.

(13)

The Crown acknowledges the loss of Te Kawerau ā Maki wāhi tapu through Crown and private purchases and public works takings and that this loss was prejudicial to Te Kawerau ā Maki cultural and spiritual well-being.

(14)

The Crown acknowledges that Te Kawerau ā Maki have experienced ongoing difficulties in accessing and managing their few remaining lands.

(15)

The Crown acknowledges that the cumulative effect of the Crown purchasing, public works takings, and private purchasing has left Te Kawerau ā Maki virtually landless. The Crown’s failure to ensure that Te Kawerau ā Maki were left with sufficient land for their present and future needs was a breach of the Treaty of Waitangi and its principles. This hindered the social, economic, and cultural development of Te Kawerau ā Maki as a tribe, and undermined the ability of Te Kawerau ā Maki to protect and manage their taonga and their wāhi tapu and to maintain spiritual connections to their lands. The Crown further acknowledges that this has severely impacted on the well-being of Te Kawerau ā Maki today.

Whakaaetanga ki te Whakataunga a Te Kawerau ā Maki

(1)

E whakaae ana te Karauna, mohoa noa nei, nōna i hē ai ki te whakatikatika i ngā aureretanga nō mai rā anō o Te Kawerau ā Maki i runga i te tika me te pono ā, kua roa rawa te wā e noho tārewa tonu ana ēnei nawe.

(2)

E whakaae ana te Karauna, e te mau tonu a Te Kawerau ā Maki ki ōna here ki raro i Te Tiriti o Waitangi mai i te tau 1840.

(3)

E whakaae ana te Karauna, nā te whakatau i ngā whakawhitinga whenua nō mua i te Tiriti me ngā hokonga ā-unu mana hoko mō ngā whenua i whai pānga atu ai a Te Kawerau ā Maki, he takahitanga tērā i te Tiriti o Waitangi me ōna mātāpono inā—

(a)

kāore i āta whakaarohia ngā pānga tuku iho o Te Kaweau ā Maki i mua i te whakaaetanga atu o ēnei whakawhitinga; ā

(b)

ka whakahaeretia he kaupapahere e hāngai ana ki te tango i ngā whenua e toe ana i ēnei whakawhitinga me te kore aro atu ki te hāngaitanga o ngā whenua i pupurutia tonutia ai e Te Kawerau ā Maki.

(4)

E whakaae ana te Karauna, kāore ia i āta whakarite here e pā ana ki ngā whakawhitinga ā-unu mana hoko, tae atu ki ngā whenua i Tāmaki Makaurau ki te Uru me ngā rohe o te Whanga o Waitematā ki runga. E whakaae hoki ana te Karauna, kāore i āta tiakina e ia ngā pānga Māori i ngā wā katoa i te wā o ngā uiuitanga i ēnei whakawhitinga.

(5)

E whakaae ana te Karauna, nā tana hokonga i te whenua rarahi nei e kīia ana, ko “Mahurangi me Ōmaha” i te tau 1841, he takahitanga tērā i Te Tiriti o Waitangi me ōna mātāpono inā—

(a)

kāore i whakahaeretia he āta uiuitanga e pā ana ki ngā mana tuku iho i te wā tonu o taua hokonga whenua; ā

(b)

ka riro whenua atu ki a ia me te kore mōhiotanga me te kore whakaaetanga o Te Kāwerau ā Maki; ā

(c)

kāore i tukuna he kamupeniheihana e tika ana, tae atu ki ngā whenua rāhui hei whakamahinga, hei painga anō hoki mō Te Kawerau ā Maki i te whakamōhiotanga atu i muri mai, he pānga nō rātou ki te rohe whenua i hokona ai.

(6)

E whakaae ana hoki te Karauna—

(a)

kāore i āta rūrihia, kāore hoki i āta tūtohua e ia te hokonga o “Mahurangi me Ōmaha” ā, nā konā i tau ai te pōnānātanga me te kaha āwangawanga ki a Te Kawerau ā Maki; ā

(b)

nā te tikanga whakahaere i taea ai e te Karauna te whakaae whenua atu ki a Tauiwi ki roto i te rohe hoko o “Mahurangi me Ōmaha”, ka muramura te kiriwetitanga i tupu ake ai i te whakawhitinga i te tau 1841.

(7)

E whakaae ana te Karauna, ko te hokonga o te whenua rarahi tonu e kīia ana ko “Hikurangi” i te tau 1853 ki te tau 1854, he takahitanga tērā i Te Tiriti o Waitangi me ōna mātāpono inā—

(a)

kāore i whakahaeretia he āta uiuitanga e pā ana ki ngā mana tuku iho i te wā tonu o te hokonga o tēnei whenua; ā

(b)

ka riro atu ki a ia te whenua me te kore mōhiotanga atu me te kore whakaaetanga atu o Te Kawerau ā Maki; ā

(c)

kāore i tukuna he kamupeniheihana e tika ana, he whenua rāhui rānei hei whakamahinga, hei painga mō Te Kawerau ā Maki i te whakamōhiotanga atu i muri mai, he pānga ō rātou ki te whenua.

(8)

E whakaae ana te Karauna, kei roto i ngā whakaaetanga hoko o te tau 1853 me te tau 1854 mō Hikurangi, mō Paeōterangi me Puatainga, ētahi whakaritenga kia whakapaungia te tekau ōrau o ngā pūtea moni hei oranga mō te Māori ā, kia utua tōtika atu hoki he moni ki ngā kaihoko o te whenua. Kāore te Karauna i tiaki pūrongo e tika ana i muri i te tau 1874 ā, kāore ngā kaihoko, tae atu ki a Te Kawerau ā Maki, i whiwhi painga ake i muri mai i raro i te whakaritenga o “te tekau ōrau”.

(9)

E whakaae ana te Karauna, i te wā o tana hokonga i te whānui o ngā whenua i te rohe o Waitākere i waenganui i te tau 1853 me te tau 1856, kāore i āta whakamarumarutia e ia a Te Kawerau ā Maki, mā te whakarato whenua rāhui e tika ana mai i te hokonga, he whenua e kore rawa e whakawehea ai ā, he takahitanga tērā i Te Tiriti o Waitangi me ōna mātāpono.

(10)

E whakaae ana te Karauna—

(a)

ka whakaturea e ia ngā ture whenua Māori me te kore whiriwhiri kōrero atu ki a Te Kawerau ā Maki ā, ko te whakatakitahitanga ā-taitara i whakaritea e ēnei ture, he taupatupatu tērā i ngā tikanga o Te Kawerau ā Maki; ā

(b)

kāore he putanga atu ki a Te Kawerau ā Maki ā, ka mate ki te whaiwāhi ki ngā tikanga whakahaere o Te Kooti Whenua Māori hei whakamarumaru i ō rātou ake pānga ki ō rātou ake whenua ā, mā reira e uru pai ai rātou ki roto i te ōhanga o nāianei; ā

(c)

he taumaha hoki ngā utunga i puta mai i te tikanga whakahaere mō te whakatau taitara a Te Kooti Whenua Māori, tae atu ki ngā utu rūri, ngā utu whakawā hoki ā, i ētahi wā, ko te whakawehewehe whenua o Te Kawerau ā Maki te papa; ā

(d)

nā te whakahaeretanga me te papānga o ngā ture whenua Māori ka noho mōrearea ngā whenua o Te Kawerau ā Maki kei wāwāhia, kei whakarohea, kei whakawehea tonu. Ka whai anō, ko te turakitanga o ngā hanganga ā-iwi o Te Kawerau ā Maki, he mea i takea mai i tō rātou rangatiratanga ā-ohu ki te whenua. Kāore i āta tiakina e te Karauna ēnei hanganga ā-iwi. Ka pā te kiriweti ki a Te Kawerau ā Maki ā, i tua atu, he takahitanga tērā i Te Tiriti o Waitangi me ōna mātāpono.

(11)

E whakaae ana te Karauna, kāore ia i whakawātea mai he huarahi i roto i ngā hanganga ture whenua mō tētahi momo taitara ā-ohu e taea ai e Te Kawerau ā Maki te whakahaere, te whakamahi hoki ō rātou whenua kia tae rā anō ki te tau 1894. Ā, ko te mate kē, kua tukuna kētia te taitara o te nuinga o ngā whenua o Te Kawerau ā Maki ki ngā tāngata takitahi. Ko te kore whakatū huarahi ā-ture e taea ai te whakahaeretanga ā-ohu mō ngā whenua o Te Kawerau ā Maki, he takahitanga tērā i Te Tiriti o Waitangi me ōna mātāpono.

(12)

E whakaae ana te Karauna, ka riro atu ki a ia ngā whenua nui whakaharahara ki a Te Kawerau ā Maki i Kōpironui me ētahi atu wāhi hei mahinga tāmata whenua oneone i waenganui i te tau 1920 me te tau 1951 ā, i ētahi wā, nā te here o te ture. E whakaae ana te Karauna, kāore ia i mahi ngātahi ai me Te Kawerau ā Maki ki te kimi huarahi kē i tua atu i te rironga noa ā, nā te whakangaronga atu o ēnei whenua ka aukatingia te āta āheinga atu ki ngā urupā, ki ngā wāhi kaimoana me ērā atu rawa tūpuna ā, ko te otinga o tēnei hokonga, e ngau kino tonu nei i te manawa o Te Kawerau ā Maki.

(13)

E whakaae ana te Karauna, nā te whakangarotanga atu o ngā wāhi tapu o Te Kawerau ā Maki nā ngā hokonga a te Karauna, a te tangata takitahi rānei, me ngā tangohanga hei mahinga tūmatanui, ko te pānga kino mai ki te oranga ā-tikanga, ā-wairua anō hoki o Te Kawerau ā Maki te otinga.

(14)

E whakaae ana te Karuna, he riterite tonu ngā taumahatanga e pā ana ki a Te Kawerau ā Maki mō te whakaāheinga atu me te whakahaeretanga o ō rātou whenua e toe tonu ana.

(15)

E whakaae ana te Karauna, ko te otinga atu o ngā hokonga a te Karauna, ngā rirotanga atu mō ngā mahinga tūmatanui tae atu ki ngā hokonga ā-tangata tūmataiti, kua tata noho whenua kore a Te Kawerau ā Maki. Nā te kore whakaū a te Karauna kia whakarāhuitia ngā whenua e tika ana hei whakatutukitanga i ō rātou wawata mō nāianei, mō ngā rā kei mua hoki, he takahitanga tērā i Te Tiriti o Waitangi me ōna mātāpono. Nā ēnei mahi ka whakapōreareatia te whakawhanaketanga ā-papori, ā-ōhanga, ā-tikanga anō hoki o Te Kawerau ā Maki hei iwi tonu ā, kua whakamemehatia te kaha o Te Kawerau ā Maki ki te whakamarumaru, ki te whakahaere i ō rātou taonga me ō rātou wāhi tapu ā, ki te mau tonu ki ngā hononga ā-wairua ki ō rātou whenua. E whakaae anō ana te Karauna, kua pā kino mai ēnei āhuatanga ki te oranga o Te Kawerau ā Maki i ēnei rā.